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( v ) 


I. /RESERVATIONS refpeBing feme rare Brkijh InfecJs. By 
{y the late Mr, William Lewin, F.L.S. — Page I 

II. A curious Fact in the Natural Hi/lory of the Common Mole, 
Talpa europaea Linn. By Arthur Bruce, Efq. Secretary to the 
Natural Hiflory Society of Edinburgh — — V* 5 

III. A Hi/lory of "Three Species of Cajfidd. By the Rev. William 
Kirby, of Bar bam, A.L.S. — — — p. J 

IV. Obfervations relating to the Migration of Birds. By Edmund 
Lambert, Efq. of Boy ton near Heytefbury, Wilts. In a Letter to 
William Mark wick, Efq. F.L.S. . — — p. 12 

V. Account of the Canis Grains Hibernicus, or Irifh Wolf Dog, de- 
fcribed in Pennant's Hijlory of Quadrupeds, 3d edit. vol. i. 

p. 241. By A. B. Lambert, Efq. F.R. and F.L.S* p. 16 

VI. The Botanical Hijlory of Mentha exigua. By James Edward 
Smith, M.D. F.R.S. F.L.S. — — p. 18 

VII. 0*- 



VII. Obfervations on the economy of the Ichneumon Mantfejlator 
Linn. By Thomas Mar (ham, Ejq. Sec. L.S. — m p. 

VIII. Defer/ f /ion of a new Species of Opercularia. By Mr 
Thomas Young, F*R. and L.S. — — p 

IX. Defcriptions of Eight new Fi/hes from Sumatra* By Mr 
Mungo Park, A. L.S. — — — p 

X. Lindfea, a new Genus of Ferns, By Jonas Dryander, M.A, 
Libr. R.S. and F.L.S. — — ■ — p 




XI. On a Species of Telliua, not defcribed by Linnaus. By Wil- 
liam George Maton, A.B. F.L.S. — p. 44 

XII. Obfervations upon the Generic Char a tier of Ulva, with De- 
fcriptions of fome new Species. By Thomas Jenkinfon Wood- 
ward, Ejq. F.L.S. — — — p. 46 

XIII. Account of a Species of Bark, the Original Qu'ma-Quina of 
Peru, fent over by Monf. de la -Con damme to Cromwell Mor- 
timer, Efq. Sec. R. Soc. about 1749. Communicated to A. B. 
Lambert, Efq. F.R.S. V.P.L.S. by John Hawkins, Efq. of 
Dorchefter — — — — P« 59 

XIV. "Natural Hi/lory of Perca Scandens. By Lieutenant Dal- 
dorfT, of Tranquebar. Communicated by Sir Jofeph Banks, 
Bart. K.B. P.R.S. H.M.L.S. — — ." p. 62 

XV. Thefpecifc CharacJers of fome minute Shells difcovered on the 
Coqfi of Pembroktfjirc, with an Account of a new marine Ani- 
mal. By John Adams, Efq, F,L,S. — p. 64. 

XVI. On 



XVI. On the Lathi Terms ufed in Natural Hi/lory. By the Rev. 
John Brand, A.M. A.L.S. — — p. 70 

XVII. Additional Obfervations on the Britijh Species of Car ex. 

By the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, LL.D. F.R.S. Tr. L.S. p. 76" 

XVIII. A Defcription of the Porbeagle Shark \ the Squalus Cornu- 
bicus of G??ielin i Var. «, By the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, 
LL.D. F.R.S. TrrLrS, — p. 80 

_XIX. Obfervations on the Britijh Fuci, with particular Defcrip- 
tions of each Species. By the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, 
LL.D. F.R.S. Tr. L.S. and Thomas Jenkinfon Woodward, 
Efq. LL.B. F.L.S. p. 84 

XX. Defcription of Ulva punElata. By John Stackhoufe, Efq. 
F.L.S. — — — — p. 236 

XXI. Obfervations on the Genus of Porella, and the Phafcum cau- 
lefcens of Linncsus. By Mr. James Dickfon, F.L.S. p. 238 

XXII. Defcription of the Ribes fpicatum. By Mr. Edward Rob- 
fon, A.L.S, — — — p. 240 

XXIII. Obfervations on the Infecls that infefted the Corn in the 
Tear 1795. In a Letter to the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, 
LL.D. F.R.S. Tr.L.S. By Thomas Marfham, Efq. Sec. 
L.S. — — — — p. 242 

XXIV. Defcriptions of Aclinia crafficornis andfomc Britijh Shells. 

$y John Adams, Efq. F.LS. — — p. 252 

XXV. Bo- 



XXV. Botanical Characters of fome Plants of the Natural Order 

of Myrti. By James Edward Smith, M.D. F.R.S. P.L.S. p. 255 

XXVI. Obfrvations on the Genus Oeflrus. By Air, Bracy Clark, 
Veterinary Surgeon^ and F.L.S. — — p. 289 

XXVIT. Characters of a new Genus of Plants named Salifburia. 
By James Edward Smith, M.D. F.R.S. P.L.S. — p. 330 

XXVIII. Extra&s yrow the Minute Book of the Society p. $%$ 




L I N--N-E-A-N-- S a C IETY, 

I. Obfervations refpefting Jome rare Britifb Infetts. By the late Mr, 

Willi am Lewin, F. L. S. 

Read November 5, 1793. 

I. Sphinx apiformis. Linn. 

THE larva of this infect feeds in the bark of the poplar tree, 
near the bottom, and changes to a pupa in April in the cavity- 
it has eaten out, enclofing itfelf in a cafe formed of fmall pieces of 
the wood. The perfect fly comes forth in June. The male may be 
readily diftinguiihed by its anus being (lightly tufted. The margins 
of its wings are alfo darker, and not near fo broad as in the female, 
which is moreover the larger of the two. \ 

I have found thefe larvae of different fizes in March. I took two 

of the fmalleft, and, making a hole in the bark of a lime tree, put 

, them in and enclofed them. The following fpring they were found 

arrived at their full fize, and they afterwards changed ed" pupa at 

Vol. III. - — B _ — the 

2 The late Mr. William Lewin'j Qbfervaihns 

the ufual time. They had fed only on the inner part of the bark, 
without touching the wood, juft as they do in their uiuai food the 
poplar, though the lime tree bark is not half fo thick. 

This fpecies is diftinguifhed from the following by its mode 
of life, and difference of colour. It is alfo much bigger. The 
head is wholly yellow, the pectinated part of the antenna orange, 
and the markings on the thorax much larger than in the crabrom- 
formis, and nearly fquare. Neither is the whole infect of fo dark 
a hue. 

Tab. i. Fig. i. Reprefents the male Sphinx apiformis. 

2. The female. 

3. The larva in its natural fituation* 

4. Pupa. 

5. The fame enclofed in its cafe. 

1. Sphinx crabroniformis. 
The Lunar Hornet. 
Tab. 1. Fig. 6 — 10. 
Sph. abdomine flavo incifurarum marginibus atris, thorace 
nigro mac.ulis obfoletis flavis, capite ni gro b aj^a nnul o 
The larva feeds on the wood of the fallow, Sallx Capra?a, in the 
heart of which it fpins itfelf up in November, but does not change 
to a pupa till May following. The fly comes out in the middle of 

This larva enters the wood near the furface of the ground, 
fometimes from the root, and feeds upwards (generally in the pith) 
for the fpace of fix or eight inches ; after which it turns its head 
downwards, and fpins itfelf up with the web, there waiting the 
proper time to change. 


ref peeling fome rare Britijh Infeffs. 3 

From feveral years attention to this fubjee~t, I think the caterpillar 
does not enter the wood till the fecond year of its own age ; as 
among all the numerous larva I have found from June to No- 
vember, I could perceive but a flight difference in fize. Probably 
therefore they may feed on the tender bark of the fallow root the 
firft year after they are hatched ; and it feems they eat into the 
wood about June. 

Tab. i, Figr^r^snlTeTriale~SprrT^^ 

7. The female. 

8. The caterpillar in its proper fituation. 

9. The pupa, its head turned downwards. 

10. The web clofing the orifice, by which the ani- 
mal had entered and rauft come out. 

3. Phaljsna Trifolii. 

Bombyx Trifolii. Fab. Mant. u 2. 

The Grafs Egger Moth. 

Tab. 2. Fig. 1 — 4. 

Its caterpillar feeds on Trefoil, and changes to a pupa in June. 
The fly comes forth the latter end of Auguft. 

Thefe larva are to be met with on the uncultivated grafly chalk- 
hills of Kent, particularly near Darent wood. They fecrete them- 
felves under ftones in the day, and come forth to feed in the even- 

The male fly has broad pectinated antenna, a light coloured bar 
on the upper and under wing, a (lender body, with a filky tuft at 
the anus. The antenna of the female are indeed pectinated, but 
not to be perceived without a magnifier. It has only a faint bar 
on the upper wings, without the leaft fign of any on the under. 
The body is much larger, and terminates without a tuft. 

B 9 Tab. a. 

4 TSr late Mr. William LewinV Obfervations, 6fo 

Tab. 2. Fig. I. Phalaena Trifolii, male. 

2. Female. 

3. Caterpillar. 

4. Pupa in its cafe. 

4, Ichneumon chryfopus. 

Tab. 2. Fig. 5. 
Ichn. thorace macuUto, iegmentorum abdominalium omnium 
marginibus pedibufque flavis*. 
In 1790 I kept two pupa of the above defcribed Phalana, from 
which the moth did not appear at the ufual- time, from Auguft to 
the following May, when they produced this Ichneumon. I only 
bred two. of them ; and I conceive that here figured to be the fe- 
male, as it is the largeft. The other is in the cabinet of Mr. Wil- 
liam Jones, F. L. S. 

* Descr. D. Marfham. Antenna fetacese, flavse. Thorax niger, flavo varie macu- 
latus j fcilicet lineola ante alas j fub ortu alarum pun&um flavum. Scutellum nigrum** 
pun&is quatuor flavis. Pone fcutellum pun&um flavum utrinque. Abdomen nigrum s _ 
marginibus fegmentorum flavis. Pedis flavi -, femoribus bafi nigris. 

II, A cur torn 

„ />>/,, \jMa*%4.TBX ■ &*4 //ft- 

f—J ■ //t/i '//irArrff/lt.J . /?-jO <//>/> r>'r/->i*tr,/r>'/ /si/.j 

j£nmn y , i,">.>\\\r„; ■> y, 4 


( 5 ) 

II. A curious Faff in the Natural Hiftory of the Common Mole, Talpa 
europaea, Linn. By Arthur Bruce y Efq. Secretary to the Natural 
Hifiory Society oflLdinburgh. 

Read June 2, 1793. 

THAT the mole does, in common with other quadrupeds and 
man, poffefs that fpirit of curiofity which prompts to emi- 
gration and even to tranfmarine expeditions, I found out laft fum- 
mer from the beft authenticated facts. 

In vifiting the Loch of Clunie, which I often did, I obferved in 
it a fmall ifland at the diftance of 180 yards from the neareft 
land, meafured to be fo upon the ice. Upon the ifland, Lord 
Airly, the proprietor, has a caftle and fmall fhrubbery. I ob- 
ferved frequently the appearance of frefh mole-cafts, or hills. I 
for fome time took it to be the water-moufe, and one day afked the 
gardener if it was fo ? No, he faid, it was the mole ; and that he 
had caught one or two lately. But that five or fix years ago he 
had caught two in traps ; and for two years after this he had ob- 
ferved none. But about four years ago, coming alhore in a fummer's 
evening in the dufk, the 4th or 5th of June, 10 o'clock P. M. he 
and another refpectable perfon, Lord Airly's butler, faw at a fmall 
diftance upon the fmooth water fome animal paddling to, and not 
far diftant from the ifland. They foon, too foon ! clofed with this 
feeble paflenger, and found it to be our common mole, led by a moft 
3 aftonifhing 

6 Mr. Bruce'j curious Fadl concerning the common Mole. 

aftonifhing inftinct from the nearer! point of land (the caftle hill) 
to take ponemon of this defert ifland. It was at this time for about 
the fpace of two years quite free from any fubterraneous inhabitant ; 
but the mole has for more than a year pad made its appearance again, 
and its operations 1 was witnefs to. 

In the hiftory of this animal I do not at prefent recollect any fact 
fo finking ; efpecially when we confider the great depth of the 
water, both in fummer and winter — from fix to ten, fifteen, and 
fome places as deep as thirty or forty feet, all round the ifland. 

April 26, 1793. 

III. A Hiftory 

( 7 ) 

IIL A Hijiory of Three Species of CaJJida. By the Rev. William K fy 

of Bar ham, A, L. S. 

Read January 7, 1794. 

CONVINCED of the truth of Mr. MarQiam's obfervation *, 
that in order to form a complete fyftem of entomology, we 
ought to be acquainted with the hiftory of the different ftates of 
each particular infect; I take the liberty of offering to the Linnean 
Society an account of three fpecies of Cajfda, which I have had an 
opportunity of tracing through all their various metamorphofes. 

The infects of the coleopterous clafs in general are little known in 
their previous Mates, on account of the difficulty of discovering their 
natural fituataon, and proper food. Yet this difficulty does not ex- 
tend equally To all of them ; for thofe of which I am about to give 
the hiftory, require lefs attention to nourifh, and bring to their perfect 
flate, than mofl even of the lepidopterous infects : there is no danger 
of their efcaping, even though they be not confined in a box. All 
that the breeder has to do, is to put a piece of the plant upon which 
he difcovers them into a phial of water, taking care to fupply them 
with frefh food when neceffary, until he finds that they are pre- 
paring to change into the pupa ftate, which he may eafily know by 
their ceafing to feed, and by their cafting off the covering of excre- 

* See his ingenious obfervation* upon the P..B* Lubricipeda olLinneus, Linn. Tranf, 
vol. \, p. 68. 


$ Mr. Kirby'j Hiflory of 

-merit tinder which they are concealed : then he is to take the leaf 
to which they have fixed themfelves, and put it under a glafs until 
the imago is difclofed, which will be in ten or twelve days. 

I ihall begin with, fome preliminary obfervations, that extend to 
all the fpecies which I have had an opportunity of obferving. 

The larva? of this genus are all furrounded with marginal radii, 
and thefe radii are ufually ciliated, fo as to give the infect, fub knte 9 
a very lingular and elegant form. They arc a.lfo remarkable for 
being merdigerous, and for this purpofe are furnilhed with fome long 
flirt briftles juft above the anus, upon which they depofit their ex- 
crement; and thus form a covering, not indeed very delicate, which 

I imagine ferves to conceal them from the birds, and which I re- 

member that accurate obferver Reaumur noticed in the C. viridis. 
This fhield, by means of the above-mentioned bridles, the little 
animal has the power of elevating or deprefling ; fo that fometimes 
it ftands at a right angle with the body, and at others is fo clofely 
applied to it, as to conceal the infect from any but an entomological 

In the pupa ftate, the head of thefe infects is enclofed in a fhield, 
fringed with marginal radii. The abdomen is radiated like that of 
the larva, and is furnifhed with tour fpiracula on each fide. It fixes 
itfelf by means of the'exuvite of the larva. The imago, when it 
difclofes itfelf, makes its way through a tranfverfe niTure of the 

I, Liriophora. C. nigra fupra viridis, thorace emarginato, elytro- 

rum futura bafibus interne pun&ifque duobus 
Larva, Viridis, colore dilutiori punctata : radii lividi : 
caput nigrum, regione intra oculos yirjdi-nigro 


Tira Species of Cajfida. g 

Pupa. Saturate viridis fpiraculis albis : clypeus emargi- 
natus, refpc6lu corporis latus : abdominis radii 
ovati acuminati. 

Imago, Caput nigrum": antenna? fubclavatae, pallida?, api- 
cibus nigris: thorax fubemarginatus, viridis, punc- 
tulatus : elytra viridia, macula longitudinali corn- 
muni, qua? utrinque ad eorum infertionem dilata- 
turrStque Horem Iiiii cujufdam non injucunde 
refert, pun&ifque nigris : fcutellum viride : abdo- 
men nigrum ano pallido : pedes pallidi femoribus 

Sequenti fimillima,difFert tamen non folum ma- 
culis elytrorum, fed etiam larva viridi, nee livida : 
pupae clypeo emarginato nee integrd: item imagi- 
nis thorace emarginato. 

Nomen fuggeflit D. Pra?fes. Habitat in Serra- 
tula arvenfi. 

2. V i r i d i s ? C. nigra fupra viridis, thorace integro. 

Larva, Cinerea radiis nigris : caput nigrum : anus obtufe 
acuminatus : fpiracula utrinque octo nigra. 

Adhuc juvenis radii lividi, dorfique medium vi- 
Pupa, Fufco pallidoque varia: clypeus integer: abdomi- 
nis dorfum utrinque lineis duabus punelorum 
nigricantium, quorum interiora majora: fpira- 
cula quatuor alba. 

In pupa? exuviis albefcunt radii. 
Habitat in Serratula arvenfi, 
Obfewationes. An haec fpecies revera fit C. viridis perill. Linnei 
Vol. III. C plurimum 

10 Mr. KirbyV Hi/lory of 

plurimum hsereo: illius enim larva fecund uni 
Schrankium (Enum. Inf. Auftr. 92.) viridis eft, 
hujus autem cincrea. C. viridis in plantis verti- 
cillatis et Carduis habitareperhibetur; hanc nun- 
quam inveni vel in plantis verticillatis vel in Car- 
duis, fed folummodo in Serratulaarvenfi, qua fre- 
quentiffima deprehenditur ineunte Augufto. Litem 
dirimant entomologi cordati. 

3. Maculata. C. nigra fupra viridis; elytris rarius : futura dor* 
fali confertius : nigro maculatis. 
Larva* Viridis, macula dorfali oblonga nigra, lineis duabus 
longitudinalibus, parallelism flavefcentibus, ornata; 
has lineas contrahit vel dilatat animal dumpafcit: 
caput nigrum linea viridi in tres lineolas exeunte : 
cauda bifeta fetis fafciculo fpinularum coronatis* 
Hunc fafciculum deponit infectum in pupam 

In hac fpecie ftercus, quod admodum fmgulare, 
ramofo filamentofum eft. 
Pupa* Viridis pun&o utrinque nigro. 

Puparum exuviae niveau, punctis nigris reftan- 

Habitat in Inulse dyfenterica? foliis. 
Obfervationes. Huic fpeciei quamplurimis fimillima Caflida Mur- 
raea perill. Linnei. Maculse in utraque fibi in- 
vicem adamuflim refpondent, adeo ut varieta- 
tem C. maculatae, C. Murraeam crediderit D. 
Geoffroyus. Habitat haec in Inula dyfenterica, 
ilia in Helenio. E pluribus larvis a roe captis 


Three Species cf CaJJida, n 

ne una quidem C. Murrsea exclufa eft. Determi- 
nent feliciores entomologi quibus larva pofteiioris 
arrideat. Ill Helenio quaerenda. Imago femel 
mihi ledla in prato quodam, femel etiam ab amico 
J. Coyte Gippovicenfi entomologo ingeniofo. 

C 2 IV. Obfervatiom 

( " ) 

IV. Obfervations relating to the Migration of Birds. By Edmund Lam- 
bert, Efq. of Boyton near Heyte/bury, Wilts. In a Letter to William* 
Markwick, Efq. F. L. S. 

Read April I, 1794.. 

1WTY fon A. B. Lambert put lately into my hands the Tranf- 
actions of the Linnean Society I could not help admiring 
your Remarks on the Migration of Birds ; and as I am an old fportf- 
man, and have fpent much of my time in the fields and woods, I 
have not been wholly inattentive to the migration of the feathered 
race, and therefore take the liberty of making a few remarks on. 
fome of the birds, which you mention as having efcaped your ob- 

'The Swallow.. 
I have feen fwallows the lafl week in March at Stowey, near the 
Briftol channel, Somerfetfhire ; and the laft I faw was the 22d of 
November 1782. I obferved two or three flying every day under 
the cliffs at Exmouth for a week : 1 left the place the 23d, other- 
wife I might have feen them later. 


This bird flies late at night, and therefore is feldom feen. It lives 
chiefly on moths, Mr. Seymer,.of Harford, Dorfet (a great natu- 

6 ralift),. 

Mr. E. Lambert' s Ions on the Migration of Birds* 13 

ralift), has complained to me of this bird ; for, when he was fome- 
times on the point of catching a fine moth late to the evening 
(10 o'clock), this bird would come as fwift as lightning, and fnap it 
up before him.. I have fhot two of thcie birds. 

The woodcock I once faw the firft of October, N. S. in this inland 
county; and a couple was trior, this prefent feafon that very fame 
day on fome heath about three miles from my houfe. But a perfon 
living- at Uphill, the neareft point of land to the Steep Holms in 
the Briftol channel, and who rented that little ifland for the ufe of 
Hilling, allured me he never knew the month of September pais 
without feeing woodcocks on that ifland. I have had two ncfts in 
my wood; the laft was in the year 1789. It had four eggs. The 
old bird was loth to get out of the neft ; as the had fat, as near as 
I could guefs, about a fortnight. I took one of the eggs and blew 
it, and have it by me now. But I do not believe the young ones 
are ever bred up in this country to be fhot at, as you have heard: 
for Mr. Seymer had one lived all the fummer in a coppice near his 
houfe ; and though it was a place well calculated to maintain a 
bird that lived on fuclion, yet the bird loft almoft all his feathers, 
and could not fly for fome time, fo that it was often caught : but 
in the autumn it recovered its feathers and ftrength, and flew away. 
This I had from Mr. Seymer. himfelf, and. other gentlemen whom 
he ufed to fhew the bird to. 


The fnipes breed in great numbers on the bogs in the New Fo- 

reft, Hants ; and. always come to us in September, and fometimes in 

Auguft. Some years ago two neighbours fent me five couple the 

fecond week in Auguft, telling me at the fame time they never faw 


1^ Mr. E. Lambert* j O'bfervations 

•them more plentiful in winter. I went out the 15th myfelf,and killed 
three couple in a little time ; and the weather being extremely hot, 
1 was obliged to come home before I intended it. They were in as 
good condition as in winter. . 

Royjlon Crow, 
The Royfton crows are very plentiful with us all the winter, 
though an inland county. They lay on the downs, and frequent 
fheep-folds and highways; the latter, to pick the horfe-dung drop- 
ped on the roads. I never obferved the time they go and come. 

The lateft fieldfare I everfaw was the iff. of May in Dorfetfhire; 
and the earlieft the 29th of September, which was killed by my 


The redwing makes its appearance in this country generally be- 
fore the fieldfare, and leaves it fooner. 

The Land Rail. 

This makes its appearance the laft week in April, and leaves us 
the fecond week in October. They breed with us, and I believe 
every where in England. I have taken the eggs and caught the 
young ones of all fizes ; for when the dog points at them they will 
not fly till full grown, and then reluctantly, efpecially in the 
fpring. They are continually making a creaking noife all the 
fpring in the fields and grafs grounds. I had one making that noife 
in my garden laft fpring for three weeks. They call them in Ire- 
land corn creaks. 


on the Migration of Birds* 1 5 

JVater Wagiaih 
The water wagtail mod certainly remains with us during the 
winter. I had three during this whole winter ahout the hot-houfes 
and green-houfe, catching' flies in warm days; but in cold weather 
they get' down to the river, and eat the infects on the weeds which 
appear when the water is turned out of its courfe to water the 
meadows. I have feen all my life-time as many water wagtails 
in the winter as in fummer ; in the former at the river, and the latter 
about the houfes* 

You may depend on the truth of the above account ; and I 
have nothing more to add, but that my obfervations on the other 
birds you mention totally agree with yours. 

I am, Sir, with great refpceT, 

Your obedient Servant, 


Boyton, near- Heyiejlury, Wilts, 

I forgot to mention the rook's antipathy (as you obferve) to the 
raven. The truth is, a raven will not fufFer any bird to come 
within a quarter of a mile of its neft, being very fierce in defendino- 
it. Befides, they take the young rooks out of their neft to feed 
their own. This I was an eye-witnefs to at Mr. Seymer's ; for there 
was no peace in the rookery night nor day, till one of the old ravens 
was killed and the neft deftroyed. A raven has built in a large 
beech tree of mine time out of mind. I can trace it back above an 
hundred years. The tree is fuppofed to meafure at leaft feven tons. 

V. Account 

( i6 ) 

V. Account of ihc Cams Graius Hibernkm^ or Iri/b Wolf Dog, defcribed 
in Pennant's Hi/lory of Quadrupeds, 3d edit. vol. L p. 241. By A. B, 
Lambert^ Ffj. F. R. and F. L- S. 

Read April I, 1 794. • 

THIS drawing of the Irifh wolf clog was given me by Lord Alta- 
mont ; done exactly the natural fize of one in his Lordlliip's 
pofTeflion, at Weftport, in the county of Mayo, Ireland, during my 
flay there in 1790. I had frequent opportunities of obferving theie. 
dogs ; Lord Altamont having eight of them, the only ones now in 
the kingdom. There is a man employed on purpofe to take care of 
them ; as they are with difficulty bred up and kept healthy. 

I took the measurement of one of the largeft, which is as follows : 
From the point of the nofe to the tip of the tail, fixty-one inches ; 
tail, feventeen and a half long; from the tip of the nofe to the back 
part of the ikull, ten inches ; from the back part of the ikull to 
the beginning of the tail, thirty-three inches ; from the toe to the 
top of the fore-fhoulder, twenty-eight inches and a half; the length 
of the leg fixteen inches ; from the point of the hind-toes to the 
top of the hind-{houlders, thirteen inches; from the point of the 
nofe to the eye, four inches and a half; the ears fix inches long; 
round the wideft part of the belly (about three inches from the 
fore-legs) thirty-five inches ; twenty- fix inches round the hind- 

_j£«-« . i^?+ <»•»•?-*» UT . fee/ 3. A 17. 


0/ feef 

, %usd ff&y _ Aw 

Mr. A. B. LambertV Jccottnt of the Iri/h Wolf Dog. 17 

part, clofe to the hind-legs; the hair fhort and fmooth ; the colour 
of Tome brown and white, others black and white. 

They feem good-tempered animals; but, from the accounts I 
received, are degenerated in fize. They were formerly much larger, 
and in their make more like a greyhound. 

Tab. 3. reprefents the Irifjr wolf dog on the fcale of one inch 
and a half to £ foot.. 

Vol, III. D VL Th$ 

{ 18 ) 

VI. The Botanical Htftory of Mentha exigua. By James Edward S$iith, 

M.D. F.R.S. P.L.& 
Read June 3, 1794. 

IN countries which have been the moft completely examined with 
refpect to their natural hiftory, the fcience is frill fo far remote 
from perfection, that in fome departments new productions arc 
every day difcovered, while in others we find ourfelves perpetually 
in need of correction as to nomenclature. Few nations have had 
their botanical productions fo fully elucidated as thofe of England 
and Sweden ; yet fuch as look a little beyond the ken of vulgar 
eyes, find the Floras of both extremely imperfect, and our own par- 
ticularly has more than one plant attributed to it upon very flimfy 
authorities. Perhaps the inveftigation of fuch doubtful natives 
may be as profitable as the fearch after new ones, provided we 
proceed cautioully and on fure critical grounds. If we difprove 
their authenticity we not only fave trouble to compiling publishers 
in future, but, which is of infinitely more importance, we prevent 
much perplexity to honeft practical ftudents and collectors, who 
confide in fuch writers. Thefe confiderations induce me to inform 
my fellow-labourers in the botany of Great Britain, that they may 
for the future fpare themfelves the trouble of fearching for Mentha 
exigua; and this is the more incumbent upon me, as I have myfelf 


Dr. Smiths botanical Hficry of Mentha cyg'ta. 19 

in this inftancc been inftrumental in leading them affray, by con- 
fiding too heeillcfsly ill my predeceiTors. 

At fome period between the publication of the fir ft edition of 
Species Plant arum, 1753, and the Cenluria ida Plant arum, 1 7 56 (Am. 
Acad. vol. iv. 297}, Linnxus received from the late Mr. Philip Miller 
of Chelfea two dried fpecimens of an apparent fpecics of Mentha 
(mint), marked Mentha a quaiica ex igua 'Tragi, lib. i. cap. 6. Upon 
what authority Linnxus confidered this as an Englilh plant I 
cannot precifely tell, nothing occurring on the fubjecl in Miller's 
letters of that period. Probably the above fynonym induced Lin- 
nxus to believe this was the plant fo denominated in the third 
edition of Ray's Sy nop/is, p. 232, No. 2; and although he might rea- 
dily perceive it was not the plant of Tragus, his figure being "fo 
very different, yet it might reafonably be prefumed that Miller, by 
marking it fo decidedly, knew it to be the plant of Ray, or rather 
of his editor Dillenius. Linnxus therefore without fcruple quotes 
the Synopfis, and at the fame time incautioufly copies from thence 
two fynonyms of Lobel and Fuchfius, which are both fo diilimilar 
to the fpecimens then before him, that, with all my confidence in 
his accuracy, I cannot help attributing his omiflion of the name 
and page of Tragus, rather to carelefihefs than intention ; for the 
figure of the latter is not more unlike the Me?itha exigua than thofe 
of Lobel and Fuchfius, Thus however it was introduced into the 
Centuria ida Plantarum^ and Syjl. Nat. eJ. x. and in 1763 made its ap- 
pearance in the fecond edition of Species Plantarum, p. 806, the fpe- 
cific character being taken from Miller's fpecimens, ftill preferved 
in the Linnean Herbarium, duplicates of which are in the collection 
of Miller himfelf, at prefent belonging to Sir Jofeph Banks. 

Mr. Hudfon in the mean time publiihed the firft edition of his 
Flora Anglica in 1762, and on the authority of the Cent. Plant. 

D 2. mentions 

to y Dr. Sm i T H \f botanical Hiftory 

mentions M. exigua as an Englifti plant, adding a new edition of 
Lobel's lynonym from Parkinfon, and copying the Synopjls for its 
place of growth. Whether he had afterwards found any variety 
of M. Pulegium which he took for the mint in queftion ; whether 
his fcruples arofe from neither himfelf nor his friends having ever 
been able to detect M. ex/gua at all ; or whether, which is moft 
probable, the appearance and fmell of the fpecimens in Sir J. Banks's 
herbarium decided his opinion, he inferted M. ex/gua in his fecond 
edition, 1778, as the very lame plant with M. Pulegium ; for, not 
having marked it with a greek /3, it feems he did not even think it 
a variety. 

^uch was the ftate of the cafe when the Linnean Herbarium ar- 
rived among us. It was often confulted on this fubje£t ; and at' 
length, in order to throw all the light upon it in my power, I pub- 
lilhed as exact a figure as I could delineate from one of the fpe- 
cimens, in my Plantarum Icones haclenus ineditce^ tab. 38, taking the 
liberty to (hike out all the fynonyms except Ray (I ought rather to 
have faid Dillenius), and expreffing my doubts of even that. I 
mentioned a hint of Mr. Hudfon's, that the original fpecimens 
might have been brought from Scotland byHoufton. But this con- 
jecture, as will hereafter appear, is totally groundlefs. 

Since the -above publication I have been fo fortunate as to ac- 
quire what appears, almoir. beyond a doubt, the real plant of Dil- 
lenius. Sir Jofeph Banks, not folicitous to encumber his herbarium 
■with doubtful fpecimens, very obligingly preiented me with a num- 
ber of unfettled mints from Miller's collection. Among them is one 
with the following infeription in Buddie's hand-writing: 

u Mentha verticillata minima odore fragrantiflimo. Buddie. 
u Floies huic minutirTmii multi in unicum communem pedicu- 


of Mentha exigua. 21 

£t lum perbrevem, cauli per intervalla 7 vel 8 verticillatim pofiti. 
" Tota planta hirfutiufcula, folia acuta, oblonga, ct manibus com- 
" prefia odorem fpirant gratiiTimum, Rofae eglanteria?, &c. 

" This is the fined mint to imell to. I found it by the New 
" River fide near Stoke Newington. I (hewed it your kinfman with 
" four or five forts more within a furlong of one another. 

" I take this to be Mentha arvenfis veriicillata f folio rotundiore % odorc 
*' aromaiico, D. Vernon* R. Syn. (ed. 2.) ilj* 

" I want your opinion in this." 

From a comparifon of the above writing with the paffage in the 
Synopfts relative to the native place of the Mentha No. 2, I think 
there can be no doubt of mine being the original fpecimen gathered 
by Buddie in company with Mr. Francis Dale, and fent to the 
uncle of the latter, Mr. Samuel Dale, author of the Pharmacologia, 
It is moreover fufliciently like the figures of Tragus, Lobel, and 
Fuchfuis, and may be the M gent'dh of Linnaeus, as Dr. Stokes con- 
jectured ; but this point is not to our prefent purpofe. I have only 
to add, that it has no refemblance to the M. exigua. 

The latter therefore was frill only known from Miller's fpeci- 
mens ; but every practical botanirt will readily conceive my joy, 
when in the fummer of 1 793 I found the fame plant growing in 
the garden of my friend Edward Hafell, Eiq. of Ipfwich, where it 
was ihewn to me as an unknown mint. It grew in an American 
border, and was faid to have fprung up fpontaneoufly. As this 
border had been furnifhed with bog;-earth from the neighbourhood 
of Ipfwich, it was to be prefumed the roots had been introduced 
along with it. Here then was Mentha ex igua reftored to our Englifh 
Flora, and I made hafte to diftribute fpecimens among thofe who 
were folicitous to poffefs fuch a treafure. The flowers were not ad- 
vanced enough to determine whether it were really a Mentha ; the 
3 roc* 

22 Br. Smith's botanical Hiftory of Mentha exigua. 

root being fibrous, inftead of creeping, was very fufpicious ; and 
this circumftance decided it to be no variety of M. Pulegiuw, though 
in fmell no two plants could be more fimilar. Roots were fent to 
Mr. Fairbairn at Chelfea, and frefh fpecimens to Mr. Sowerby, for 
his Engliih Botany ; but the latter were luckily not in a fumciently 
perfect ftate to be drawn. I fay luckily, for this ill-fated Mentha 
proves after all to be a non-entity ; a cafual infpcction of the Lin- 
nean Herbarium having lately fatisfied me, that it is neither more 
nor lefs than Cunila pukgioides. 

Its native country is North America, from whence Kalm com- 
municated a fpecimen to Linnaeus, now in my pofTedion, and at 
prefent accompanied by another, probably from Gronovius, refer- 
ring to Pulegium ereffium, odore vehement!, jlore violaceo, radice nequaquam 
reptatrice, Clayton. Gron. Fl. Virgin. 8vo, p. 66. This plant in 
the 4to edition, p. 90, is made a Melt fa, and a description is added, 
which agrees well with our Mentha exigua. It is not however my 
prefent purpofe to write a hiftory of this plant as Cunila pukgioides', 
all I mean now to eftablifh is, that it has no right, under any name, 
to a place in our Flora Anglica; for there can be no doubt, that 
its feeds were brought to Mr. Hafell among earth from America, 
attached to the roots of fome of the plants he is frequently receiv- 
ing from thence, it having been fought for in vain near Ipfwich, in 
the places from whence bog earth was brought to his warden. 
Whether it is really to be efteemed a Cunila, depends upon its 
having two {lamina or four. In the latter cafe it maybe a Mentha 
a Metifia, or more probably, from its habit, annual root, and ap- 
pearance of the corolla, a Satureja ; and Satureja viminea has, like it 
the exact fmell of penny-royal. Cunila is altogether an artificial 
genus, made up of Thymic Satureja, &c. which happen to have but 
two perfect flamina. 

VII. Obfer. 

( *3 ) 

VII. Obfervatiom on the O economy of the Ichneumon Mamfejlator Linn, 
By Thomas MarJJjam, Efq* Sec, L, S, 

Read July 2, 1794* 

THROUGHOUT the whole fyftem of animal Economy, there 
is not perhaps a more ftriking and diilinguiihcd feature, than 
the attention, care and forefight of every parent animal for the 
protection and prefervation of its young. It is a property which 
pervades every clafs of animals, and is equally manifeft in the molt 
ferocious and the more timid, the larger! and the mod minute. 
The methods employed by each clafs and order differ as much as- 
the animals themfelves. In the higher orders of beings which are 
viviparous, not to mention the human race, we find this care ex- 
tended to a confiderable time after the birth of the voung, as in 
quadrupeds, who nourifh their little ones with a delicate nutritious 
fluid, copioufly iupplied by nature from their own bodies, and with 
an anxiety and care evidently apparent to the mod common ob- 
fervcr, until they are able to provide for themfelves. The feather- 
ed tribes, which are oviparous, furnifh an extraordinary inftance of 
fortitude and patience during the tedious time of incubation, and of 
labour and unwearied diligence in fearch of food, after the young are 
iiatched. As we defcend to the lower orders, which are in general 
oviparous, we may readily difcern ftrong marks of fagacity or inftinct. 


24 Mr, MarshamV Objcrvathns on 

Reptiles and fifh difplay great penetration in the mode and fituation 
in which they depofit their eggs and {pawn ; but to the eyes of the 
penetrating naturalift, this care and attention will appear more art* 
fully employed and more eminently confpicuous in thofe minute 
beings called infects, who, although on a curfory view they feern to 
contradict the general remark, by never living to amft their future 
offspring, yet to an attentive obferver exhibit a fyftem of ingenuity 
and contrivance fcarcely to be credited, in fearching out and deter- 
mining a proper place for depofiting their eggs, not onl)< in fafety 
from their numerous enemies, but alfo m fituations where a fuffL- 
cient quantity of food is on the fpot to fupport and nouriih the 
larva immediately on its breaking the {hell : and fo fec-rely and 
fuccefsfully is this generally done, that it not only eludes the in- 
quifitive and prying eye of man, and is impenetrable to the large 
animals, but even defies the combined power of the elements ; for 
fo artful and fagacious do thefe minute beings appear in all their 
operations, and fo admirably are they furniihed with inftruments 
peculiarly adapted to each fpecies, that one would think it impofiible 
for any accident to hurt or deflroy them. Yet fuch is the divine 
law of order eftabliined by the omnifcient Creator, that no animal, 
however minute, is permitted to increaie beyond the bounds pre- 
fcribed. And it is therefore wifely ordained, that the cunning, fa- 
gaclty, or inftinct of one infect fhall counteract and render futile 
the fkill and labour of another, fo that the artful prefervation of 
one kind tends to the entire ruin and destruction of its neighbour, 
by which means an equilibrium is preferved, and no one fpecies 
preponderates. To enumerate the different genera, or defcribe the 
method employed by each fpecies that has been obferved to fecure 
its eggs, would far exceed my limits. Suffice it to fay, that they 
are placed on the trunks, leaves, and even roots of trees and plants, 


the Oecommy of the Ichneumon ALuiiftjlator Linn. 25, 

in the waters, in putrid fubftances, and even on living animals. 
We find them clofely united with a ftrong and firm cement 
round fmall branches of trees, fixed on elegant pedicles on the 
leaves, covered with hair from the body of "the parent, or en- 
clofed in delicate filken cafes. Thefe when hatched are vifiblc, 
and their growth and wonderful operations may be feen and ex- 
amined; but thofe who depofit their eggs in holes and crevices, in 
the bodies of animals, and even of infects themfelves, are hatched, 
live, and come to perfection before they become vifible, and we are 
content to know them in their laft ftate only, and that imperfectly. 
The genus of infects called Ichneumon, from which I have felected 
a fingle fpecies, has been ably defcribed by the celebrated Reaumur, 
as far as he was then acquainted with their habits and ceconomv. 
The whole of this genus are (if I may be allowed the exprefhon) 
paralitica!, that is, derive their fupport and nouriihment from 
other infects, fome depofiting their eggs in the larva, others again 
in the pupa, and fome even in the ovum or egg itfelf, the con- 
tents of which, minute as they are, are fufficient to fupport the 
young larvas until their change into the pupa ftate. Some depofit 
only one egg in a place, as the Ichneumon ovulorum, and others 
again a great number, as Ichneumon puparum, &c. but whether 
the egg is placed in the pupa, larva, or ovum, the deftruction of the 
fofter-parent is inevitable. The larvas of large moths or butterflies 
that have been wounded by an Ichneumon, live and feed, though 
with evident marks of difeafe, until thefe parafites are full fed, and able 
to change into their fecond or pupa ftate. To treat of each fpecies 
of this genns, would fill a volume. I fhall therefore confine my- 
felf to one, the Ichneumon maniferutor, an infe6l truly wonder- 
ful in its formation, and which in a diftinguifhing manner unites 
the two properties before mentioned, viz. a penetration and fore- 
Vor, III. E fight 

26 Mr. Marsh am'/ Obfervatlom on 

fight bordering on fagacity, in finding a fuitable fituation for 
depofiting its own eggs, and alfo rendering futile and abortive the 
labour and fagacity of another animal, who, to all appearance, had 
rendered its offspring perfectly fecure. 

Ichneumon manifestator, Corpore atro immaculato, abdomine 
Tab. 4. f. 1. femli cylindrico, pedibus rufis. 

On the 9th of June 1787, I difcovered this infect fettling on the 
top of an old pod, as I was walking in Kenfington gardens, and its 
peculiar appearance and extraordinary actions led me to obferve it 
attentively. It moved rapidly over the top of the poft, having its 
antenna? bent in the form of an arch, and with a ftrong vibratory 
motion feeling about until it came to a hole made by fome infect, into 
which it thrufr. its antennae quite to the head, Jig. 1. It remained 
a minute at lead in this fituation apparently very bufy, and then 
drawing out its antennae came round to the exactly oppofite fide of 
the hole, again thruft in its antennae, and remained nearly the fame 
time. It next proceeded to one fide of the hole, repeating the 
operation, the antenna? quivering in a fbrprifing manner; and 
having now again drawn out its antennae, turned about, and, dex- 
teroufly meafuring a proper diftance, threw back its abdomen over 
the head and thorax, at the fame time projecting its long and de- 
licate tube into the hole {fig. 3) ; which when it had accomplished, 
it brought its body into a direct perpendicular fituation, the two 
iheaths of the tube {landing directly upright, as did the abdomen, 
while the tube itfelf proceeded from the anus down the under fide 
of the abdomen into the hole. After remaining near two minutes 
in this pofture it drew out the tube, turned round and again applied 
its antennas to the hole for nearly the fame time as before, and alfo 
inferted the tube in the fame dexterous way. This operation was 
1 repeated. 

the Oecotiomy of the Ichneumon Manifejlator Linn. 27 

repeated three times ; but approaching too near, in hopes with a 
(hallow magnifier to obferve what paiTed at the end of the tube, I 
frightened it away. My curiofity being excited, I waited, but in 
vain, for the return of the fly, and had it not in my power to vifit 
the fame fpot for a week; but on the 16th of the fame month I 
was amply gratified, luckily feeing many of them at work. They 
appeared to pierce the folid wood with fheir tubes, which they 
forced in even to half their length, conftantly puffing them down 
the abdomen between the hinder thighs, which doled and kept 
them ftraight whenever any over-refiftance forced them to bend. 
I was fo aftonifhed to fee an inftrument apparently weak and (len- 
der, able, with the flrength of fo fmali an animal to pierce folid 
wood ^ or f of an inch deep, that I attended to every motion of 
the infect, hoping to difcover in what manner it was done ; and on 
very particular attention I obferved, that all thofe who appeared to 
pierce the folid wood, did it through the centre of afmall white fpot 
refembling mould or mildew, which on minute examination with a 
magnifier I found to be fine white fand, which delicately clofed up 
a hole made by the Apis maxillofa, and where I have no doubt the 
bees' young were depofited. In deep holes that were not clofed, 
the infect not only thruft in the whole tube, but in fome cafes the 
whole of the abdomen and pofterior legs, leaving out only the two 
fore-feet and wings, which it placed in contrary directions like two 
arms. The grooves which indole the tube were alfo projected up 
the back, with the ends appearing above the head out of the hole. 
In October I law another of thefe infects on a ftrong poft, on 
Leffnefs Heath, near Erith in Kent. It had fixed its tube before I 
arrived, and I waited a confidcrable time, in hopes it would with- 
draw it; but a gentleman who was with me being impatient, and 
doubting my account of it, I with difficulty forced the infect to draw 

E 2 it 

a 8 Mr, Marsham'j Obfervations on 

it out, .and then opened the hole, which was clofed with a ftifF pellet 
of turpentine. 

Each fucceeding year I had opportunities of feeing many of thefe 
infects at work ; but on the 23d of July 1791, 1 again paid very par- 
ticular attention to fome I faw in Kenfmgton gardens, but more im- 
mediately to the action of the antennas, which they thruft into 
many holes and crevices, but foon drew them out, not finding, I 
prefume, a proper fituation for their eggs. I obferved one with its 
tube inferted into the fide of a rail, which I watched with great 
attention {fg. 4.) It had fixed itfelf over a fmall patch of reddifh 
land that covered the hole of the Apis maxillofa^ three of its legs being 
placed on each fide the fpot ; the abdomen was bent inward, lb that 
the end of it was embraced by the hinder thighs, which kept it in a 
Heady pofition,the whole tube being inferted in the rail. It frequent- 
ly drew out the tube about J or \ of an inch, and thruft it in again 
with great force ; in the interim between thefe thrufts, I could 
plainly perceive a motion in the apex of the abdomen connected 
with the tube fimilar to the pulfation of an artery, which mo- 
tion ceafed whenever the action of the tube took place. This 
pulfatory motion I conceive was occafioned by the eggs palling 
from the body of the infect to the tube ; and 1 felt an inclination 
to feize the little animal at the moment and examine the tube, 
which is of a fine crimfon colour and femi-tranfparent, to fee if an 
egg might remain in it: but an anxious defire to fee the whole of 
its operation prevented me ; and when it had finilhed its work and 
withdrawn the tube, it was too late, — Another particular inftance 
of fagacity in this little animal is worthy of remark: the grooves or 
cafes of the tube were as ufual projected in a ftraight line from the 
abdomen ; but the wind being very powerful, rendered it difficult 
for this delicate animal to maintain its fituation, as thefe long cafes, 


_ A f // . 'Stftw.UX. 6z^ 4. A. 


• Sr/?/;rf///tst)t //* sr //,/,., /srffj/' _///,,/ 

the Oeconomy of the Ichneumon Manifejlator Linn. 29 

which are feathered ( fig. 5), were {o flxongly acted upon by the 
wind as to endanger its being overfet feveral times. To remedy 
this inconvenience, it, with a wonderful dexterity, brought them 
down between its legs, and projected them forwards under its body 
toward the head, by which means it retained its fituation 
fecurely. It is now feven years fince I began my obfervations 
on this little animal, in which time I have never been able to dis- 
cover an Ichneumon that I could fufpect to be the male, and am 
therefore led to make thefe remarks public, in hopes fome gentle- 
man may have been more fuccefsful, and by whofe means its hiflory 
may be completed. 


Fig. 1—4. Reprefents the Ichneumon manifejlator in the feveral 
pofitions described in the preceding paper. 
5. The tube and its (heaths highly magnified. 

VIII. Defcrip- 

( 3° ) 

VIII. Defer iption of a new Species of Opercularia. By Mr, Thomas 

Toun£, F. R. and L. S. 

Read October 7, 1794. 

Opercular i a paleata* . 

Char. Gen. /COROLLA monopetala, quadrinda. Capfulce in 
receptaculum commune coalitae. 

Genus hoc facile ab omnibus aliis fru£tu diftinguitur ; in ordine 
naturali decimo octavo L. P. B. Aggregates locandum ; in fyfte- 
mate Linnaeano inter Allioniam et Knautiam, interque Crinitam et 
Eveam editionis Gmelini : hie autem in fynopfi peffime ad tetra- 
coccos refert. Pertinet ad Juflieui claflem undecimam, Rubiaceas ; 
ordinem decimum, inter Patabeam et Eveam. 

Ope rcul aria paleata^ receptacnlo globofo paleaceo. 

Hsc fpecies a tribus aliis hujus generis a Gaertnero defcriptis 
calyce paleifque receptaculi tantum differt ut genus proprium 
merito conftituere pofle principio crediderim, nomenque Cryptofper- 
mum, quod femina in cryptis occulantur, impofuerim. Monentibus 
autem fummis viris, DC generum numerum jamdudnm nimis mag- 
num inconfulto augerem, conjungique hanc fpeciem volentibns 
cum Gaertneri Operculariis, donee plures congeneres innotefcant, 
eorum judicio non invitus cefli. Certe nee nomen nee character 
Gsrtneri bene in hanc plantam convenit; fique pofthac quifquam 
feparare voluerit, non male nomine Cryptofpermi appellaverit. 


Mr, Young'/ Defer iption of a new Species of Opercular la, 31 

Provenit anno 1793 a P U( i celeberrimum Curtifium, ex humo e 

Nova Hollandia allata ; ille cultori eximio Fairbairnio tradidit, 

quo curante nunc in tepidario horti Chelfeiani floret, menfe Julio 

et Augufto 1794. 

Radix perennis, fibrofa. 

Caulis herbaceus, quatuor pedes altus, craflitudine infra digitum 
auricularem, ereclus, obfolete tetragonus, glaber, fubftriatus, ra- 
mofus, viridis, fufco ftriatus : rami oppofiti patentes. 

Folia oppofita, patentia, feflilia, ovato-lanceolata, integerrima, acuta, 
aliquando acuminata, glabra, viridia. 

Stipule laterales, juxta paria fingula foliorum bina?, bipartite: la- 
ciniis divaricatis, reflexis, fubulatis, vireicentibus ; ietas fubternas 
fufcas gerentes. 

Flores aggregati, terminales, pedunculati : pedunculo floi is longi- 
tudine, folitarii, primo erecli, nuptiarum tempore cernui, pofiremo 
iterum erecti, qua bipartitur caulis prodeuntes. 

Calyx communis hexaphyllus, foliolis patentiinmis, fubulatis : 
duobus oppofitis longioribus, inque bracteas aliquando dilatatis, 
ut calyx par fummum foliorum cum ftipulis imitetur, pallide 
virefcens. Perianthium proprium e paleis receptaculi, fuperum, 
triphyllum : foliolis curvis, fetaceo-fubulatis, perfiftens, pallide 
virefcens, demum apice fufcum, corolla paulo brevius. 

Corolla univerfalis sequalis, fubvigintiflora ; propria monopetala, 
quadrifida, ante nuptias ovata, capfulam mentiens, deinde cam- 
panulata laciniis revolutis, minute pilofa, decidua, pallide vire- 
fcens, apice rubicunda. 

Stamina : Filamenta quatuor filiformia, corolla duplo longiora re- 
ceptaculo inferta, antherarum dorfo incumbentia, pallide vire- 
fcentiaj Antheras oblongas, bafi emarginatoe, biloculares, longi- 
tudinal iter 

j2 Mr. Young' j Defcription of a new Species of Opercularla. 

tudinaiiter dehifcentes, fufco-albidae ; Pollen rotundum, pallidc 

Pijiilium : Germen inferum, receptaculi partem efficiens ; Stilus 
fimplex, longitudine corollae, filiformis, ruber ; Stigma biparti- 
tum longitudine ftili, filiforme, fubtomentofum, rubrum. 

Pericarpium : Capfulae uniloculares in receptaculum fubglobofum 
coalitsc, lingular medio longitudinaliter dehifcentes, ut excidant 
fimul fubquinorum partes dimidiae inter fe in orbem conjunctse. 

Semen folitarium, ovatum, fcabrum, hinc fulcatum, virefcens. 
Odor et Sapor fubnaufeofus, velut olerum putrefcentiurru 
Propius accedit ad Operculariam a/per am Gaertneri. 


Fig. I. Plantse pars magnitudine naturali. 

2. Stipula au£ta. 

3. Calyx communis. 

4. Corolla immatura. 

5. Corolla matura. 

6. Corolla, cum calyce proprio, ftaminibus et piftillo, 


7. Stamen, auctum. 

8. Anthera derlorata, autta. 

9. Pollen, auclum. 

10. Piftillum, auclum. 

11. Fruclius immaturus, auctus. 

12. Pars receptaculi conjunctim cadens, aucla. 

13. Semen. 

14. 15, 16. Semen auctum. 

17. Semen fe&um tranfverfe, au&um. 

IX. Defcrip- 

_ 'inn ..> >cin,t. III. (to*. J. A 32.- 

>3 * 




f i 





9 ' ' • 

• /. yW mm t/t/tft .' 

(fetuuuavu* /ur/,,,/,, 

( 33 ) 

IX. Defcriptions of Eight new Fijbes from Sumatra. 
By Mr. Mungo Park y A. L» S. 

Read November 4, 1 794. 

THE following paper is the fruit of my leifure hours during 
nine weeks ftay on the coaft of Sumatra: it contains a very 
fmatl fpecimen of the ichthyological riches of that fhore, and,, being 
my firft attempt, the defcriptions may in many places be inaccu- 

Chaetodon canaliculafus* 

C. fpinis omnibus canaliculars. 

B. 4. D. j£ P. 18. V. f A. i. C. 18. 

LC : A : : 66 : 26 LC : VI : : 66 : 22 

LC : DI : : 66 : 18 LC : VF : : 66 : 40 

LC : DF ;.: 66 : 60 LC : AI : : 66 : 35 

LC : PI ft 66 : 16 LC : AF: : 66 : 60 

LC : PF : : 66 : 27 LC : PC : : 66 : 82 

R. 5. P. 2. D. 2.3.4. V. 2. A. 3.4. C. 5. 

Habitat in Sumatra littore, fupra flavo-virefcens, fubtus albicans 
guttis laevioribus adfperfus, fquamis minutis obovatis veftitus, 
carne fapida. 

Vol. III. F Oculorum 

34 Mr\ Park'j Defcrlptions 

Oculorum iris argenteo-flava; branchiarum aperturamediocris, 
operculum lamina duplici conftans ; linea lateralis dorfo parallela ; 
anus inter pinnas ventrales, capiti propior quam caudas ; pinnae 
virefcentes immaculatx ; cauda bifida. 

Chaetodon irifafciatus. 

C longitudinaliter ftriatus, fafciis tribus capitis nigris. 

B. 4. D.||. P. 14. V.|. A. T V C- & 

LC : A : : 36 : 25 LC : VI : : 36 : 13 

LC : DI : : 36 : 16 LC : VF : : 36 : 22 

LC : DF : : 36 : 35 LC : AI : : 36 : 26 

LC : PI : : 3 6 : 12 LC : AF : : 36-1 3s 

LC : PF :: 36 : 21 LC : PC : : 36 : 43 

R. 4. D. 2.3.4. P. 2. V. 2. A. 3.4. C. 4. 

Habitat in Sumatra? littore, inter corallia, 3 pollices longus, ftriis 
i6fufcis longitudinalibus,fquamis ciliatis, in trunco magnis, in ca- 
pite exilibus veftitus, fafcia nigra navo marginata, in pinna dorfali, 
altera ad bafin pinnse analis, tertia per caudle medium infignitus. 
Oculorum iris fufca ; os perexiguum; branchiarum operculum 
ex duabus laminis conftans; linea lateralis dorfo propinqua, ad 
finem pinnas dorfalis interrupta; anus caudas propior; pinnas 
flavae ; cauda fubrotunda. 


_ A,„, t . /»<i//.j HI /„/ KA ,}.) 

— 'r>ftv ///■;/ //■/ft A 

of Eight new FJfiesfrom Sumatra, 35 

Perca lunula t a. Tab. 6. 
*** Dorfo monopterygio, cauda bifida. 

P. rubefcens, lunula caudali nigra. 
B. 7. D. i-J. P. 16. V.;. A. T V C. 17. 
LC : A : : 64 : 4 r LC : VI : : 64 : 26 

IX : DI : : 64 ! 27 ^tC>^F : ; 64 : 38 

LC : DF : : 64 : 53 LC : Af : : 64 : 45 

LC : PI : : 64 : 22 LC : AF : : 64 : 53 

LC : PF : : 64 : 40 LC : PC : : 64 : 78 

R. 3§. D. 2.3. P.*. V.2. A. 3. C: 3 fi 

Habitat in Sumatra littore.. 

Vertex convexus nudus;. mandibular arquales ; dentes conici 
parum curvati, canini validi in mandibula fuperiore; pinnx 
ventrales auratx, reliquac rubefcentes.. 

Perca aurata. 
P. albicans, vitta longitudinali flava.. 

B.5. D.4|i P. 18. V. 6. A. JL. C. 18. 

LC : A : : 56 : 36 LC : VI : : 56 : 24 

LC : DI : : 56 : 24 LC : VF : : 56 : 37 

LC : DF : : 56 : 49 LC : AI : : 56 : 37 

LC : PI :: 56 : 21 LC : AF :: 56 : 47 

LC : PF : : 56 : 34 LC : PC : : 56 : 75 

R. 3^. D. 1.2.3. p - 2 - V - 2 - A - 2 -3- c -3i- 
Ha&itat in Sumatrae littore. 

Oculi magni iride flava; fub oculo fpina unica reflexa; dentes 
parvi acuti; branchiarum opercula anteriora pone dentata; pof- 
teriora fubintegra ; linea lateralis dorfo propior, confpicua, pofte- 
rius parum curvata ; pinnas peclorales pallide flavce, cauda flava, 
reliquas fufco-albicantes. 

F 2 Perca 

3 6 Mr, Park' j Defer iptiom 

Pe r c A fumatrenfis. 
P. corpore obfeuro-argenteo, pinnis longitudinal iter (triads. 
B. 5. D.if. P. 14. V. 6. A. y^. C. 18. 

LG : A : : 2 1 : 14 

LC : VI : : 7 

LC : DI : : 21 : 7 

LC : VF : : 12 

LC : DF :: 21 : 19 

LC : AI : : 14 

LC : PI : : 21 : 7 

LC : AF : : 18 

LC : PF : : 21 : 10 

LC : CF : : 26 

R. 4. D. 2.3. P. 2. V. 2. A. 3. C 4. 

Habitat gregaria in Sumatra? littore, inter corallia, 3 circiter pollices 
longa, iquamis parvis denticulatis fufco punctatis veftita. 
Caput parvum cuneatum nafo fronteque fufcum ; oculi iride 

fuico-argentea ; os exiguum, mandibula inferior paulo longior; 

linea lateralis dorfo parallela, ad finem pinnae dorfalis deorfum 

leviter inflexa ; pinnae pectorales et ventrales flavse, reliqua? fufcas 

flavo ftriatas. 

Scomber fiamentofus, 

S. peclore nudo, pinna fecunda dorfi et ani filamentofa. 

B.7. D.f. 22. P. 19. V.5. A.f 18. C. 22. 

LC : A : : 66 : 38 LC : PF : : 66 : 45 

LC : DPI : : 66 : 30 LC : VI : : 66 : 26 

LC : DPF : : 66 : 35 LC : VF : : 66 : 35 

LC : DSI : : 66 : 40 LC : AI : : 66 : 43 

LC : DSF i : 66 : 62 LC : AF : : 66 : 62 

LC : PI : : 66 : 20 LC : CF : : 66 : 88 

R.4. DP. 2. DS, 2.3.4. P. 2.3. V. 2. A. 23.4. C.4. 

Habitat in Sumatra? littore, argenteus, fupra casrulefcens, fquamis 

parvis perfifientibus teclus. 

Caput anterius obtufum; oculi magni; iride fiava; mandi- 
bular dentibus parvis confertis armatae ; branchiarum opercula 


of Eight new Fijhesfrom Sumatra, 


triplicia, integra, nuda ; fpinae duse ante pinnam analem, poftc- 
riore majore; pinnse flavefcentcs, dorfalis prima in foflula recon- 
denda, pectorales falcatse, cauda bifida. 

Balistes nigcr. 

B. dorfo triacantho, corpore nigro papillofo, cauda fubintegra 
apice alba. 

P. 14. A. 24. C. to. 

D.f. 27. 






: 48 : 46 
CF 1:48:60 



LC : A : : 48 : 36 
LC : DPI : : 48 : 22 
LC : DPF : : 48 : 29 
LC : DSI : : 48 : 35 
LC : DSF : : 48 : 45 

R. 3. DP. 2. DS. 2.3. P. 2. A. 2.3. C.3. 

Habitat in Sumatra? littore, inter corallia. 

Oculi fere verticales, oblongi, iride fufca ; aculei caudales parvi, 
reverfi, feptemplici ordine difpofiti ; pinna dorfalis anterior 
niger, candalis flavicans, reliquce flava?. 

Balistes undulatm. 

B. pinna dorfali anteriore triradiata, caudas lateribus fpinis valde 
robuftis recumbentibus, corpore nigro lineis rubris undulato. 

B. 2. D. f. 26. P/13. V. 24. C. 12. 

LC : A : : 82 



PI : 

82: 32 

LC : DPI : : 82 

: 3 6 


: PF : 

82 : 40 

LC : DPF : : 82 

: 4 8 


: AI : 

82 : 64 

LC : DSI : : 82 

= 58 


: AF : 

82: 78 

LC : DSF : : 82 



: CF : 

82 : 104 

R. 3. DP. 2. 

DS. 2.3. 

P. 2. 

A. 2.3. 

c 3 . 


38 Mr, Park'j Defcriptions of Eight new Fifhes from Sumatra, 

Habitat in Sumatra littore. 

Caput magnum, obtufum ; oculi iride fufca ; fafciae tres rubrae, 
a labiis ad bafin pinnarum pe£toralium excurrentes ; truncus 
lineis duodecim rubris oblique undulatus ; fpinae caudales va- 
lidas, anteriores glabra, corner; pinna dorfalis anterior nigra ?v 
reliquae flavas ; cauda fubintegra. 

X. L,indfc€a^ 

( 39 ) 


X. L'mdjiia, a new Genus of Ferns. By Jonas Dryandcr t M. A, 

Libr. R. S. and F. L. S. 
Read November 4, 17 94. 

? I M.1E ferns belonging to this genus have fo much the habit of 
■*■ Adiantum, that M. Aublet and Profcflbr Swartz have referred 
to that genus the fpecies difcovered by them, though they ought, 
according to the generic characters of Linnxus, to have been re- 
ferred to P/er/s. In examining the Filices dorfiferte in Sir Jofcph 
Banks's herbarium, for the purpofe of inveftigating the membranes 
which cover the fructifications, I foon difcovered a great difference 
between thefe fuppofed Adiantums and the genera of Adiantum and 
Pter'ts. In Adiantum the fructifications, being diftinet fpots, are 
covered by lunular membranes attached to the margin of the frond 
and open towards the difk ; in Pteris the fructifications form a line 
along the margin of the frond, and are covered by a linear membrane 
fattened to the margin of the frond, and open towards the difk ; but 
in this genus the fructifications form a line parallel with the margin 
of the frond ; in fome fpecies clofe to it, in others more or lefs 
remote from it ; but in all, the covering membrane is attached to 
the difk within the line of fructifications, and opens towards the 
margin of the frond. 

1 have named this genus from Mr. John Lindfay, an afliduous 


40 Mr, DryanderV Account oftheLindfcea, 

and fkilful botanift in Jamaica, whofe paper on the germination of 
ferns, printed in the laft volume of our Society's Tranfactions, may 
entitle him to be particularly remembered in treating of this order 
of plants. Our Prefident, with whom I communicated my deter- 
mination of this genus, has already introduced it in his valuable 
arrangement of the Genera F'dtcum Dorjiferarum, publifhed in the 
fifth volume of the Memoirs of the Academy of Turin. 

LINDSJEA. Smith in Aft. Taurin. 5. p. 413. 

Truclificationes in linea continua, margini parallela. 
Inxolucrum lineare, continuum, difco adnatum, externe liberum. 

Habitus generis, 
E frondis vel pinnae bad Nervi omnes exeunt, dichotomic 

Locus natalis* 
Afia et America inter tropicos. 


1. Lindsjea Jagittata % fronde fimplici fagittata cordatave acu- 


Adiantum fagittatum. Aubl. guian. 964. tab. 366. Lamark 
Kncyci. I. p. 41. 
Habitat in Guiana Gallica. Fufee Aublet. 

In Sir Jofeph Banks's herbarium are fix fronds of this fpecies 
from M. Aublet, out of which only one is fagittate ; all the reft are 
cordate. The character of the genus is not ill exprefled in Aublet's 
figure of part of the frond, numbered 1. 

2. Lindsjea reniformis, fronde fimplici reniformi obtufiflima. 

Tab. 7, fig. 1. 
Habitat in Guiana Belgica. Alex. Anderfon, 

3 This 

_ J,,,/, .. Ji<Ttn,j. Ul,<^r/r. A. -A'. 

1' _/////■/></// frr/rsrAr 

/_ yf////.j</vr /> >>f/r>> ////.j. // 2. 

-A»« ,'/l*n*.JB../it6i!?.A.-4f. 

''—S'/'/iCjstrr v/rftf/ui/a/tr . 

rt . J. 

/ _ n >/,/.>///! /" /f'uf/i/t //'/</ // 4- 

a new Genus of Ferns. 41 

This fpecics comes very near to the foregoing, but differs in 
the frond being broader than it is long, and entirely without any 
apex. The finus at the bafis of the frond is alio more open than in 
the foregoing. The ftipes is of a glofiy brown colour, as in the 
firff.. In both, the line of fructifications is at a diftance from the 

3. LiNDSJEAfolcata, fronde pinnata : pinnis falcatis integerrimis. 

Tab. 7, fig. 2. 
Adiantum 7. Aubl. guian. 965. (exclufo fynonymo.) 
Habitat in Guiana Gallica. Fufee Aublet. 

Stipites dodrantales et ultra, inferne brunnei, fuperne fufci : angu- 

lis viridibus e pinnis decurrentibus. Frons vix longitudine 

ifipitis. Pinnae confertae, unciales et ultra. Fruclifcationes 


This fern was in Aublet's herbarium as his 7th Adiantum^ but is 

not at all like the figure of Sloane he quotes. 

4. Lindsjea heterophylla, fronde pinnata : pinnis integerrimis 

ferrulatifve : inferioribus rhombeo-lanceolatis acuminatis; 
ftiperioribus rhombeis obtufiiTimis ; extimis confluentibus. 
Tab. 8, fig. 1. 
Habitat in India Orientali : Malacca. — Robert/on. 
Stipites vix palmares, inferne fufci. Ikons longitudine ftipitis. 
Finnae parum remotas, figure et magnitudinis diverfas : aliac 
fefquunciales, alias femuncia breviores. Fruclifcationes margi- 

5. Lwdsj&a fabe//u/ata, fronde pinnata: pinnis flabelliformibus 

denticulatis : adultiorum inferioribus pinnatifidis. Tab. 8, 
fig. 2. 
Vol. III. G Habitat 

42 Mr, Dry ander'j Account of the Lind/aa, 

Habitat in China, prope Canton. Dom. Georgius Staunton^ Baro 
netus. In Macao. Dav. Neifon. In Sumatra. Car. Miller. 

Stipites palmares, fufci, inferne brunnei. Frons ftipite fere longior. 
Pinnae remote femuncia breviores : adultiorum infimae pinnati- 
fidse, unciales et ultra. Fruclijicatiories marginales. 

6. LlNDSJEA trapeziformis, fronde bipinnata : pinnis patentibus 

lanceolatis : pinnulis trapeziformibus : innmis flabellifor- 
mibus. Tab. 9. 
Habitat in India? Occidentals infula Grenada. Henr. Smeathman. 
Stipites inferne fufci. Frondes juniores fimpliciter pinnatae : pinnis 
crenatis fterilibus; adultiores bipinnatae: pinnulis confertis 
integerrimis undulatis femuncialibus. Frudlificationes intra mar- 
ginem. Figura chara&eris generici, Smith he. cit. tab. 9, Jig. 4. 
e pinnula infima hujus fpeciei defumta. 

7. Linds-ea guianenfi j, fronde bipinnata: pinnis patentibus fubu- 
latis : pinnulis inferioribus lunatis; mediis trapeziformibus; 
fupremis fiabelliformibus. 

Adiantum guianenfe. Aubl. guian. 963, tab. 365. Lamarck 
Encycl. 1. p. 43. 
Habitat in Guiana Gallica. Fufee Aublet. 

8. Lindsjea Jiridla^ fronde bipinnata: pinnis ereclis ftrictis ; 
pinnulis trapeziformibus. 

Adiantum ftriclum. Swartz proar. 135. 

Habitat in Jamaica. 01. Swartz. 

Of this fpecies we may expect a figure and defcription in Pro- 
feffor Swartz' s larger work on his new-difcovered plants of the 
Weft Indies. 

10, Lindsjea tenera, fronde tripinnatifida : laciniis obovato-rhom- 

beis incifis. Tab, 10. 

7 Habitat 

/<,■>,. ').,„.L\\y/.,/,.xiy>,. 4i. 

_//,,,, ,j> f tn^ iu ,-taU.j.A 4*. 

Z* >i >i t^mw.m. fin/-.**- A.-/-2. 

'/////.js/?/ // /r//ft///<'///f/'/'//.) ;/ //. 

a new Genus of Ferns. 43 

Habitat in India Orientali. MiJJionarii Societatis Unitatis Tratrum. 
Stipites fufci, palmares. Frons longitudine (lipids, triangularis. 

Pinna infimse bipinnatindae ; mediae pinnatx ; ultima: fim- 

plices. Fruclijicationes marginales. 
Specimens of all thefe fpecies are in the herbarium of Sir Jofepli 


In looking over the collections of plants made in the South Sea 
Iflands by Mr. Menzies, I found a fern, which at the firfl: appear- 
ance I took for a Tricbomancs, according to the Linnaean divifion of 
ferns, or Davallia, in Dr. Smith's arrangement; but, on clofer in- 
fpection, it evidently belonged to the genus of Lindfcea : and to com- 
plete my account of this genus, as far as it is hitherto known to 
me, I take the liberty to add this fpecies, in fending this paper to 
the prefs. 

9. Lindsjea irichomanoidesy frondibus bipinnatis: pinnulis lineari- 

clavatis. Tab. ii. 
Habitat in Nova Zelandia : Du Iky Bay. Archibald Menzies, 
Radix repens. Stipites brunnei, digitales. Frons ftipite paulo 
longior, oblonga : Pinnule infimae incife. Fruclijicationes intra 
In an advanced ftate of the fructification, the membrane which 
covers the capfules, fometimes fplits into two or three parts, and 
has then an appearance of Davallia ; but in the earlier ftage of 
the fructification, the continued membrane of Lindfiza is the more 
evident, as the infertion of it is marked by a brown line acrofr 
the whole breadth of the pinnula. 

-April 23, 1796. 

G2 XI. On 

( 44 ) 

XI. On a Species of Tellina, not defer ibed by Linnaeus. By William- 
George Maton, A, B. F. L. S. 

Read December 2, 1794. 

A SPECIES of Tellina which I have lately found, does not ap- 
pear to have been defcribed, and was probably never feen by 
Linnseus, nor has it ever been noticed by any Engliih writer on 
Conchology.. A figure, however, of this (hell occurs in Gualtieri's 
Index T eft arum Conchyliorum (tab, 7, fig. C C) ; but it has been re» 
ferred to by ProfefTor Gmelin, in his edition of the Syjlema Naturce 
of Linnaeus, for Tellina cornea, though it evidently differs from the 
latter in fhape, which Linnseus confidered as one of the mod cer- 
tain criteria whereby fpecies are to be diftinguifhed. Gualtieri 
mentions the (hell to which I allude as " Mufculus fiuviatilis,Jlriatus, 
fubflavusy pellucidus ;" which is a very vague and imperfect defcrip- 
tion, and by no means fufficient to fhew in what refpect it differs 
from T. cornea. From a view of the fpecimens which I have the 
honour to prefent to the Linnsean Society, and of the figures 
(37, 38), I hope it may be judged not inaptly defcribed as follows, viz. 

Tellina (rivalis) tefla oblique fubovata tranfverfim fulcata cornei 

Habitat in aquis dulcibus. 

Tefta magnitudine pifi, rudis, fulcis latioribus, anterius planiuf- 


Mr. Maton'j Defer iptlon sf a Species of ~ TelUna^ &c. 45 

cula, cardinis dentibns duriufculis, prominulis. Differt a T. 
cornea cardine verfus extremitatem, nee ad medium tefta?. 
I have generally found Tellina rivalis on chalky parts of the bed 
of the river Avon, and in rivulets communicating with it near 
Salisbury; but I have never feen it in any confiderable abundance, 
nor have I as yet heard of its being found any where elfe. There 
can be little doubt however, that, if diligently fought after, it may 
be difcovered in moft rivers and dreams which are inhabited bv 
tellina cornea. 

Tab. 13, fig. 37, reprefents the whole fhell; 38, one valve, in order 
to (hew the cardo^ or hinge. 
39, 40, reprefent Tellina cornea, in order that its difference 
from the former may be diftinclly feen. Thefe laft 
correfpond with tab. 1, Jig. 5, of Lifter's appendix 
An. Angl. (which is referred to by Linnreus for that 
fpecies), and with tab. 7, fig. B. C. of Gualtieri's Indi 
Tejl. Conch. 

XII. Obfervaiions 

( 46 ) 

XII. Observations upon the Generic Char abler of U/va A with Defcriptions 
offome new Species. By Thomas Jenkinfon Woodimrd^ Efq. F. L. S. 

Read December 2, 1794. 

THE introduction of a new Alga from the Mediterranean fea, 
which in fructification agrees with fome of the plants 
arranged in the genus Ulva, but in other particulars by no means 
accords with the generic character, made it neceflfary to take a 
general examination and confideration of the fpecies enumerated by 
different authors ; in order to ascertain whether it might properly 
be placed amongfl them, or muft be confidered as forming a new 
genus of itfelf. The refult of this enquiry has been a thorough 
conviction, that the mod extreme anomaly exifts amongft the fpe- 
cies at prefent arranged by various authors in this genus; a cir- 
cumftance which cannot efcape the obfervation of every botanical 
itudent, who may undertake the invefligation and confideration of 
the marine plants. Under this impreflion the prefent paper has 
been compofed, in which it is propofed to point out the impropriety 
of the generic character as it now {lands, and to offer to the confi- 
deration of the members of the Linnaan Society, and through them 
to botanifts in general, fuch a character as may include the different 
defcriptions of plants at prefent placed in this genus. This is 
followed by a defcription of fome new fpecies. 


Mr, Woodward'j Obfervations upon the Generic Chara£ier of 'Uha, 47 

The genus Uha was adopted by Linnaeus from Dillcnius, and 
the character (lands in the Genera Plant arum in thefe words — " Fruc- 
tificationes in membrand vejicuhri abfque fronde" In the Syflema Ve^eta- 
fa'Iium, the efTential character of the genus is thus given — <4 Frutli- 
fcationes in membrand diaphana" and this character is adopted by 
Hudfon, Lightfoot, and all the Linnaean authors, notwithstanding 
a great part of the plants which are arranged in this genus can by 
no means be confidered as agreeing with it. Amongft the fpecies 
enumerated by Linnaeus himfelf, in the Species Pla n/ar u m, are fome 
which only agree in part with the generic character, and others 
which are totally difcordant from it. Of the firft defcription are all 
thofe fpecies which were adopted from the Synopjis, ladiuca, latifiima, 
and the reft, in which no actual fructification has been hitherto 
difcovered ; in confequence of which it is there called " Genus 
jlerik" Amongft the latter are pruniformis and granulata> which 
are both fphaerical, and filled with a gelatinous pulp, in which no 
fructification has as yet been obferved. The Uha pavonia is the 
only one amongft the fpecies enumerated by Linnxus, in which 
fructification vifibly exifts ; and this, which can fcarcely be faid to 
confift of a diaphanous membrane, has by fome authors been confi- 
dered as a Fucus y from the circumftance of the feeds being difpofed 
in feparate fafciae, and not difperfed over the whole lurface. The 
Flora Anglica includes fpecies which accord ftill lefs with the efTen- 
tial character; fome being round and fiftulofe, and amongft thefe 
the fjlulofa is undoubtedly opake; and others filiform, amongft 
which it is fufficient to mention plumofa, than which nothing can 
be farther removed from the generic character. 

Befides this anomaly, which might be removed by forming one 
or more new genera ; the character is in itfelf vague and doubtful, 
as neither the kind, nor the precife fituation of the fructification is 


4$ Mr. Woodward'/ Obfervatiom upon 

pointed out ; and fomc of the acknowledged fuci may^undoubtedly 
be confidered as having their fructification fituated in a diaphanous 
membrane. Having dated thefe objections to the p relent generic 
character, the following is propofed, not as a perfect one, but as lets 
erroneous, and as better according with the numerous fpecies at 
prefent arranged under this genus ; and this principally with a view 
to induce others who are better qualified, to take the matter into 
confideration, and at length eftablifli one on fuch fixed and natural 
principles as may remain permanent, without need of future re- 


Char. ejf. Frons membranacea feu gelatinofa, fructificatio (fi 

adfit) per totam frondem quaquaverfim fparfa. 
Char. nai. Radix nulla nifi bafis frondis paululum explanata. 

Frons continua, fimplex vel ramofa, membranacea 
feu gelatinofa. 

Fructificatio — granula feu femina per totam fron- 
dem fparfa, folitaria vel congefla, intra fubftantiam 
vel fub epidermide fita. 

The plants belonging to this genus adhere to thefubmarine rocks 
and ftones, to piles or planks, and not unfrequently to other 
plants, by an expanded difc, a fmall bulbiform callus, or an un- 
formed gelatinous lump ; all which are merely the bafe of the frons 
fomewhat dilated. The frons is either membranaceous or gelati- 
nous ; the former is either plane or tubulous, and nfually diapha- 
nous ; the latter either filiform or comprefTed, folid or fiftulous, 
diaphanous or opake. Amongft the membranaceous Ulva fome 
are umbilicated, and have not any vifible root, appearing to adhere 


the generic Cbara&tr ofUha, GrV. 49 

to their place of growth by fame point of the under iuif.icc. The 
greater part are very much attenuated immediately above the bafc, 
but fuddenly dilate, and are divided into numerous fegments, which 
are always of the fame fubftance throughout. The filiform and 
comprcfled Uhcc are cither fimple or branched; but the branches- 
are merely divifions of the frond, which may therefore ftii&ly be 
called continuous or uniform. The fructification of thefc is un- 
known, excepting only the Ulva d'uiphana, and rubra of Hudfon ; in 
the former of which it confills of numerous minute grains or feeds, 
difperfed throughout the whole internal fubftance: the fructifica- 
tion of the latter has not yet fallen under the obfervation of the 
author. Amongft the membranaceous Ufa*, the ptivotiia, coccmca, 
dichotoma, atomaria and liguiata t exhibit a fructification, confiding of 
numerous minute grains or feeds, thickly fcattered 00 both fides 
immediately under the epidermis, fometimes crowded, but moftly 
fingle. The fructification of the Licluca, lati/Jima, comprcflh, umbili- 
caia, and lactniata is entirely unknown. 

This genus, and that of Tremella, fo nearly approach each other, 
that it is extremely difficult to afcertain their proper limits. The 
original defign appears to have been, to confider fuch as were mem- 
branaceous as C//W, and fuch as were gelatinous as TremelLr : but 
this diftinction has been by no means adhered to; there being gela- 
tinous Uha, and membranaceous Tremella:, to be met with in almoft 
every author. Perhaps the bed diftinction would be, to confider 
all thole which are membranaceous, and in which no vilible fructi- 
fication exifts, as belonging to the genus Tremella ; and to arrange 
thofe in which the fructification is known, and fuch as are filiform, 
although without any perceptible fructification, with the Ulva. It 
muft neverthelefs be evident, that fuch an arrangement would 
entirely fubvert the genus Uha as it ftands in Sp. PL and very much 

Vol. III. H confufe 




ro Air. Woodward'^ Obfervations upon 

confute the diftribution in SyJl. Veget. and in the woiks of other 
authors. For this reaion, it is at preient propofed to reject from 
the genus Uha fuch ipecies only as ate either known to be Fuci 9 or 
which, from their analogy with thofe, there are the ftrongeft 
reafons to conclude muft belong to that genus; and alio fuch as 
are terreftrial and gelatinous, or which grow in freih water, and 
are gelatinous, and approaching to a globular form. This will 
confine the genus Uha to fuch plants as are really marine, with 
the fmgle exception of inte/iina'is t which is found in both freih and 
fait water, and has fo great an affinity with ladluca^ linza, and com-* 
frejfa 9 that it would be very improper to feparate them. For the 
better diftinguithing, and the more eafy inveftigation, of the nume- 
rous fpecies, they are here arranged in different fubdivifions in the 
following concife 

Synopsis Specierum* 

Subd. T. Membranaceae, frudtif. adhuc incognita. 

A. fronde plana integra. 

Ulva umbilicalis. Linn. — Gm. SyJl. Nat. — Hud. — Light. — With. 

purpurea. Gm. S\ft. Nat. — Roth. FL Germ. — an var. pranced. ? 

plicata. FL Dan. t. 829. 

latiffima. Linn. — Gm. SyJl. Nat. — Light. — With. 

fufca." Hud. — a praecedente ciiffert. 

lanceolata. Linn.— Gm. SyJl. Nat. — Hud. — With. 

la&uca. Linn. — Gm. SyJl. Nat. — Hud. — Light. — With. 

B. fronde plana pertufa. 
Agarum. Gm. Hijl. Fucor. — Herb. Bankjianum. 
Clathrus. Gm. Hijl. Fucor. — Herb. Soc. Linn. 
reticulata. Gm. SyJl. Nat. — Fotjk. FL Mgypt. Arab. 

C. fronde 

generic Character oj U.'vj, L~r. 51 

C. fronde tubulofa ragoU* 

I a iriteirinalis. Lirm.—Gm. Syft. Nat.— Hud.— Light. — tilth. 
lumbricalis. Linn. — Gm. Syft. Nat, 

compiefTa. Linn. — Gm. Sy/i. Nat. — Hud. — Light. — With. 
rugofa. Linn. — Gm. Syjl. Nat. 

D. fronde cellulofa. 

labyiinthifbrmis. Linn, Mant. — An eadem eft labyrinth ifor- 

mis. Gm. Syft, Nat.—VanddL Therm. 
1 20. /. 2. ? 

E. fronde plicata. 

linza. Linn, — Gm, Syft. Nat. — Hud. — Light. — With, Frons 
femel longitudinal iter plicata. 

Subd. 2. Membranaceac carpophorx. 

Ulva pavonia. Linn. — Mud. — Light. — With, 

fquamaria. Gm. Hift. Fucor, — Gm, Syjl. Nat, An var. praxed. ? 

atomaria. Species nova. 

palmata. Fucus palmatus Linn. — Hud. — With. — Fructificatio 

ligulata. Species nova. 
coccinea. Hud, — With, 
laciniata. Light. — With. 
dichotoma. Hud. — Light. — With. 
calendulifolia. Gm. Syft, Nat. — DHL 46. /. g.f. 4. 

Subd. 3. Gelatin ofas, fronde tereti f. comprefla, integra. 

Ulva rubra. Hud.— With. 

diaphana. Hud. — With. 

H 2 Ulva 

*j2 Mr. Woodward'j Obferi'ations upon 

Ulva flavefcens. Hud. — With, An var. praecedentis I 
incrafTata. FL Dan. 653. AnFucus? 
decorticata. Specks nova. Subgelatinofa* 

Subd. 4. Subgelatinofae, fronde tereti, tubulofiL 

Ulva purpurafcens. Hud. — With. 
fiftulofa. Hud.— With. 
fobolifera. FL Dan. 356* 
prolifera. FL Dan. 763. 1. 
ipongiformis. FL Dan. 763. 2. 

Priapus. Gm. Hift. Fucor. — Gm. Syft. Nat. Frons Tubulata. 
glandiformis. Gm. Hift. Fucor. — Gm. Syjl. Nat. 
pi u mo fa. Hud. — With. An Conferva? 

Ulva papillofa Murr. Syft. Veget. — filiformis, capillaris & rubens 
Hud. are either known, or with good reafon fuppofed, to belong to 
the genus Fucus. 

Ulva incrafTata Hud. — crifpa, cornuta Gm. Syft. Nat. and Light. 
— ftellata, oryzseformis, moccana, cuneata Gm. Syjl. Nat. — prunifor- 
mis, grannlata Murr. Syft. Feget. and Hud. — and pififormis Reich. 
Syft. Feget. and Hud. may be confidered as more probably belonging 
to the genus Tremella. 

Ulva porrifolia Gm. Syft. Nat. appears to be nothing more than 
lanceolata repeated. 

Ulva Sagarum Gm. Syft. Nat. is Tremella arborea Hud. 

Ulva confervoides Gm. Syft. Nat. is Conferva tubulofa Hud. — 
Dill. /. 6. f. 39. as appears from an original fpecimen of Di/Ienius, 
preferved in the herbarium of Sir Jofeph Banks. 

Ulva montana Gm. Syft. Nat. quoted from Swartz Nov. pi. gen. et 
fp. p. 148, belongs to the order Fungi, where it forms a new genus, 


the generic Char adler of Ufa a y &c. 53 

approaching Boletus, but without pores, and is not unlike B. vcrfi- 
color. Whether Ulva montana Light. 973 be the fame with this, 
or to what genus it properly ought to be referred, muff, be deter- 
mined by fuch perfons as may have an opportunity of examining 
it in its native place of growth. 

Ulva atomaria — fronde membranacea plana dilatata palmata : 
fegmentis linearibus fubramofis fubciliatis. Species nova. 

Radix nulla, nifi bafis frondis paululum explanata, fupeme 
tomentofa. — Frons brunnea, tenerrima, membranacea, plana, 
dodrantalis vel femipedalis, a tenui principio orta ftatim late- 
fcens, et poll paululum progrefTus in plurimas lacinias divifa. 
Laciniae lincares, ad originem fimplices, dein fubramofa?, mar- 
ginibus nunc integris, nunc ciliis paucis brevibus furfum ten- 
dentibus obfitis. — Fructificatio — granula feu femina minutifli- 
ma, intra utramque frondis paginam fita, et in tafciis tranfverfim 
concentricis congefta. 

Inter rejectamenta maris apud Yarmouth, Norfolcix, in- 
venit D. Wigg. 

This elegant plant was found by Mr. Wigg on the beach at 
Yarmouth, and is fuppofed to have been wafhed from the rocks, 
either at Cromer to the northward, or Harwich to the fouthward 
of that place. The fubftance is membranaceous, extremely thin 
and delicate ; the colour an earthy brown, varying in different 
fpecimens, of a lighter or darker fhade, but always having a con- 
siderable degree of tranfparency. The height of the largeft fpeci- 
mens hitherto found has not exceeded (ix or feven inches; the 
breadth about half as much. In fome the frond is fuddenly dilated 


54 M r * Wood ward* j Obfervailons upon 

ifrtg the fcrm of an open fan, and, at an inch or inch and half from 
the bafe, is divided into numerous palmated linear fegments, either 
funple or branched ; in other fpecimens, it proceeds three or four 
inches without being very much increafed in breadth, and is then 
in th fame manner divided. The fegments are conftantly fimilar 
in fubftance to the reft of the frond, and are either entire on the 
margins, or bordered with a few fmall cilia pointing upwards. The 
dilated bafe, by which the plant adheres to its place of growth, is 
covered with a thick woolly down ; the reft is perfectly fmooth. 
The fructification con lifts of numerous minute grains or feeds, fome 
of which are fmgle, but the greater part crowded, and difpofed in 
feparate fafciae, forming parallel fegments of circles, of whrdb the 
bafe of the plant is the centre, and leaving naked fpaces between 
the fafcix. In this refpect it correfponds with Ulva pavonia, but 
differs from that fpecies in its thin and delicate fubftance, in colour 
nd in form. 

Ulva ligulata — frondibus membranaceis planis ramofis, ramis di- 
latatis fubdichotomis ligulatis, angulis dichotomias obtufioribus. 
Species nova. 

Radix callus minimus bulbiformis — Frondes aggregate, 
coccineae, membranaceae, fubdiaphanse, dodrantales, vel femi- 
pedales — Frons fingula a tenuiflimo principio orta, modo ad 
originem modo poft paulum progreflus fit ramofa, ramis dila- 
tatis, faspius dichotomis, angulis dichotomiae obtufioribus, 
rariftime trifidis vei quadrifidis. — Ramorum fegmenta linearia, 
dichotoma, apicibus bifidis acutiufculis, ligulis anguftis obfita. — 
FrucTificatio granula feu femina minuta intra utramque frondis 
paginam, necnon in ligulis quaquaverfim fparfa folitaria. 

Hab. in rnpibus et faxis apucl Cromer, Norfolcias. 

3 This 

the generic Character of Viva, i::. 55 

This beautiful fpecies was found on the beach at Yarmouth by 
Mr. Wiggf at the fame time with the preceding one ; but has fnice 
been discovered growing on the rocks at Cromer, on the Norfolk 
coaft. It very much refembles fome of the varieties oiFucus ciliatus t 
particularly that which is called by Gmelin ligulatus, and has doubt- 
lefs been confounded with it; but the fructification not only proves 
it to be a very different plant, but alfo points it out clearly as be- 
longing to the genus ITfoa, It differs alfo effentially in never 
having the ligulated proceffes, nor any part of the frond armed with 
cilia. This fpecies varies very much in fubftance, being fometimes 
found extremely thin and tender, and at others almoft approaching 
to cartilaginous. The frond moft frequently branches directly from 
the root, and is dichotomoufly divided throughout; but fometimes 
it is entire for half its length, and then is divided, in a palmated 
form, into three or four fegments, which are again branched and 
fubdivided. In either cafe, the fegments are always linear, the ter- 
minations bifid, and ufually acute, and the margins clothed with 
ligulated proceffes of the fame fubftance as the reft of the frond. 
Immediately above the root it is always extremely narrow, pro- 
ceeding as it were from a point, but is directly dilated, which gives 
the whole a cuneated form. The fruct ifkation confifts of minute 
dark red grains or feeds, always fingle, but thickly fcattered on both 
fides of the frond. 

Ulva decorticata — fronde tereti ramofa, ramis fubdichotomis : 
apice attenuatis obtufis. Species nova. 

Radix nulla nifi bafis frondis paululum explanata — Frons 
teres, prope bafin ramofa, 6-pedaliset ultra, 4lineas lata — Rami 
longiffimi, femel vel bis nee ultra dichotomi, ad bafin et ad d:- 
ehotomiam compreffi,casterum filiformes, apice attenuati obtufi. 

— Substantia 

56 Mr, Woodward'.? Obfervations upon 

— Subftantia frondis interna cartilagineo-gelatinofa, undique 
materie fpongiofa, granulis innumcrabilibus minutis congeftis 
repleta, cooperta. Cortex exterior leu epidermis nulla adeft— 
Color fuperioris partis viridis, inferioris fordide albefcens. 

Hab. in mari Mediterraneo. 

A fingle fpecimen only of this curious and certainly nondefcript 
Alga was received by Mr. Wigg from the Mediterranean, along 
with fome other marine plants; but of the particular place of 
growth he could obtain no certain information. It had fo much 
the habit and appearance of Fucus /oreus, that it was at fir ft looked 
upon as a fpecimen of that plant, overgrown and fpoiled hyFluJira 
fiilofa. On putting it into water, it loft its comprefTed, and afiumed 
a round form; and it was then obferved that the whole furface was 
compofed of minute granulations, which had, whilft it was dry, given 
it that roughnefs of appearance, but which in reality more refem- 
bled a woollinefs or hairinefs than the Flujira filofa. From a care- 
ful examination of it in this fituation, the above fpecific character 
and defcription were drawn up; and from the very Angular circum- 
fiance of the exterior granulations appearing entirely naked, and 
not being covered by any outer coat or epidermis whatever, the 
trivial name p£ decortkata was given to it. The whole length of 
this particular fpecimen is fix feet fix inches ; the breadth of the 
largeft branch, where uncompreffed, four lines. There is no ap- 
pearance of any root, but the bafe of the frond is expanded, and by 
this it has evidently adhered to its place of growth. Near the bale 
it is branched into three or four or more parts ; one of thefe is 
very fhort; two others are dichotomoufly divided at about fix. 
inches from their origin, after which they continue fimple to their 
terminations. The longeft branch, or, as it may be confidered, 


the generic Characler of Uha, &c. 57 

the principal frond, after being once divided near the bifc, con- 
tinues fimplc for three feet, when it becomes dichotomous, and 
thefe branches then continue undivided to the end. The whole 
plant is nearly round and filiform, except that the branches arc 
comprefTed at their origin* and again above and below the angles of 
their dichotomy. The ends of the branches are attenuated, and 
terminate obtufely. In Jubilance it differs from all other known 
marine Alga ; the central part is folid and cartilaginous, but at the 
fame time fomewhat gelatinous ; this is every where furrounded and 
covered with a fpongy mafs filled with minute granulations, and 
entirely deflitute of any outer (kin; in confequence of which it 
retains water like a fponge, and the whole furface has a rough and 
uneven appearance. It may perhaps-be objected, that this fpecics 
does not fufficiently agree with the nat. char, the fru&ification 
appearing entirely naked : but although it has that appearance, it 
is in reality all imbedded in the fpongy lubftance of which the 
greater part of the frond is compofed, but from the want of an 
epidermis the exterior granulations mull neceffarily appear to be 
fituated on the furface, and not beneath it. It might alio be fup- 
pofed, that the outer part containing the granulations is paralitica!, 
and formed upon i'omefucus or other plant belonging to the A/g,c; 
but, befides that no paralite is ever known fo entirely to cover the 
living plant on which it grows, that no part by which it might be 
difcovered is left naked, the fpongy matter containing the granu- 
lations fo abfolutely proceeds from, and forms a part of, the more 
folid centre, that with the utmoft care and attention in difleclin;*- 
it has not been pofTible abfolutely to feparate them, and no doubt 
can poflibly remain of their forming one entire and perfect plant. 
The central part is green, the reft of the internal lubftance whitifh ; 
of the furface, one half, which isfuppofedto be what in floating, or 
when left by the tide, is uppermoit, is green, the other part dirty white. 
Vol. III. I From 

58 Mr, Woodward'j Observations upon the generic Char abler ofUlva, 

From the very extended length of this plant, it is fcarcely 
pofTible to give a plate which (hall be a fufriciently accurate repre- 
fentation of it ; but from its totally diflimilar appearance to every 
other known fpecies of Uha, and from its fimiiarity in habit to 
Fucus kreus, although it is more branched towards the bafe, and 
much more fimple upwards than that Fucus, it is hoped that 
the foregoing ample defcription and hiftory of the plant will be 
abundantly fufficient to diftinguifh it, when it mall again be 
brought under obfervation. 

XIII. Account 

( 59 ) 

XIII. Account of a Species of Bark y the Original ^uina-Qiina of Pern, 
fent over by Monf. de la Condamine to Cromwell Mortimer, Efq. Sec. R. 
Soc. about 1749. Communicated to A. B. Lambert, Efq* F. R. S. 
V. P. L. S. by John Hawkrts, Efq. of Dorchcjler, 

Read December 4, 1794. 

THERE is a famous tree, befides the Peruvian bark [Cinchona 
officinalis of Linnaeus), known in feveral provinces of South 
America under the name of £>uina-£>uina, and in the province of 
Maynas on the banks of the river Marannon under that of Tatchi. 
A fragrant refin diftills from the trunk by means of an incifion. 
The feeds, called by the Spaniards Pepiias de ^u'ma-^uina t have the 
form of beans, or of flat almonds, and are enclofed in a kind of 
doubled leaf, between which and the feed is found a little of the 
fame refin that diftills from the tree. Their chief ufe is to make 
fumigations, which are reputed cordial and wholefome, but their 
reputation is much lefs now than formerly. 

This tree grows plentifully in feveral provinces of High Peru, as 
in the neighbourhood of Chucuifaca or La Plata, Tarija, Mifque, 
Lipes, &c. The natives make rolls or mafles of the refin, which 
they fell at Potofi and Chucuifaca, where they ferve not only to 
fumigate or perfume with, but alfo for feveral other ufes in phyfic, 
fometimes under the form of a plaifter, fometimes under that of a 
compound oil made from the refin. This fubfrance is fuppofed to 

1 2 promote 

60 Mr, Hawk ins* j Account of a Species of Bark, 

promote perfpiration, ftrengthen the nerves, and to reftore the 
motion of the joints in gouty people, by barely carrying in the hand 
and continually handling it, without any preparation, of which 
many inftances are recorded. The Turks apply their Caddarum to 
the very fame ufe. 

It is wonderful, that the bark of Loxa {Cinchona officinalis) iliould 
have been called in Europe, and every other part of the world 
except its native place, by the name of ^uina-^uina, which, name 
properly belongs to the tree we are mentioning, always called §>uina- 
£>uina by the natives, and afterwards by the Spaniards when they 
firft became acquainted with it. Among the feveral virtues attri- 
buted to this tree, the molt confiderable is that of its bark, which 
paffed for an excellent febrifuge, and before the difcovery of the 
tree of Loxa was in great repute for curing tertian agues, &c. The 
jefuits of La Paz or Ghucuyapu gathered its bark,, which is ia- 
tenfely bitter, very carefully, and ufed to fend it to Rome, where 
it was diftributed under the true name of ^uina-^uina, and ufed 
for the cure of intermittent fevers. It feems that the bark of 
Loxa having palled into Europe, particularly to Rome, by the 
fame means, the new febrifuge has been confounded with the old 
one, and that of Loxa having been mod ufed, has retained the name 
of the firft> which is now-a-days. almoft entirely forgotten. The 
name Cafcari/la, or fmall bark, given to that of Loxa, feems to have 
been invented in order -to diftinguiih it from ibme other, undoubt- 
edly the ancient £{ui?ia-£>r/.ina. 

Tab. 12 represents the ancient %uina-%u'ma etched by Mr. 
Hawkins from the original fpecimen in 1 741, and which is here re- 
engraved, the old plate being loft. The ftalk (A) is triangular, 
r. 11 rowed and pithy, emitting branches alternately, with a leafy 

.' /,„,,- J >„*.^-XlL. /?,/<>./ JO. 

Sut/UZ. .///tf'l 

the Original ^uhia-^uina of Peru. 6l 

wing running along every angle, like a three-edged fword-blade, 
terminating here and there in a rounded form. Thefe wings are 
thick, and curioufly veined. When fteeped in hot water, in order 
to expand them, they became covered all over with a white pow- 
dery fubflance (probably from the refin which the water could not 
diiToive). (B) is a tranfverfe feclion of the Item and leaves ; (G) the 
feeds, of a brown colour and woody fubflance. 

XIV. Natural 

( 62 ) 


XIV. Natural Hljlory of Perca Scandens. By Lieutenant Daldorjf, of 
^Tranquebar. Communicated By Sir Jofeph Banks, Bart. K, B. P. R. & 
H. M. L. S. 


Read January 6, 1795. 

ERG A fcandens {Senna!, Malab.) Nova fpecies fecundae fut> 
divifionis : dorfo monopterygio, cauda indivifa : forfan in- 
ferenda pone fpeciem nonam Syft. Linnaeani ex editione decima- 
tertia ; aut pone fpeciem decimam-quintam in editione Syfle- 
matis Linn, curante Gmelino. 

Differentia fpecifica. 

P. pinnae dorfalis radiis fpinofis feptendecim; muticis o&o; 
fquamis (fcabris) margine denticulate albido. 


Palmaris ; mucore tenaci nigro obducta ; fupra obfcure viridis, 

dein lucidior, fubtus pallide aurea. 

Os utrimque ante labia denticulatum. 

Frons, poris ordinate difpofitis ; fquamis margine albido integro. 

Oculi laterales plani ; iride nitide aurea ; pupilla magna nigra. 

Operculum branchioftegum fquamofum, fubtriphyllum ; lobo porti- 
co fuperiore cincto fpinis viginti-tribus, intermediis longioribus ; 
inferiore fpinis quindecim. 

Pinna dorfalis complicata in foffula dorfi abfconditur. 

1 Pinnx 

Lieut. DaldorffV Natural Hlflorf of the Perca Scandem. 63 

Pinna* pectorales oblongx obtufas ; radiis duodecim. 

Pinnae ventrales fex-radiatae, fubconnatas, rubefcentes ; radio primo 

Pinna analis in foflulam corporis complicatilis ; radiis fpinofis de- 
cern, muticis otto. 

Pinna caudalis iubrotundata ; radiis feptendecim bifidis. 

Locus, Tempos ac Mores. 

Capta Tranquebarias circa Id. Novemb. 1791* propriis manibus in 
rivulo defluente ex BoraJJi jtabelliformis fronde in lata corticis flMura. 
Arbor ftagno vicina. Pifcis inhaerens fiffurae quinque pedes et ultra 
fupra ftagnum elatus fub ipfis meis oculis altius afcendere anniteba- 
tur» Spinis branch ioftegorum expanforum utrinque fiiTuraj parietes 
attingentibus fufpenfus, caudam torquebat finiftrofum ; fpinulifque 
pinnae analis parieti fiflura*. adpreffis, firm i (Time illis infiftcns altius 
fe afFerebat per corporis expanfionem, branchioftegis corpori appli- 
catis : quibus iterum expanfis altius quam antea fe in corticis fiflura 
tenebat. Eoque modo fpinofos radios pinnae dorfalis mox ad dex- 
trum mox ad finiftrum latus cortici infigens, continuebat iter, quod 
meis demum manibus impediebatur. Vita videtur tenacuTima : per 
plures enim horas fub teclo in ficca arena eodem modo quo antea 
fcanderat arborem obambulabat. Operculorum fpinae ab incolis ve- 
nenata exiftimantur. 

XV. Th* 

( 64 ) 

XV. Thefpecific Charatlers of fame minute Shells difcovered on the Coafi 
of Pcmbrokcfiire, with an Account of a new marine Animal. By John 
Adams y Ffq. F. L. S. 

Read January 6, 1 79 5. 


I HAVE the honour to offer to the attention of the Linnaean 
Society the fpecific characters of the following minute {hells 
collected in the fea fand on the coaft of Pembrokeshire, and I be- 
lieve hitherto unnoticed by our BritiiTi Conchoiogifts. 

Arca. Svft. Nat. 312. 
minuta, A. tefta fubrotunda : flriis concentricis, margine integro. 

Obf. Color albus. 

Buccinum. Syft. Nat. 33. 

breve, 1. B. tefta quinque an fractious : longitudinaliter co£- 

tatis : traniverfim ftriatis. 

Obf. Color albus opacus, cauda breviffima. 
Tab. 13. fg. 3, 4. 
minutum, 2. B. tribus anfractibus : longitudinaliter coftatis. 

Obf. Color albus opacus. Fig. 5, 6. 
lucve. 3. B. tefta laevi tribus anfractibus, cauda elongata. 

Obf. Color albus opacus ; anfractus primus fe- 
cundo multo ventricoflor ; apertura ovalis. Fig. 



Mr. AdamsV Specific Characters of /pine minute S'jc'ls, &C. 65 

chtuJUJlmum. 4, B. tefta Levi, tribus anfraclibus, apertura coar&ata, 
cauda elongata. 

Obi. A prxcedente differt ct in aperturae for- 
ma, et quod anfraclus ipfi funt quam proximo 
magnitudinis aequalis. Tig* 9, 10. 

Murex. Syjl. Nat. 325. 

m'inutijjhnus. M. quinque anfractibus fpiraliter ftriatis, coftis remotis, 
canali claufo. 

Obf. Tefta elegans pellucida. 

Trochus. Syjl. Nat. 326. 

parvus. T. tefta conica impcrforata quatuor aufra&ibus tu- 


Obf. Color albus. 

Turbo. Syjl. Nat. 327. 

* imperforate opaci. 

nitidus. I. T. tefta lasvi quatuor anfradtibus, apertura ovali. 

Obf. Tefta obtufa. 
fcriptus. 2. T. tefta lazvi tribus anfraetibus, lineis fufcis cha- 

rac"teriformibus, apertura fubrotunda. 

Obf. Iftas linear lineis Lichenis fcripti omnino 
fimiles. Fig. 11, 12. 
cojlatus. 3. T. quatuor anfraetibus profundi longitudinaliter 

coftatis : tranfverfim ftriatis, apertura ovali. 

Obf. Color albus, apertura marginata, coftae ipfae 
nitidiftima?. Fig, 13, 14. 
fubluteus. 4. T. quinque anfraetibus lcngitudinaliter coftatis, 

apertura rotunda marginata. Fig^T^, 16. 
Vol. III. K albus. 

66 Mr. Aifhutf s Specific Characters of feme minute Shells 

albus. 5. T. quinque anfraclibus longitudinaliter coftatis*, 

apertura fubrotunda. 

Obf. A prgecedente differt, quod apertura non- 
marginata eft. Fig. 17, 18. 
reticulatus. 6. T. quatuor anfraclibus reticularis, apertura fubro- 

Obf. Color albus. Fig. 19, 20. 
ruber. 7. T. tefta lazvi quinque anfraclibus, apertura fubro- 

tunda. Fig. 21, 22. 

* * imperforati pellucidi. 
inierftinBius. 8. T. tefta lasvi quinque anfraclibus cofta tenui inter- 

Obf. Color albus, apertura fubrotunda. Fig.. 
23, 24. 
friatus. 9. T. quinque anfraclibus fpiraliter ftriatis, apertura 


Obf. Color albus. Tefta perelegans. Fig. 25, 26. 
fubarcuafus. 10. T. decern anfraclibus longitudinaliter coftatis, tefta 
ad apicem fubarcuata. 
Obf. Color albus. Fig. 27, 28. 
areus. 1 1. T. fex anfractibus longitudinaliter coftatis, aper- 

tura fubovali. 

Obf. Color inter coftas aureus, coftae ipfae albae, 
Fjg. 29, 30. 
elegans. 1 2. T. fex anfraclibus fpiraliter ftriatis, coftis remotis, 

apertura ovali. Fig. 31, 32. 
pdluciduu 13. T. quinque anfraclibus reticulars, apertura fubro- 

Obf. Color albus. Fig. ^3, 34. 


dtf covered on the Coqfl of Pembrokeshire, &c. 


Helix. Syft. Nat. 328. 
iubulatus. 1. H. tribus anfrattibus longitudinaliter ftriatis. 

Obf. Singularis hac in fpecie eft conftructio, nam 
tefta, umbilici loco, tubo marginato qui extra tefta? 
fuperficiem extenditur, inftructa eft. Fig. 35, 36. 
variegata. 2. H. tefta lasvi quatuor anfractibus, primo ventrico- 
fiore, lineis rubris notatis. 

Obf. Bali imperforata. Tefta fubpellucida, aper- 
ture margine patentiffima. 

Nerita. Syft. Nat. 329. 

pel/ucida. 1. N. tefta lam pellucida, anfractibus tribus. 
alba, 2. N. tefta lasvi fubpellucida, duobus anfra&ibus. 

The following Marine Animal appears to conftitute a new genus 

among the Fermes Zoophyia. 

Gener. Char. Corpus teres articulatum ; os terminale, tentacula 

fanguinea. D. — Tab. 13. f. 1, 2, 


THIS fingular animal is of a cylindrical form, gradually de- 
creafing to the anus, and terminating in an acute point. It is com- 
pofed of joints, and capable of the greateft flexibility : the body is com- 
posed of an external membranaceous tranfparent coat, that furrounds 
the internal parts ; which are rendered vifible by the pellucidnefs 
of the covering. The head is extended beyond the outer fkin, and 

K 1 is 

68 Mr. AdamsV Specific Characters qfjbme nimute Shells 

is lefs than the anterior extremity of the body, to which it is con- 
needed by the membranaceous covering of the head forming a neck : 
on the top are fituated two white cylindrical tentacula, capable of being 
elevated or deprefied at pleafure : the mouth confifts of two lips ; 
the lower one ftraight and fixed, the upper one hooked and move- 
able : when the animal is at reft it is open, but is frequently clofed 
with wonderful quicknefs, probably to fecure the animalcula on 
which it may be prefumed to feed. 

The internal ftructure is compofed of a fimple alimentary canal, 
fomewhat larger in the joints ; this increafe of fize in thofe particu- 
lar parts originates, as I conceive, in its being attached by tranf- 
verfe proceiTes to the external coat in the articulations, for the 
purpofe of keeping this long inteftine fteady : a fimilar contrivance 
is obfervable in the genus Echinus ; it is capable of partial dilatation 
between the joints only, which is an additional proof of its being 
faftened there. The animal moves by an undulatory motion of 
the whole body. 

Though the liberality of Sir Jofeph Banks has enabled me to 
confult his extenfive collection, I have not been able to meet with 
any author who has defcribed a marine animal refembling this^ 
In this cafe it feemed moft eligible to make it a diftincl: genus ; to 
which, from the truly membranaceous fubftance of this fpecies, I 
have given the title of Tkfris^ 

E X P L. of TAB. 13, 

Fig. 1. Derris fanguinea of the natural fize. 
2. The head magnified. 
3, 4. Buccinum breve. 
5, 6. Buccinum minutum. 

Fig. 7, 8. 

£mm J/><zru> Ht- tad. t3.Jki.6S. 





6 \y 6 

u <7 

06 'J 


n6 sj 

24 «3 




s+ jw 


*? 2^ 



dJJcovcred en the Coafl $f ' Pembrolzepire^ &c, 69 

Fig. 7, 8. Buccinum \xvc. 

9, 10. B. obtufiffimum. 

11,12. Turbo fcriptus. 

13, 14. Turbo coftatus. 

15, 16. Turbo fubluteus* 

17, 18. Turbo albus. 

19, 20. Turbo reticulatus. 

21, 22. Turbo ruber. 

23, 24. Turbo interftin&us. 

25, 26. Turbo ftriatus. 

27, 28. Turbo fub-arcuatus, 

29, 30. Turbo aereus. 

31, 32. Turbo elegans. 

33, 34. Turbo pellucidus. 

35, 36. Helix tubulatus. 

37, &c. See page 45. 

XVI. On 

( 7o ) 

XVI. On the Latin Terms ufed in Natural Hiftory. By the Rev. John 

Brand, A. M. A. L. S. 

Read January 6, 1795, 

THE Latin has been adopted as the language of natural hiftory ; 
but the latinity of the natural hiftorians has undergone no 
fmall cenfure. 

By the adoption of the Latin as the common language of the 
fcience, in the degree in which it obtains, new difcoveries in 
it are propagated with great facility. Other branches of philo- 
fophy have not had the fame good fortune ; and every European 
nation is become philofophicaJ : and thus, as Monf. D'Alembert 
has obferved, he who devotes himfelf to the cultivation of any one 
of them, if he would keep his knowledge up to the level of its 
ft ate, is reduced to the neceflity of flinging away a very valuable 
part of his life, in acquiring feven or eight languages. 

But the latinity of the terms in which natural hiftory is written, 
has been cenfured : upon this charge the following remarks may be 

Such terms muft be either primitives or derivatives ; now either 
of thefe may be barbarifms, when not found in any good Latin 
author ; or improprieties (verba impropria, %/W.), when, although 
£0 found, they are not to be found ufed in the fame fenfe. This 


Mr. Brand*/ Obfcrvations on the Latin Terms ufcd In Nat, H:Jl. 71 

muft be admitted: but it is here contended, that it does not on 
this account alone follow that they are fo. This is proved from the 
practice of the ancient grammarians in the invention of technical 
terms, in conj unci ion with the authority of Tully. 

Firft, the ufe of a Latin primitive or derivative, in a fenfe in which 
it does not occur in any pure Roman writer, is not neceflariiy an 
impropriety, technically fo called ; for if a confiderable variation 
from fuch an eftablifhed fenfe were fo> the very grammatical terms 
of the Roman writers would fall under that cenfure, as for inftance 
(arlkulus). an article, (yerbum) a verb. When thefe terms were fir ft 
ufed by grammarians, there was a great variation from their pre- 
eftablifhed fenfe, and their primary fignifications — a joint, a word. 

It is likewife certain, that if grammar had not been reduced into 
an art among the Romans, thefe terms would not have been now 
found in their technical fenfes in their writings. And if a writer 
of this age, having reduced the art into a fyftem, had prefented the 
world with the firft Latin Grammar, and had given the fame names, 
verbum, articulus, to the fame things, his offence againft pure latinity, 
or the pre-eftablifhed good ufe of thofe words, would have been of 
the fame magnitude as that of the original Latin grammarians, and 
no more ; the fame innovations in a language, living or dead, 
being of equal quality : yet the charge againft the propriety of the 
terms ufed by fuch a writer, would be the fame in kind as that 
brought againft the natural hiftorians; but it mu ft have fallen to 
the ground — nor would it have been in degree lefs ftrong ; for bolder 
extenfions in the fenfe of Latin terms, are not, that I recollect, to 
be found in the Lexicon of our technical language. Thefe fafti- 
dious grammatical exceptions are, in principle, exceptions both to 
the art and the philofophy of grammar. If the naturalifts err in 
this point, they err with the grammatical fathers (cum fatribus). 

3 Secondly, 

J2 Mr. Br and' j Obfervatkns on the Latin Terms 

Secondly, What I have to fay about derivatives not ufed in 
Latin writers, will be contained in a fhort comment on a paffage in 
the Academic Queftions of Cicero, where he afferts the rights and 
privileges of thofe who treat on philofophical fubjecrs in a language 
not yet enriched with proper terms, and exemplifies his principles 
in the formation of a new derivative, an authority from which I 
apprehend no appeal will be made. The tranflation of this paffage 
is as follows. The original is placed at the end of this article *. 

Varro. * You will allow me the fame liberty which has always 

* been affumed by the Greeks, who have long purfued thefe re- 

* fearches ; that to imufual fubjects I may apply terms which never have 
' been in ufe. 

Aniens, * Certainly : but if our Latin language will not fur- 

* nifh them, you may have recourfe to the Greek, 

Varro. ' I am obliged to you ; but I will endeavour to exprefs 

* myfelf in Latin, confining myfelf to fuch terms of Greek deriva- 

* tion as are already naturalized among us, as philofophy, rhetoric, 
6 phyfics, dialectics. I have therefore formed the new term ^ualitas, 

* to exprefs the fenfe of the Greek word YIqiqtm ; which even among 

* them is not a word of common ufe, but confined to the philofo- 

* pliers. In like manner, none of the terms of the logicians are 
c found in the popular language ; and the fame is true of the terms 
■ of almoft all the arts : to new things new names muft be given, or 
1 thofe of others transferred to them. If the Greeks take this liberty, 
' who have cultivated the fciences for ages, how much fir anger is the 

* reafon it fiould be granted to us, in our firfi attempt to treat upon them ! 

Cicero. ' It feems to me, that you will do a woik of utility to the 
4 public, if you not only increafe the flock of our ideas, which you have aU 

* ready done, but alfo that of our words, 


ufed In Natural Hi/lory, 73 

Parro. c We fhall therefore hazard the ufe of new words when 
necefTary, and by your authority.' 

And where the fame necelTity, arifmg from the fame fource, ex- 
ifts, the lame liberty is to be taken. And as Cicero, on this point, 
is an unexceptionable authority, let us examine his practice, to fee to 
what degree it may be carried. The word QuaTttas, derived from 
^uak, is now familiarized to the ear. The fir ft boldnefs of this 
derivative is only perceived by reflection ; but its degree will (hike us 
more immediately, if we take the Engliih words ivbnt, or fitch (as), 
which anfwerto the Latin pronominal adjective S$uale 9 and add one 
of the fubltantive terminations [hood] or [nefs] to either, to make 
a philofophical term of it. I alk the fevere grammarians, who 
proteft again ft the clafs of new derivatives in the philofophical 
language of Linnaeus, to produce among them a bolder example of 
the creation of anew term. 

And by the fame authority, we may defend his impofing new 
fijmifications on old words ; for in a few lines after the conclu- 
fion of the extract, there occurs a liberty of this kind, and as re- 
markable as the former ; for Cicero there gives a new fenfe to the 
pronominal adjective %uale 9 in correfpondence to that of his new de- 
rivative Qualitas ; ufmg it fubftantively to fignify any being or thing, 
as compounded of fubftance and accident, or matter and qualities : 
" Et itaefFeci quae appellant qualia ; e quibus in omni natura co- 
'* haerente, et continuata cum omnibus fuis partibus, effectum effe 
" mundum." 

It deferves to be remarked refpecting thefe innovations, that 
this aiTertion of the legitimacy of the practice in all like cafes is 
here put by Cicero into the mouth of Varro, the greateit critic and 
grammarian of the Auguflan age; who wrote on the Latin lan- 
guage, and addrefted his works to Cicero himfelf. 

Vol. III. L Hence 

74 Mr, Brand'j Objervatwm on the Latin Terms 

Hence it appears, that philofophy is not retrained to the ufe of 
the common terms of any language ; nor, for the fame reafon, to 
thofe of the hiftorians, orators, dramatic writers, poets, &c. of that 
language, either fepaiately or conjointly: but, as every art has 
terms of its own,fo has every branch of fcience. 

That he who enriches any fcience with. a number of new difco- 
veries, confers a fecond general benefit, by enriching the language 
in which he treats of them, by all fuch terms as fhall be requifite tc* 
do it in the bed manner. 

Cicero, repeating his new term quality^ adds with great philofo- 
phical pleafantry, " Faciamus traclando ufitatius hoc verbum, et 
tritius." And it may be faid of the terms of natural hiftory, that 
our elegant claflical fcholars will find their afperities wear off very 
foon, if, by adding to their former acquifitions a knowledge of this 
new philofophy, they make themfelves practically verfed in the 
ufe of them. There may remain fome precifely defcriptive, which 
may be yet added ; fome reformation may be wanted in thofe which 
may have been haftily adopted ; and from them we may expect it. 

It is to^be obferved, that thefe arguments defend the liberty, not 
the licentioufnefs, of introducing new terms ; and defend it upon 
the footing of necefhty only ; and therefore extend that liberty no 
further than fuch neceGTity actually extends. 

I had thought to have finifhed here; but having made fo much 
ufe of the authority of the great ornament of the Roman forum, 
the fentiments of the elegant expofitor of our own laws on this 
fubject are not to be pafTed by. Thefe, with a minute change to 
avoid the introduction of frefh matter, are as follows : " This is a 
" technical language calculated for eternal duration, and eafy to be 
H apprehended both in prefent and future times ; and on thefe ac- 
" counts beft fuited to preferve thofe memorials which are intended 

" to 

ufed in Natural Hz/lory. 75 

" to perpetuate [every difcovery in natural &ijlory\. It is true indeed, 
<c that many of the terms of art with which it abounds, may, as 
u Mr. Selden obferves, give offence to fome grammatical and 
" fqueamifti ftomachs, who would rather choofe to live in igno- 
" ranee of things mod ufeful and important, than to have their 
** delicate ears wounded by the ufe of a word unknown to Cicero, 
" Salluft, or the other writers of the Auguftan age §." 

* Cic. Op. omnia, Gronovii. Acad. Queft. L. 1. 

24. *** Dabitis enim profecto, ut in rebus inufitatis, quod Gracci 
ipfi faciunt, a quibus hxc jamdiu traetantur, utamur verbis inter dum 

25. Nos vero, inquit Atticus. S%u'm etiam Grarcis licebit utare, 
cum voles, Ji te Latina forte deficient. Bene fane facis : fed enitar ut 
Latine loquar, nifi in hnjus modi verbis, ut philofophiam, aut 
rhetoricam, aut phyficam, aut dialeclicam appellem, quibus, ut aliis 
multis, confuetudo jam utitur pro Latinis. Qualitates igitur ap- 
pellavi, quas vroioivias Grasci vocant: quod ipfum apud Graecos 
non eft vulgi verbum, fed philofophorum, atque id in multis. 
Dialecticorum vero verba nulla funt publica ; fuis utuntur. Et id 
quidem commune omnium fere eft artium. Aut enim nova funt 
rerum novarum facienda nomina, aut ex aliis transferenda, quod ft 
Gract faciunt, qui in iis rebus tot jam fcecula verfantur, quanto id magis 
nobis concedendum efl, qui hac nunc pri mum traclare conamur ? 

26. Tu vero, inquam, Varro, bene etiam meriturus mihi vide- 
ris, de tuis civibus, ft eos non modo copia rerum auxeris ut effecifli^ fed 
etiam verborum. Audebimus ergo, inquit, novis verbis uti, re auc- 
tore. * * 

$ Blackftonc's Commentaries, book Hi. ch. 2r. 

L 2 XVII. Ad- 

( 76 ) 


XV1L Additional Obfervatlom on the Bri'tjjb Species of Car ex. By the 
Rev. Samuel Goodencugh^ LL. D. F.R. S. <Tr, L. S. 

Read January 6, 1795. 

IT was not to be expelled that, in treating on this fubject, I could 
at once collect every article of information necefTary to be men- 
tioned, or that I could be aware of all the minute variations which 
take place from foil, from fituation, and from climate, in fuch a 
variable genus as Car ex is. In my former paper * I endeavoured to 
notice as many of thefe as I could without being troubiefome from 
unreasonable minutenefs. 

Some general perplexities of this fort will prefent themfelves to 
all accurate obfervers, — fuch as refpect the length of the foliaceous 
bradlecZ) which are fcarcely in any one fpecies abfolutely conftant — 
the appearance of male flowers in the female fpikes — -the pro- 
portion of the peduncle of the female fpikes, which in fome fpecies 
is for the moft part feflile, and yet at times is found of very confi- 
derable length, as happens particularly in C.Jlava, — and the divifion 
of the capfules at the fummit, which in many fpecies are for the 
moft part clofed, and yet not unfrequently are found divided : — all 
thefe matters muft be fubmitted to the tafte and judgment of natu- 
ralifts, who may be difpofed to ftudy the fubject with candour. 
I have ftated axillaris as having the capfule divided at the fummit, 

* Linn. Tranf. vol. ii. p. 126. 
4 and 

Dr. Goodenough'j Additional ' Objervations y &c. 77 

*and remcta, as having it entire; but this is not conftant. I be- 
lieve all Carices difpole of their feeds by the opening of the point of 
their capfule. This opening is obfervable in iome very early, in 
others not till quite old. In the former, the capfule is defciibed as 
opening ; in the latter, becaufe it is not feen but in very advanced 
age, it is mentioned as doled. 

When I inferted C.fuha as a diftincTb fpecies, I did it in confe- 
quence of a variety of fpecimens fent me by my friend Mr. Wil- 
liams; all of which being nearly the fame as that rcprefentcd in the 
figure given in my former paper, and entirely correfponding with 
my foreign fpecimens, all of the fame growth and form, I con- 
cluded that I had nothing further to dilcover. Mr. Williams has 
fince that fent me fpecimens of more forward growth, which prove 
it to be a variety of C. jiava. In the figure of my former paper, it 
is reprefented with three female fpikes ; it very feldom has more than 
two. I would wifh therefore to correct the article of C. fulva, and 
make it a variety of C. Jiava. 

C. Jiava — Var. /3, fpicis fcemineis duabus. 

In my former paper, p. 209, I fpoke very indeterminately about a 
Carex given me by the late Rev. Mr. Lightfoot. All the fpikes in 
thole fpecimens being androgynous, I imagined them to be axillaris : 
however, my friend Mr. Pitchford of Norwich has lately fent me 
fpecimens of more complete growth, and I am now convinced that 
they belong to C. extenfa. Mr. Pitchford acquaints me, that they 
were found by the Rev. Mr. Bryant, near Cley, in Norfolk, in very 
dry fandy ground. He tells me, that Mr. Bryant fent fpecimens to 
Mr. Lightfoot ; mod probably, therefore, thofe which I received 
from him were fent him by Mr. Bryant. I underftood at the time, 
that Mr. Lightfoot had found them in Scotland; but as I had no 
intention of writing upon the fubjec~t, it is very poflible that I was 


78 Dr. Goodenough'j additional Obfervations on 

not fo accurate as I ought to have been in ascertaining its place 
of growth. 

The fpecimens of C. extenfa which I found grew in wet places, 
were large, and very decidedly of the order fpicis fexu diflinclis, 
Thofe fent me by Mr. Pitchford, from their dry fituation, are from 
two to nine inches high ; fome have no male fpike at all, and fome 
have the male fpike with a few female flowers at the bafe ; but the 
capfules and the fquamae retain their characteriflic form. 

I have the pleafure of adding another hitherto unknown fpecies 
to my divinon, 

Spins fexu diftinSlis : Mafcula unica : bracteis foliaceis & plerum- 
que vaginantibus. 

38. Carex pulla. Tab. 14. 

C. Digyna, vaginis nullis, fpicis ovatis, inferioripedunculata, cap- 
fulis ovatis mucronatis, mucrone bifurco. 
Habitat in montibus Scoticis. D. Dick fori. 

Radix crafTa repens. Folia angufta crectiufcula ad margines cari- 
namque afpera, culmo plerumque breviora, modo asquant, in- 
terdum exfuperant. Culmus fuberectus circiter dodrantalis, 
triqueter, angulis acutis fcabriufculis. Spica, una mafcula, doae 
foemineae remotae. Spica mafcula terminalis oblonga femun- 
cialis fulva, fquamis oblongo-ovatis acutiufculis, nervo obfo- 
letiufculo. Spica fceminea fuperior fub-feflfilis fubrotunda, 
bra£lea brevi membranacea aphylla nigra, ovata acuta nervo 
dorfali viridi ; inferior fub-ovalis pedunculata, pedunculo tenui 
fpica fua longiori. Ad bafin pedunculi, bractea foliacea, cul- 
mo brevior vix ac ne vix pedunculum amplectens, utrinque ad 
bafin auriculata, auricula parva fubrotunda. Squamae ut in 

5 f P icS 

/,„„ .;,„,,., ui /„/■ 1*. /> y« 

the Briti/h Species of Car ex. 79 

fpica. mafcula, fed nigricantes, capfulis paulo breviores. Capfula 
glabrae ovatae inflatiufculse comprefTiufculac obtufae mucronatae, 
mucrone brevi furcato, mox nigrae. Filamenta ut in caeteris. 
Stylus ftigmatibus duobus craffiuiculis villofis. 

Ohf. Variat fpicis duabus, una mafcula, altera fceminea. Eft 

ubi duae fpicse mafculse occurrunt. Interdum fpica terminalis 

androgyna evadit. 

My catalogue of the Britifh fpecies of Carex is enriched with this 

valuable plant through the active fpirit of Mr. Dickfon. Its having 

flowers with only two fiyles, at once unites it with Ctifpitofa,Jlri£la 

£5 rigida ; but its lowermoft fpike having a long peduncle, and the 

capiules being mucronated, with a point bifid and fomewhat forked, 

keep it diftinct from either of them. When it has only one female 

fpike, it falls in very readily with the Linnean defcription of 

C globtdaris. But that fpecies is taller and flenderer, and befides has 

rough villous capfules — this perfectly fmooth; a mark of the mod 

decifive diicrrnination. 

The fpecimens of various new plants, and efpecially of cryptoga- 
mous ones discovered in Scotland, either by Mr. Dickfon perfonaliy, 
or by perfons incited by him, give us well-grounded hopes, that the 
prefent laudable fpirit of refearch in thar country will in its pro- 
grefs bring ftill new fubjects to light; a circa mflance at all times 
redounding to the honour of any country and any difcoverer. 

My friend Mr. Da vies has informed me, that Carex filijormh is 
to be met with in the Ifle of Angleiea, in the parilh of Lraidegfan ) 
on a fwampy fpot, lying S. W„of Park Pool. 

C. muricata, var. /3, which perhaps is not a common plant, grows 
near Eaton, in Shropfhire, in the banks of the dried ditches, as I 
am informed by my friend Mr. Williams. So lingular a habitation 
deferves notice. Var. «. always prefers moift meadows. 


( 8o ) 

XVIII. A Defer iption of the Porbeagle Shark, the Squalus Cornubicus 
ofGnteliti) Far. a. By the Rev. Samuel Goodenough, LL.D. F.R.S* 
$r. U S. 

Read February 3, 1795. 

MR. Pennant, whofe zoological labours will ever be confidered 
as a prime ornament to the fcience of Natural Hiftory as 
well as his native country, profefles to have had no opportunity 
of feeing this fpecies of Squalus. We lament that fuch copious 
and elaborate works fhould ever be defective in any refpect ; yet, 
whoever has turned his thoughts to fuch compofitions, muft be 
fenfible that deficiencies are unavoidable. To complain of fuch 
omiflions marks the Pfeudo-naturalift. Inftead of noting what has 
not been done, the grateful mind of a true naturalift receives with 
thankfulnefs what is collected for his information ; he is anxious 
to fupply little defects, and feels a laudable pride in making ufe of 
the opportunity. I am induced from motives of this kind, to lay 
before our fociety the defcription of the Porbeagle Shark. 

During my ftay at Haftings in the month of September 1793, 
the fifhermen brought this animal to fhore. My friend the Rev. 
Mr. Whitear (to the ingenuity of whofe fon, Mr. William Whitear, 
I am indebted for the drawing of its figure, which is executed with 
great exactnefs), happening to be at the fea-fide at the time, fecured 



Dr. Goodenough'j- Defer iption of the Porbtagk Shark) tsc. 8i 

it for my inspection. It had been landed about four hours when I 
firfi: favv it. It weighed twenty-fix pounds. 

The length of the body, from the tip of the nofe to the extre- 
mity of the tail, was three feet ten inches. The colour of the body 
was a deep blue on the back, and white or filvery underneath. 
The thape was round, except for about fix inches from the tail, 
where it was dcpieffed. At about one inch from the tail was a 
femicircular or lunar foffule or impreffion, the points towards the 
tail. Where the body was deprefled, the fides were raifed into a 
fharp angle or elevated line. This line was about eight inches 
long, and ran out into the middle of the tail, or fomething more. 

The nofe w r as projecting and fharp. On either fide from the 
nofe to the eyes, were numerous minute perforations or pores. 
The eyes were placed four inches from the point of the nofe, and 
were upon an exact level with the furface of the body. They were 
an inch in diameter, the pupil black, the irides white. Five inches 
and a half behind the eyes were five gills [fpiracula) placed in a re- 
gular feries; the apertures were perpendicular, and about three 
inches long : they occupied a fpace of nearly three inches and a half. 

Immediately behind the gills were the pectoral fins, which were 
eight inches long, and behind of a femilunar form. Six inches 
behind the pectoral fins, the ventral were placed ; they were three 
inches three quarters long, and behind alfo femilunar. Between 
the ventral fins was a longitudinal aperture nearly three inches 
long. Intra fjfuram utrinque mammilla brevis carnofa f cartilagi- 
nea. Four inches behind the ventral fins the anal appeared, one 
inch feven eighths long. It was placed vertically, behind femi- 
lunar. The bafe of the tail was four inches from the anal fin. 
The tail was of a lunar form, vertical, the upper lobe nearly one 
third longer than the lower. 

Vol. III. M Of 

82 Dr. GooDENoughV Defer tption of the Porbeagle Shark, 

Of the dorfal fins, the firft was fifteen inches and three quarters 
from the point of the note; it flood eretl:, four inches and a half 
high, and five and a half long. The fecond was twelve inches be- 
hind this, of the fame length and fize as the anal, to which it 
flood nearly opposite. 

The fkin, when ftroked backwards, was a little rough ifh, and an 
obfolete line of minute tubercles ran from the head down the fides, 
and at length ended in the thick elevated ridge, which took place at 
the depreffion of the body near the tail. 

We have been hitherto fpeaking of the fins and the upper fide of 
the body. 

On the under fide, from the point of the nofe to the noftrils, 
were numerous minute pores or perforations. The noftrils were 
three inches from the point of the nofe, of a lunar form, the extre- 
mities pointing towards the tail. At an inch and one eighth from 
the noftrils, was the higher! part of the curvature of the mouth. 
The mouth was femicircular, about five inches wide. The upper 
jaw had two rows of teeth, except in the front, where the two 
middle ones flood fingle. The under jaw had two rows alfo, ex- 
cept in the front, where the two middle teeth had a triple row. 
The inward row was bent inwards, the others all turned outward. 
The teeth were white, very fharp, fmooth, two-edged, with a little 
acute procefs at the bafe on either fide. This procefs in many lay 
concealed within the gums. The tongue was white, very fhort and 

All the fins were blueifh before and whitifh behind; they were 
alfo all of a firm texture, very flrong, cartilagineous, and to all ap- 
pearance, for I did not difTecl: them, without bone or nerve. 

The genus of Squalus is not well known, owing to the very im- 
perfect defcriptions which we have of them ; this has induced 


_/,-«« .y>rr*td 10 iml-iS.Aisa- 

I 2 & .-» 

II ///,,/,,/rr del 

the Squalus Cornubicus of Gmelin. 83 

me to be fo very particular in my account of this fpecies. If I am 
wrong in fuppofing it the Porbeagle of Mr. Pennant, I can anfwer 
for the exa&nefs of the description. It cannot be the Beaumaris 
Sharks becaufe Mr. Davies (upon whofe confummate accuracy any 
one may implicitly rely) defcribes it with a blunt nofe ; this has a 
fharp one. Upon what authority Gmelin joins the Porbeagle and 
Beaumaris (harks as one fpecies, I do not pretend to know. Per- 
haps it would be advifable that thofe who have opportunities 
fhould examine them very minutely. Gmelin defcribes it as having 
a fold or plait (p/ica) on each fide of the tail. In the prefent fpe- 
cies there was a ftrong elevated line or ridge, but nothing of a plait. 

From the rows of the teeth, the fifliermen who caught it judged 
it to be two years old. My friend Mr. Whitear told me, that he 
has feen them eight feet long, with a triple row of teeth. 

There was nothing in the ftomach. 

The eflential character of this fpecies may be expreflfed as fol- 
lows : 

S. corpore tereti aniice acuto caudam verfus deprejfo et utrinque angu- 

Tab. 15 reprefents an outline of the Squalus Cornubicus t one 
fourth of its natural Tize, 

M 2 XIX. Ob- 

( 84 ) 

XIX. Obfervations on the Britifp Fuci, with particular Deferiptions of 
e-ach Species. By the Rev. Samuel Goodenouzrh, LL. D. F. R. SL 
TV. L. & and Thomas Jenkinfon Woodward \ Efq. LL. B. F. L. S. 

Read April"], 1795. 

GMEL1N, profeiTor of botany in the Imperial Academy at Pe- 
terfburg, and nephew to the celebrated author of Flora Sibirica, 
was the firft who wrote profefiedly upon the hiftory of Fuci. His 
work appeared in 1768. It will ever bear teftimony to his zeal for 
the caufe of natural hiftory, and to his abilities. In his mod ela- 
borate Hijloria generalis he has mentioned almoft every fcientifrc 
remark that had been made before his time. We have/in due 
order, his deferiptions of the root, the fructification, his negative 
generic character, the theory of the immortal Reaumur, with his 
remarks upon the infufficiency of it. Nor does he pafs over unno- 
ticed the philofophical difquifitions on the caufe and origin of 
plants, and their variation in growth ; every where adding his own 
accounts of what he has actually obferved. If he errs any where in 
his ideas, ftill his obfervations, being all practical, are truly valuable. 
Naturalifts cannot keep too clofely in mind the value of actual ob- 
fervation and accurate record ; for all memorabilia of this kind being 
once fet forth, remain, let fyftems vary as they may, inftructive to 
the end of time. The natural figures of a Brunsfelfius will illuftrate 


Dr. Goo de no ugh and Mr. Woodward'; QhfwaUsnsy eft. 8j 

their fubjects in all ages, and an Ariftotle's defcription of the Cham r- 
leon will delineate this curious animal to the molt diftant period. 

Gmelin's general hiftory is clofed with chemical accounts, and 
experiments made upon feveral of the Fuel. None of thefe mat- 
ters need be retailed by us ; we only mention the fubjects treated 
of, and poflibly may refer to ibme few of them as we proceed. Our 
more immediate bufmefs is with his method of arrangement; for 
perhaps it would add fomething to the knowledge of a fubject, were 
each fucceeding fyftematift to give his reafons, why he accedes to 
fyftems eftablifhed before him,. or why he leaves them. 

It is impoffible to follow Gmelin in his arrangement of eith erthc 
genera of which he treats, or the orders under which he dalles 
them. In the fir ft place, becaufe there is, as muft be confeifed, 
great and almoft total ignorance of the fructification of fubmarine 
plants, he difcards all idea of taking any generic character from that 
interefting circumftance. We think however, and hope when we 
treat upon that point that we fhall (hew, that there is iufheiently 
apparent difference of character in the fructification to accomplish 
all that we want, viz. generic characters for Fucus, If/va, and Con- 

In confequence of rejecting all idea of fructification for his gene- 
ric character, Gmelin has fallen into the greateft miftakes ; the 
Linnaean genera, Fucus, Ulva, and 'Tremella are all denominated 
Fuel ; and had he had time to have completed his defign, he would 
have added to this group Byjfus and Conferva. 

He docs not appear to us- to be more happy in his difpofition of 
the divifions of his genus. To conftitute thefe, he is perpetually 
reforting to the fructification. In many inftances he does not at- 
tempt any modification of character, but actually gives as it were 
new generic characters to his divifions. In his divifion membranacei, he 


S6 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'^ Obfervations on 

fays, FruEfijicaUo, P roles frondium decidua *. In his divifion penicilliferi y 
of which Ga'ertnera^ Mr. Hudfon's pedunculitis as we fuppofe, {lands 
as the pattern and authority, he makes the growth of a little green 
Conferva upon the tubercles to be the defcription of the divifion : we 
have feen fpecimens quite free from it. Obfervations of the fame 
fort might be made upon the others ; but one thing alone precludes 
all acceptation of his method ; which is, that he admits plants into 
thefe very nice difcriminations of divifion eftablifhed by the fructifi- 
cation, of whofe fructification he profeffes himfelf entirely ignorant. 
Laftly, he has not given any fpecific characters ; which makes the 
investigation extremely laborious. 

His descriptions in general are very faithfully attended to, but 
his fynonyms are feldom to be depended upon. He was not allured 
even of the Linnsean fpecies, as may be proved, among many other 
inftances, from his miftaking F. ceranoides. It is a work however 
of great merit, and absolutely neceffary to every one who 
would wifh to ftudy the fubject . We truft our marking thefe de- 

* Gmelin, obferving in fome of our plants of the divifion Fronde pland avetiid, a pro- 
liferous tendency, and taking it for granted, that thofe plants produced no feeds becnufe 
he had obferved none, but that the fole mode of propagation c'onfifled in thefe rudi- 
ments of plants falling off, attaching themfelves to other bodies, and thus becoming new 
plants, becaufe he had feen a probability of this procefs in fome ; at once rafhly adopted 
Adanfon's unphilofophical idea, that fome plants- were unifexual, that is, produced 
flowers of one fex (female) only (fuch are all the Fuci which bear tubercles}-, and that 
the others were afexual, that is, were merely proliferous, and had no flowers at all of either 
fex : — ideas and terms, though followed by the great names of Gmelin and Gae'rtner, 
yet in our judgment quite unworthy of any thing that deferves the name of philofophy. 

Since writing our preface, we have feen Major Velley's elegant and ingenious publi- 
cation en marine plants ; where, among a variety of curious obfervations, he very pro- 
perly expofes the futility of Gaertner's remarks upon the fructification of Lcnferva j an 
idea whkh we hope to be able to purfue when we treat of that genus. 

5 fe&s 

the Brittjh Fuel, ivith particular Defer ipt ions of each Species, $j 

fects will not be imputed to any promptitude in us to find fault, 
but to a defire to fave the trouble, and prevent the errors, of the 
young botanift, who might otherwife be milled by placing too im- 
plicit a confidence in an author of fo highly eftabliihed a reputa- 

We need not dwell long upon the labours of the older botanifts. 
Morifon, in Hift. Oxon. v. iii. p. 644, gives a very elegant account of 
his ideas of the manner in which the feveral plants are propagated. 
fcut there are very few descriptions added to his nomenclature: 
whence we are often obliged to have recourfe to his fynonyms to 
afcertain his meaning ; a circumftance at all times, unlefs a figure 
accompany it, extremely precarious. He gives no generic character* 
and his orders are quite void of precife determination. He has collect- 
ed a great many fpecies, and his figures are in general very cxpreffive. 

Nothing can well be more vague than Mr. Ray's generic charac- 
ter of Fucus. It would apply in fome mealure to any thing or 
every thing fubmarine. He very often gives very (hiking defcrip- 
tions — but his laft divifion, Foliisvel Ieviter comprejjis vel teretibus, is too 
loofely given. It muft neverthelefs be allowed, that his divisions are 
the mod fatisfaclory except thofe of Mr. Hudfon. 

Linnaeus, in his Sp.Pl. publiihed at Vienna 1764, arranged the 
Fuel under the following divifions : 

ta- 7 , • f frondefcentes 
\ caulejcenies 

„ B f folii's difiincih 

2. Ramon \ J r j J \7i 

J \Jronde unita 

3. Frudlificationibus non veficariis* 

There cannot be a more faulty paffage pointed out in the whole 


SS Dr. Goodenough and Mr, Woodward** Qbjcrvathm on 

circle of that great man's writings : this is the more furprifing, as, 
almoft in every particle, of arrangement and fyftem, he thines among 
his competitors 

4 velut inter Ignes 

Luna minora? 

Such an impoverished arrangement probably prevented Profeffor 
Murray and other editors of his works from attempting any. 

Nothing can be more confufed than Mr. Lightfoot's method — I 
No order is obfcrved. He feems to have defcribed his plants al- 
moft as thcv Severally came to hand. All his defcriptions and 
figures are excellent ; but a regard to truth obliges us to remark, 
that in many of his defcriptions he has borrowed very freely from 
Gmelin, and that without any acknowledgment whatfoever. 

To the praife of the late Mr. Hudfon be it mentioned, that he 
was the firft who (track out a true lucidus or do. All his divisions 
are taken from one and the fame fource, viz. the different habit 
and formation of the frond. We have no doubt but that all the 
Fuel of the known world might be clafTed after his method — a 
method capable of the moll: extenfive amplification. It is ncedlefs 
to repeat it here, as it is in every body's hands. If we make any al- 
teration in his difpofition, it will be little more than to change the 
words of his divifion fronde unitd mtofoliis unitis, a more intelligible 
term ; and to introduce a new divifion in perfect confonance with 
the neatnefs of his arrangement — namely, Fronde hinc canaliculatd : 
for fome of the plants which we fhall place under this divifion 
but ill accord with the character Fronde plana avenid, under which 
they were before arranged. It would have Shortened our labour 
extremely, could we have followed Mr. Hudfon in his elTential 
characters ; butfo much new light has been thrown upon the fub- 
7 je& 

the Btitijh Fuci, with particular Descriptions of 'each Species. 89 

ject in confequence of Dr. Smith's mofc fortunate purchafc of the 
Linnasan Mufeum, then fo many errors in the nomenclature have 
been difcovered, fuch mifconceptions of Linnscus's dellgnation, and 
fo many new fpecies found fince Mr. Hudfon wrote, that it was 
in our judgment better to begin de novo, and to lay the whole 
before our Society, drawn up afrefh, and containing complete de- 
scriptions taken from the plants themfelves. 

The fructification of the Alg<v^ particularly of thofc called aqua- 
ticrt, is the opprobrium botanicorum^ and indeed feems likely to con- 
tinue fo. It may be afked, what advance has been made in the 
knowledge of this particular tribe by any modern ? — Morifon's ob- 
fervation furniihed him with almoft as much knowledge of the 
fubject as is likely to be obtained, till a Hedwig {hall undertake to 
illuftrate thefe plants alfo. Morifon's words are, ' If any one af- 
' ferts that the Algce are produced from feed, or fomething analo- 

* gous to it, I do not contradict him ; for in fomc plants there 
' feems fomething thick and tuberofe, adhering to the leaves them- 
' felves ; in others there appear fmall vcflels diftinct from the leaves 

* and the other parts, which however do not contain feeds dry and 
1 hardened like thofe of land plants : but it is probable that a vif- 
' cous and vifcid humour (if it be merely a humour) is produced in 
' them endued with a feminal power, which dropping out of its 

* own accord, or wafhed out by the agitation of the fea, is carried 

* here and there, and is difleminated ; and then by virtue of its 

* mucilage flicks to rocks, ftones, ihells, and calcareous fubftances 
' with which it may meet, and, having found a proper receptacle, un- 
' folds the image of the future plant.' Perhaps glaflfes were not fo 
much ufed in Morifon's time as at prefent, othervvife he would 
have obferved feeds in thofe thick and tuberofe parts which he 
mentions. Gmelin and Reaumur, who hazarded the moil decided 

Vol. III. N opinion 

no Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'; Obfervations on 

opinion concerning the fructification of certain of the Fuci, enter- 
tained ideas of the generation of thefe plants nearly correfponding 
with thofe of Morifon : but, aided by the better afhftance of good 
glafTes, they more accurately obierved the tubercles ; and Reaumur 
diflected thefe tubercles, and found them to be capful es replete with 
minute feeds. 

Reaumur was the author who fir ft: afferted that the Algfy or at 
leall: a part of them, were monoecious ; for, observing the furface of 
ibme of thefe plants very minutely, he remarked, in the Facus 
ferratus more particularly, and in a few others, little clutters of fila- 
ments, extremely tender and ihort, in the little dots which are ap- 
parent on each fide of the nerve which runs through all the branches. 
Unable to account for fuch an appearance, and winning to eftablith 
his favourite hypothecs, at the expence of numberlefs perplexities 
and contradictions, to which he could oppofe little better than 
furmifes and imaginations, he pronounced them to be male flowers. 
Gmelin very properly takes up the argument againft him ; and, 
fhewing how very few plants exhibited thefe filaments, and then 
arguing from their total defect of aniherce (absolutely neceflary 
were analogy to be reforted to), and their diftance in all, except in 
Fucus elongatus (our ioreus), from the female flowers (though it mu ft 
be allowed that this argument is very far from a good one), he 
ridicules the whole idea — at the fame time fugge fling another full 
as improbable, if not more fo, that thefe minute threads are organs 
of nutrition. All thefe ideas mult, however, be left to the develop- 
ment of future naturalifts. The advantage to be derived from Reau- 
mur (for we would preclude no future inveftigation even on the fame 
ground) is, that he defcribed .exactly what he faw, and delineated 
the parts of which he fpoke, with confummate accuracy. We 
have the fact Mated exactly ; the argument to be drawn from it; 


the Britijh Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 91 

depends upon the judgments of the various botanifts who (hall 
read and ftudy his obfervations. See his plate oxY.fcnatus in Acl. 
Pari/. 1772, part 2d, pi. 3, f. 5 and 9. 

Cryptogamic investigation was not Linnxus's excellence — the 
truth of this appears no where more than in the Alg,c aquaticcc. In 
the fynoptic table of Syft. Natura- at the head of his clafs Crypto- 
gamia he defcribes them — 

tfremclLi — A. gelatinofa 

Viva — A. membranacea 

Fucus — A. coriacea 

Conferva — A. capillaris. 

In the body of the work they are defcribed from the fructifica- 
tion — 

Tremella — Fruclijicationes vix manifejla: in corpore gelatinofo. 
Ulva — FrutlijicaUones in membrand diaphand, 

Fucus — Mafc. Vejiculce villis intertexfa*. 

Fcem. Vejiculce adfperfce gram's immerfis apice pro mi- 
nulis. Semina fditaria. 
Conferva — Tubercula incequalia infbris capillaribus longijfimis. 

The difcrimination in the fynoptic table need not engage our at- 
tention one moment ; it does not hold true, neither has it any 
thing to do with the fexual fyftem, by which all ought, and, it 
fhould be apprehended, may be determined, at leaft to a certain de- 

In refpect to the defcriptions of the fructification in the body of the 
work, we muft object to the character of Fucus for the fame reafon that 
Gmelin does to Reaumur's male flowers. They have no appearance 
of anther a, and the villi appear evidently to be nothing more than 

N 2 the 

92 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Wood w a r d'j Obfervations on 

the confequence of the internal laceiation of the fubftance, as the 
part becomes dilated into the veficle, which is, generally fpeaking, 
the mere organ of buoyancy, very rarely of fructification. We 
have feen thefe threads of different forms, fize and texture, in pro- 
portion to the enlargement of the veficle. If analogy muft be re- 
forted to, thefe threads ought rather to be eonfidered as neSiaria than 
any thing elfe belonging to the fructification : but, in fact, the whole 
idea is fo vague and inconclufive, that nothing but the name of 
the illuftrious author could have fupported it for a moment; and 
even were it confirmed, there are very few fpecies which could be 
made at all to agree with the description. 

We fhould object to the character ofU/va for two reafons— Firft, 
lie fays fruSfificationes, without naming what fort ; and then, becaufe 
he adds, in membrand diaphana\ according to which, all the Fuci of 
the div'ihonfrcnde plana avenid muft be denominated Ulvce. 

We muft object to Conferva, becaufe, from his term tuber cula in&- 
qualia infronde capillar], all the Fuci with capillary branches mult be 
included, particularly F. purpurafcens, to name no more. Add to 
this, that on the Conferva; of the firft and fecond divifion, as well as 
on feveral of the geniculated ones, no tubercles have ever yet been 
obferved. They confequently do not at all agree with the character ; 
nor are the fimple- threaded Conferva in any way diftinguifhed from 
the filamentofe ByJJi, except by the totally inadmiflible defcription, 
fibrh longijjimis. 

The genus ^remella we {hall pafs by, as not connected with our 
prefent plan. Linnaeus, forming the effential characters partly 
from external habit, and partly from fructification, eonfidered thofe 
Jllgcz which were gelatinous as Tremellce, and thofe which were 
membranaceous as Ulva. But as the effential characters which we 
ihall propofe are taken from the fructification folely, fuch gelati- 

7 nous 

the Briujh Fuel, with particular Defer iptLns of each Species. 03 

nous Alger as have innate fr unification difperfed throughout the 
from, muft neceffarily be arranged in the genus Ulva; which will 
confequently include, if not ail the aquatic, in great probability all 
the marine Tremellce, 

We mull again call upon the candour of the Society not to im- 
pute thefe corrections of our great mailer Linnaeus to any finifter 
views. — We fee errors, we (late them. 

It is with the utmoft diffidence, that, after having faid io much, 
we prefume to fuggeit any other defcriptions in the room of thofe 
which we have rejected ; but as it is ablolutcly neceffary that fomc 
fhould be propofed, we would beg leave, from the very imperfect 
'light by which we at preient walk, to define the characters as fol- 
lows : 

Fucus — Sem/na, tuberculh cotifertis apice dehifcentibus, innata. 
Conferva — Semina y tuberculh rotundis folitar'tis claufs fronde ex- 

tantibus y adntitis, inclufa. 
Ulva «— Semina Jimpliciffimafrondi innata, undiquefparfa. 

In ftating thefe ideas of character we are thoroughly confeious of 
our imbecility and ignorance. We profefs only to eftabliih certain 
data from the appearance of what may be juftly deemed fructifica- 
tion, and conltitute our differences accordingly. 

Before we difmifs this fubject it may be proper to obferve, that 
in many Fuel two forts of fructification are to be feen — one warty 
tubercles, and the other numerous fingle grains. The obfervation 
of thefe has again led ftudents to imagine that they are the differ- 
ences of lex. Undoubtedly both thefe appearances are of the 
female flower, i. e. feminal — We have obferved them occafionally 
in F. alatus t vermicu/aris, and hypoglojotj, fcattered along the rib or 
nerve, or on the membrane on each fide of it. Some few of thefe 


94 ^ r * Good£KOUgh and Mr, Woodward 1 ; Obfervations On 

grains we have obferved fwelling apparently into a tubercle, and the 
others difappearing. Whether this be the mode of perfecting the 
fructification, and that fuch of thefe grains as are impregnated 
fwell into feminiferons tubercles, whilft the reft are abortive and 
decay — or, whether thefe grains may not be real feeds efcaped from 
a tubercle, the coats of which are burft, and adhering to the 
frond, it were to be wifhed that naturalifts refident on the fea-fide 
would examine and endeavour to determine. 

The tubercles of the greater part of the Fuel open at the point, 
are imbedded in the fubftance and become fwollen as in Serratus, 
Spiralis, Sec. — or aflume a broad warty form as in Laceratus and fome 
others of the divifion Fronde plana avenld — are imbedded, fmooth, and 
veficuliform, as in Crlfpus, &c — project very much from the frens, as 
in Confervoides — or are fituated in a pedunculated capfular procefs, 
as in Slliquojus, Pedunculatus, &c. — But practice will make thefe and 
all other matters relating to the inveftigation, very eafy to any ftu- 
dent who has a real ardour for natural hiftory. 

It has been the general opinion of naturalifts, that the root of 
Fuel is an organ of adhefion only, and not of nutrition. It feems 
ib admirably calculated for the former of thefe purpofes, that 
probably this idea has precluded all confideration of the latter. 
How the vegetation is carried on, cannot be precifely afcertained ; 
and although it does not feem likely, that the root (hould draw 
nourifhment from the rock, ftone, or other body to which it is 
affixed, in the fame manner as the roots of terreftrial plants from 
the earth in which they grow; yet it would be difficult to allert 
and bring proofs, that while it fixes, it does not alfo aiTifl: to 
nourifh. — They are principles by no means incompatible. It is very 
poffible, that the element in which thefe plants grow, may be im- 
bibed at numberlefs minute pores on the furface of the frons, 


the BritiJI) Fuci y iv lib particular Defer ipt 'ions of each Species. 95 

imperceptible to our fight, and that thefe pores may be common to 
the root with the reft of the plant, and thus the divine will may be 

All Fuci appear to proceed from a thin, round, entire or fiffilcy glu- 
tinous, coriaceous fubftance— This will appear to any one who will 
watch the grow r th of F. hreus. In fomc few this fubftance is fiftile, 
and imitates the fibres of land plants: but each fibre attaches itfelf 
by its extremity, which immediately becomes a flat difk, to fome 
rock, and, if the rock befmooth, longitudinally alfo. This mode of 
growth contributes greatly to ftrength en Moriibr.'s opinion before 
mentioned — not that he thinks nourilhmcnt is performed by this 
adhefion, for his words immediately following thofe before quoted 
are — ' But the plant, being formed from it, takes aliment to itfelf by 
6 means of little fibres {fibrillar, i.e. branches) being put forth, by 
' which aliment being continually nourithed, it acquires its juft 
' magnitude; and there can fcarcely be a doubt but that, together 
' with its complete age and growth, it muft receive a power of gene- 

* rating another plant fimilar to itfelf. For fince little tender Fuci, 
6 and as it were newly budding forth, are caft up upon the fhore, 

* which are faftened to fhelis and little (tones, and at the ebb of the 

* tide fimilar ones are to be feen affixed to hard rocks ; it is far 
' more likely that they are produced by this means, than that they 
4 mould fpring up out of thofe more folid bodies to which they 
' adhere.' 

Gmelin's idea of the root does not in this one inftance accord 
with fact. He fays, that thofe of our divifion Fronde plana avenia^ 
which are thin and papyraceous, have never (hewn any appearance 
of root. Never was there a more palpable miftake. The root in all 
of them is a flat dilated difk, more or lefs in proportion to the fize 
and fubftance of the plant, One of our thinneft and mod tender 


96 Dr. Goodenough and Mr, Woodward'j Obfervations on 

productions, F. laceratus var. laciniatus^ has not only this kind of root, 
but fometimes for the fpace of two or three lines, has a roundifh 
ftalk before it is difTolved into its thin laminae or branches. 

The root is either purely fibrous as in Saccharinus, or between folid 
and fibrous as in Scrratus, where a tendency to fibrous divifion is 
obfervable; but the fibres, which are fomewhat prominent upon 
the furface, are webbed as it were, or connected by a thick mem- 
brane or the intervening part of the difk: or laftly, which is by far 
the mod numerous, an entire folid difk. There are different modi- 
fications of this laft fort of root. Sometimes, as in Siliqmfus, it be- 
comes in its more advanced age a folid woody cone — fometimes a 
plant having fprung from this difk, conftantly throws out from its 
very bafe clufters of little furculi, which accidentally touching the 
rock form a callus, by which as by a new difk it adheres, and 
thence becomes the parent of a new plant. Its original, from a 
fmalldifk, is thus fo covered over and obfeured, that it is not to be 
difcerned. This takes place particularly in F. purpurafcens, which 
hence is generally defcribed with a fibrous root. From this furcu- 
lofity at the bafe, and the furculi occafionally forming new difks 
and new plants, fome Fuci appear to have creeping roots. Mr. 
Lightfoot defcribes hisF. repens,frondibus cajfpitofis repentibus. The Fuci 
in the divifion Fronde plana avenid, when they attach themfelves (as is 
no uncommon cafe) to other Fuci, envelop the whole branch, the 
thin papyraceous branches adhering wherefoever they touch. 

The F. nutans is defcribed by Linnaeus, libere natans nee radicatus. 
Thefe words muft be underftood to mean floating at large, and not 
faflcned by any root. He never could mean, having no root; for his 
own fpecimen in the herbarium has one, which is a difcus explanatus, 
and appears to have a very flight power of adhefion. It may be 
prefumed that it is an inhabitant of the deep waters, beyond the 


the Briti/h Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Specks. 97 

reach of human fight. Storms and tempefb, diilodging it from 
its native bed, bear it in their uncontrollable violence to all the 
(hores of the known world* 

F. bulbofus is a plant fui generis — the dilk immediately affumes an 
inflated bulbous form — the bulb becomes covered with numerous 
excrcfcences, which require very minute inveftigation. The afcer- 
tainment of its ceconomy in this particular, as alio of its fructifica- 
tion, would be a fubject of very curious enquiry. 

All plants produced from thofe rudiments of new branches ob- 
fervable on the furface of mammillofus, rubens, &c. mult necelTarily 
have a plain dilcoid root, that being the caufe of their firft adhc- 

■After all the pains we have taken to make our descriptions com- 
plete, we are aware that many fpecimens will be found apparently 
much at variance with what we have a Mated . This arifes from 
two caufes — from the mutilations which they fuMer from the violence 
of the waves, or other injuries, and their growing nearer or more 
remote from the deflux of freih water. 

A very frequent effect of injury is the proliferous or reproductive 
tendency which is thereby occafioned, and which often fo alters 
the natural appearance of the plant, as to entirely difguife it to the 
eye of an unpraclifed obferver. This is extremely frequent in 
F.Jinuofus {rubens Fl. Ang.) when the membranous parts are de* 
Mroyed, and only the nerves or fibres remain, from which young 
leaves are frequently feen to (hoot in great abundance, giving it an 
appearance fo entirely different from that which it at nrft had, that 
it might eafily be fuppofed a different fpecies, did not the frequency 
of this plant afford us an opportunity of feeing it in all its varying 
forms. The F. rubens (prolifer of Lightfoot, crifpus Fl. Ang.) per- 
haps owes fome of its appearance to this caufe; for the young 

Vol* III. O ; plants 

98 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'^ Obfervations on 

plants are at firft entire, and thofe of a more advanced growth fhew 
fometimes much lefs appearance of this proliferous tendency than, 
others : but we cannot, in this fpecies, attribute the whole of the par- 
ticular habit to thefe accidental caufes. The callous rings fo frequent- 
ly feen in fafligmtus^ we fuppofe alfo to be principally occafioned 
by injury, as we have largely explained in treating of that fpecies. 
Injuries done to the coarler forts may be more readily traced in 
their effects — F. infiatus is one inftance of this, which is probably 
nothing more than veftcuhfus^ with a branch inflated or fwollen by 
the injury of fome infect or outward violence. The vejiculajusvix. 
foILiceus, affords one of the mod remarkable inftances of reproduc- 
tion occafioned by external violence. This has been firft noticed 
by Major Velley in Withering's Bot. Ait. vol. iii. p. 241 ; and as 
the pailage is but fhort, we ihall be excufed for quoting it entire* 
' If the F. veftculofus receives an injury or fracture in any part of 

* the leaf, provided it be in a healthy vegetating flate, it conftantly 

* throws out abundance of young leaves from the injured part. If 

* even a fmall aperture be made in the middle of it, a new leaf on 
' either fide will be found to ihoot out.' Without this explanation 
it would appear extraordinary, that, where a branch is broken off", 
not only a clufter of new leaves mould (hoot from the fractured 
end, but that alfo numerous fimilar ones ihould be produced, from 
the fides of the broken branch ; which we have obferved to take 
place. This will alfo account for the frequent appearance of thefe 
new leaves on the furface of the root itfelf, even whilft the plant is 
apparently in a perfectly uninjured ftate. 

The foil, or their growing near frefh water, or altogether diftant 

from it, makes a great difference in the fize and texture of any 

plants. On the more inland banks of the Severn, and in the ex- 

tenfive seftuary in the north of Lancashire, formed by the influx of 

4 the 

the Brit'r/Jj Fuci, with particular Defaiptiom cf each Species. 99 

the Ken, Leven, and other ftrcams, F. canaliculatus is fomctimes 
found remarkably luxuriant. At llfracombe, where there is a very 
trifling influx of freih water, F . fa/l/g/atus grows lb (lender and 
compact, that no inexperienced pcribn would think it the lame as 
the large interceptus* We fuppofe thele things principally occafioned 
by the vicinity or abfence of frclli ftreams. At llfracombe Y.fibrofus 
grows fcarcely more than a foot high ; but we havefcen it thrown 
up on the lhore at Weymouth after a violent ftorm, literally ap- 
pearing to us at fir ft fight to be the root of fome great tree. The 
different appearances of muliifihts are occafioned by differences of 
foil, fituation, or growth — as are thofe of nodofus alio. We mention 
all thefe things chiefly with a view to appriie young ftudents, that 
when we have given defcriptions of the height, texture, fubftancc, 
&c. yet ftill it is very poilible that plants may be found differing 
confiderably from our accounts. — All we wifh to do is, to ft ate 
the general appearance : we cannot be accountable for the irregula- 
rities which proceed from {o many caufes as are to be found in all 
the variations of growth, foil and climate. 

Some little mention ought to be made of the colour and opacity 
of Fuci. In all our defcriptions we have endeavoured to note the 
natural colour: but if plants have lain long in *-he water, and been 
left by the reflux of the tide on the iliore, where they are neceiTarily 
expofed to the power of the wind and fun, the proper colour is of- 
tentimes all dilcharged — they become white or black, &c. according 
to circumftances. In dryingFac/, green and red colours retain their 
proper appearance, but the olivaceous colours ufually appear black. 
Where the change has been e fleeted by drying only, the original 
colour may generally be detected by holding up the plant to a 
ftrong light of a candle or lamp. 

O 2 Fuci 

TOO Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'/ Obfervathns on 

Fuci are alio more or lefs opake from a variety of caufes. Our 
variety of fajligiatus called intercepts is in general opake ; but the 
new branches produced beyond the rings at the extremity of the 
frons, that is after injury received, arc green and fomewhat pellucid; 
for in almoft all plants the parts repaired are of a fubftance and 
texture weaker and fofter than the found parts. The F. palmatus- 
is a remarkable in fiance of the difference of opacity — fome fpecimens 
being thin as paper and pellucid, and others of a perfectly horny or 
leathery fubftance when dried. There are a few Fuci, which may 
perhaps hereafter be difcovered to belong to the genus Uha. We 
fhall only mention ligidatus as an inftance: but as this (lands ar- 
ranged among the Fuci by Mr. Lightfoot and Mr. Hudfon, we leave 
it there, having no authority from any appearance of fructification 
to difplace it. All Fuci are more or lefs pellucid and thin in their 
flrfl beginnings. We have fpoken of their fubftance as it is more 
generally obferved in properly grown plants. 

The fr.rucf.ure of the Fuci is fo very fmgular, that were they not 
affixed by their bafe to the rocks, as terreftrial plants are by their 
roots to the ground, we mould be at a lofs how to trace any kind of 
analogy between them — and yet it has been a favourite employ- 
ment with all writers ; and it countenanced Reaumur in his hypo- 
thefis of Fuci being provided with male and female flowers. 

They are formed without leaves *, of one continued fubftancc, 
of various texture, from the mod tender and membranaceous to the 


* It may be objected, that we have faid the Fuci are formed without leaves, and yet 
we take our two firfl divifions, foliis dijrinciis and foliis unitis, from that circumftance. It 
is not that the plants of thofe divifions really have leaves, but only the appearance of them ; 
and we adapt this appearance to the general language of the Linnsean fyftem. The 
plants arranged under both thefe divifions do not make up a fifth part of the whole. By 


the Brit if: Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 10 1 

mod firm and thick — numerous beyond description, capable of 
being turned to the ufe of man in many ways, both as to food and 
other conveniences, and affording protection and fupport to myriads 
of the fubmarine inhabitants — All this marks the goodnefs of the 
ever bleiTed Godhead, c by whom they are and were created.' — That 
part in creation is not to be found, where ibme principle docs 
not invariably act beneficial to man. 

N. B. As we have referred to feveral of the old Herbaria pre- 
ferved in the Britilh Muieum, it is proper to mention that they are 
as follow : 

Buddie, Plantx Britannica?, vol. I. 

Petiver, Hortus Siccus Anglicus, vol. I. 

Uveda/e, Herbarium Rayanum, vol. I. 

Modes and Plants by Buddie, Vernon, Floyd, Cozvrt<jn, &r. 

the firft thofe plants are defigned, the branches of which have the appearance of lenves 
growing diftintr,. Of thefe, natans, fanguineus, and ftnuofus have what any one would 
deem leaves* but, when attentively considered and compared with others, appear to be 
branches {Int. fibrilla of Morifon) growing up into, or dilated into, a thin membrane — In 
memhranifolius it is very evidently fo. 

By the fecond d\v\hon,foUis unitis, are defigned thofe which appear to have leaves united 
with and forming a part of the frons — Thefe leaves are only fo in appearance, for in 
fact they are rudiments of branches, or more properly young branches themfelves. All 
the ramifications of F '. jibrcfus are produced from what appears to be a leaf dividing 
itfelf, and then foon lofing its original fhape. This is full more obfervable in F. abrc- 
tamfolius, as will be feen by referring to our defcription of that plant. Y.foeniculaceus alfo 
{concat. Fl Ang.) and F. concatenatus Linn, have branches which firft appear under the 
form of linear leaves, afterwards branching out into minute ramifications. The concate- 
nated veficles which chara&erife thefe two plants, are merely formed from thefe leaves 
contracting themfelves at regular intervals, whilft at the fame time the coats of the leaf, 
in the intervening fpaces, feparate, and thus form hollow veficles. Y.ftliqucfiu zndfefogi- 
mides will give ftriking proofs of the fame kind. 


102 Dr. GoODENOUGH and Mr, Woodwakd'-t Obfervatlons on 

Synopsis Specjerum. 

Foliis diftinftis. 

1. F. nalans, Caule tereti ramofiffimo ; foliis lanceolatis ferratis ; 

veficulis globofis pedunculatis. 

2. F.Jangwmus. Caule tereti ramofo ; foliis fimplicibus ovato- 

oblongis, obtufis, undulatis, integerrimis. 
.3. F. Jinuofus. Caule tereti ramofo; foliis oblongis undulatis 
ramofo- fmuatis, fpinofo-dentatis. 

4. F- HypogloJJbn. Caule alato ramofo; foliis lineari-lanceolatis 

planis integerrimis proliferis. 

5. F. ovnlis. Caule tereti ramofo, rigidiufculo ; foliis ovalibus car- 


6. F. fcdoidcs. Caule tereti ramofo tenero; ramis dichotomis; 

foliis cylindricis utrinque attenuatis, fuperioribus confertis. 

7. F. dafyphyllus. Caule tereti ramofo; ramis filiformibus lub fim- 

plicibus ; foliis cylindricis obtufis, bafi attenuatis, fparlis. 
'8. F. mctnbranij "alius. Caule tereti ramofo, apice membranaceo di- 
latato dichotomo ; foliis enerviis fub-bilobis ; tuberculis pe- 

* Kaliformis. 
* Foliis unilis. 
9. F. ligulatm. Fronde plana avenia fub-triplicato-pinnata ; ramis 
ramulifque diftichis ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis, fpinofo-den- 

10. F.fdiquofus, Fronde comprefla ramofa ; foliis diftichis alternis 

oblongis; veficulis pedunculatis oblongis articulatis mucro- 

11. F. abrotanjfolius. Fronde filiformi comprefla pinnata; ram u lis 

extremis veficulofis ; veficulis terminatis foliolis multipartita 

12. F. 

the Bnti/Jj Fuci, with particular Defer ipt'wm cfeach Species. 103 

12. F. barbatus. Fronde filiform! ramofiflima, Vamulis extremis 

apice tuberculatis tuberculis Congcftis foliolo fubulato ter- 

13. F. ericoides. Fronde filiformi ramofifiima ; foliis fubulatis, ter- 

minalibus confertis, arete imbricatis, bad tuberculiferis. 

14. F. granuldius. Fronde filiformi ramofiffima debili ; foliis fubu- 

latis laxiufcule imbricatis bad tuberculiferis ; tuberculis con- 

15. F. felaginoides. Fronde filiformi ramofiffima debili ; foliis fub u- 

latis remotkifculis ; veficulis foliorum fuperiorum bafi innatis. 
17. F.fceniculaceus. Fronde filiformi ramofiffima ; ramis fub-dicho- 
tomis ; foliis fubulatis aequalibus ; veficulis oblongis concatc- 
natis innatis. 

17. F.fbrofus. Fronde filiformi ramofiffima ; ramis primaiiis fub- 

diftichis ; foliis filiformibus lincaribufque ; veficulis fubro*- 
tundis innatis. 

•* Alaii^f Fronde plana, fipiie medium folium per cur rent v. 

18. F. tetragomis. Fronde fimplici enfiformi bafi rotundata ; ftipitc 

alato quadrangulari. 

1 9. F. teres. Fronde fimplice enfiformi bafi attenuata ; flipite alato 

tereti comprefiiufculo. 

20. F. alatus. Fronde membranacea tenerrima ramofa fubdicbo- 


21. F.Jerratus. Fronde dichotoma ferrato-dentata, apicibiis planis 

tuberculatis obtufis. 

22. F. veficukfus. Fronde dichotoma integerrima ; veficulis innatii 

axillaribufque ; apicibus tumidis tuberculatis acutiufculis. 

23. F. fpiralis. Fronde plana dichotoma a?quali ; apicibus tumidis 

tuberculatis tumidis, _ 

24, F. 

104 F)r. Goodenough cind Mr, Woodward; Obfervations on 

24. F, ceranoides, Fronde plana dichotoma integerrima asquali; 

anicibus tumidiufculis tuberculatis lanceolatis. 

* DcniatuSy Rubens, 
*** Fronde plana avenia, 

25. F.faccharinus. Fronde fimplice enfiformi. 

26. F. digiiatus. Fronde palmata, laciniis enfiformibus ; flipite 

tereti ; radice fibrofa. 

27. F. bulbofus, Fronde palmata, laciniis enfiformibus; ftipite" 

piano ; radice inflato-bulbofa. 

28. F, laceratus. Fronde membranacea tenerrima ramofa ; ramis 

ramulifque fublinearibus, apice obtufis. 

29. F, dentatus. Fronde membranacea tenerrima ramofa, alternating 

pinnatifida; ramulis linearibus apice incifis; Iacinulis acutis. 

30. F. bifidus. Frondibus membranaceis fub-dilatatis bifidis, fecrmen- 

tis fub-divaricatis obtufis ; tuberculis marginalibus diftantibus, 

31. F. ciiiatus. Fronde fub-membranacea ramofa; ramis lanceola- 

tis acutis ciliatis, ciliis fimplicibus brevibus. 

32. F.jubatus. Fronde membranacea ramofiflima ; ramis lanceo- 

latis acutis ciliatis, ciliis ramofis. 

33. F. palmatus. Fronde membranacea vane divifa, palmata. 

34. F, rubens. Fronde fub-membranacea. dichotoma ; ramis proli- 

feris linearibus, ramulis apice dilatatis bifidis, laciniis acutiuf- 

35. F. piimaiifidus, Fronde cartilaginea ramofa ; ramis paten tib-ns 

fub-duplicato-pinnatifjdis, ramulis obtufis callofis. 

36. F. crifptts. Fronde fubmembranacea dichotoma; ramis inte- 

gris ; tuberculis folitariis fparfis. 

**** Fronde avenia hinc canaliculate*, 

37. F. canaliculars, Fronde dichotoma lineari ; apicibus obtufis 


38. F. 

the Britijh Fuc/\ with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 105 

$S. F. patens. Fronde dichotoma lineari, apicibus obtufiufculis 
planis ; tuberculis fubglobofis fparfis. 

39. F. mammiliofus. Fronde dichotoma ; ramis fuperne dilatatis 

utrinque mammillofo-tuberculiferis, apicibus acutis. 

***** Fronde comprejfa. 

40. F, loreus. Fronde dichotoma acuta glabra, utrinque tubercu- 


41. F. aculeatus. Fronde fubcartilaginea ramofifiima dentata, den- 

tibus marginalibus fubulatis ereclis. 

42. F. corneus. Fronde cartilaginea ramofiflima, ramis latioribus 

alternis, ramulis oppofitis divaricato-adfeendentibus obtufis. 

43. F. gigartinus. Fronde cartilaginea dichotoma ramofa ; ramis 

sequalibus acutis fpinofo-dentatis ; tuberculis globofis late- 
ralibus feflilibus. 

44. F. coronopif alius. Fronde cartilaginea ramofiflima ; ramulis ob- 

tufis multifidis fub-confertis ; tuberculis globofis peduncu- 
latis, feflilibufque. 

45. F, coccineus. Fronde fubcartilaginea ramofiflima ; ramulis fubu- 

latis fecundis, tuberculis globofis fubfeflilibus. 

46. F. plumofus. Fronde fubcartilaginea ramofiflima ; ramis fupra- 

decompofito-plnnatis ; ramulis oppofitis ; tuberculis globofis 

47. F. nodofus. Fronde fub-dichotoma; foliis diftichis obovatis 

integerrimis ; veficulis innatis folitariis fronde latioribus. 

48. F. obtufus. Fronde cartilaginea ramofiflima ; ramis ramulifque 

fub-oppofitis, erectiufculis, obtufiflimis, truncatis. 

49. F. lichenoides, Fronde dichotoma ramofa ; ramis apice dilata- 

tis ; tuberculis globofis terminalibus. 

* Crifpus. Far, e. 
Vol. III. P 

106 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodwakd'j Obfervations otr 

****** Fronde tereti. 

<p. F. Filum. Fronde filiformi fimplice. 

51. F. tomentafus. Fronde filiformi ramofa tomentofa ; ramis dicho- 

tomis apicibus angulifque obtufis. 

52. F. diffufus. Fronde filiformi dichotoma articulata; ramis divari- 

catis difFufis apice acutis. 

53. F. tuberculatum Fronde filiformi dichotoma ; ramis inaequali- 

bus obtufis apice tuberculatis, angulis ramificationum obtufis. 

54. F.faftigiatus. Fronde filiformi dichotoma ramofifTima; ramis 

faftigiatis sequalibus obtufis, angulis ramificationum fub-redtis. 

55. F.radiatus. Fronde filiformi dichotoma ramofa; ramis fub- 

aequalibus acuminatis ; tuberculis lateralibus ; angulis rami- 
ficationum obtufiufculis. 

56. F. lumbricalis. Fronde filiformi dichotoma. ramofa ; ramis fub- 

a:qualibus acuminatis, angulis ramificationum acutis. 

57. F. Kaliformis. Fronde filiformi fub-gelatinofa tubulofa ramo 

fiflima; ramis fparfis; ramulis fub-verticillatis obtufiufcu- 

58. F. confervoides. Fronde filiformi ramofa; ramis fub-diftichis 

fub-fimplicibus fetaceis; tuberculis lateralibus femiglobofis. 

59. F. albidus. Fronde filiformi fub-dichotoma ramofiffima ; ramis 

fubfecundis, tuberculis lateralibus fubrotundis depreffis. 

60. F.fubfufcus. Fronde filiformi ramofifTima; ramis fparfis, ra- 

mulis fubulatis fub-alternis ; tuberculis racemofis fub-octo~ 

61. F.pedunculatus. Fronde filiformi pin nato-ramofa ; ramis fetaceis 

fimplicibus; tuberculis oblongis pedunculatis fparfis. 

62. F. qfparagoides. Fronde filiformi ramofifTima ; tuberculis glo- 

bofis, pedunculatis, ramulis fubulato-fetaceis altcrnatim oppo- 

the BiitiJJ? Fuci, with particular Deferiplhns of each Species. T07 

63. F. tenuijjimus. Fronde filiformi ramofiflima ; ramis omnibus 

capillaribus alternis; ramulis acutis tuberculatis. 

64. F. articulatus. Fronde membranacea filiformi tubulofa conca- 

tenatim articulata ramofiflima ; ramis uniformibus dichotomis 

6$. F. Opuntia. Fronde cartilaginea. fubcomprefla folida, concate- 

natim articulata ramofa ; ramis uniformibus dichotomis. 
66. F. variabilis, " Fronde filiformi ramofiflima; ramis fubimbri- 

catis, ramulis brevifTimis fafciculatis acutis. 
6j. F. pinajlroides. Fronde filiformi ramofiflima ; ramulis arete 

imbricatis fubulatis fub-fecundis, apice incurvatis integris. 

68. F. Lycopodioides. Fronde filiformi fubfimplici; ramis fubulatis 

fubramofis undique imbricatis fquarrofis. 

69. F. purpurafcens. Fronde filiformi ramofiflima ; ramulis fetaceis 

fparfis ; tuberculis fubrotundis innatis. 

70. F. amphibius. Fronde filiformi ramofiflima ; ramis alternis ; 

ramulis capillaribus, apice involutis tuberculatis. 

71. F. plicatus. Fronde filiformi dichotoma ramofiflima implexa ; 

ramulis fubfecundis ; tuberculis Iateralibus terminalibufque. 
70. F. capillaris., Fronde fubquadripinnata ; ramis ramulifque om- 
nibus alternis, primariis longifnmis, ultimis breviflimis fafci- 
culatis tenuiflimis. 


F. caule tereti ramofiflimo, foliis lanceolatis ferratis, veficulis 
globofis pedunculatis. Herb. Linn. — Buddie, p. 33. n. 1. 
Uvedale, appendix, p. 84. n. 1. &/. 86. 

P 2 Linn, 

ioS Dr. Goodenough and Mi\ Woodward'.? Obfervaiions on 

Linn. Sp. PL 1628. FL Ang, p. 572. Withering, vol. o r 
p. 234. 

Habitat inter rejectamenta maris. 

Radix, callus explanatus — From pedalis et ultra ramofifTima, caulc 
ramifque teretibus, frequentiflime retis inftar implicitis — Folia al- 
terna, femlia, variant longitudine 1-2-3 uncialia; et latitudinem 
modo vix linenrem, modo plulquam uncialem attinent, ideoque 
nunc lineari-lanceolata, nunc lanceolata, et nonnunqu m ovali- 
lanceolata dici poffmt, formam autem qualemcunque lanceolatam 
femper confervant. Foliorum margines conflanter ferrati, ferratu- 
ris acutis diftantibus — Rami, veficulis globofis pedunculatis, et 
frequentiflime procelTubus ftyliformibus terminatis, femper vacuis, 
veftiti funt — Ramuli fructificationem fuftentantes, axillares, panicu- 
lati aphylli, tuberculis minutis quaquaverfum obfiti — Color recentis 
plantae flavefcens, ficcatae purpureus, nigrefcens. 

This plant, fo well known by the name of Gulf-weed, to all per- 
fons who navigate the Atlantic Ocean, is defcribed by Linnaeus as not 
being fixed by any root, and being only found floating loofcly in the 
fea. It does not appear that any perfon has hitherto detected it on 
its native rocks, notwith (landing the immenfe quantities which are 
conftantly feen between Europe and America ; but we have defcribed 
the root on the authority of the fpecimen preferved in the Linnsean 
Herbarium, and of Gmelin, who declares (p. 94), that he has in his 
pofleflion fpecimens with fragments of the rock adhering, and 
one on which part of the orbicular bafe remains. The fphaerical 
veficles with which this fpecies always abounds, have been defcribed 
as containing the fructification ; but thefe are always empty, and 
are certainly only intended to give buoyancy to the plant, and to 
enable it conftantly to remain on the furface of the waves. The 


the Brit'ijh Fuel, with particular Dcftriptkns (f each Species. icq 

actual fructification is noticed by Linnaeus, though he ftill feemS 
to have conlidered the veficles as performing that function. It 
confifts of fmall, naked, paniculated ramuli, not more than half -ait 
inch in length, fituated in the bofom of the leaves, and entirely 
covered with minute tubercles: or thefe may probably be merely 
congeries of tubercles afTuming that form ; as thefe panicled 
branches are never obferved, except when the plant is in fructifica- 
tion, nor otherwife than covered with tubercles. The veficles are 
often naked ; but fometimes they are terminated by a fetaceous or 
fubulate procefs reTembling a ftyle, which is nothing more than 
the footftalk continued beyond the veficle. Many interefting par- 
ticulars relating to this extraordinary plant, collected from various 
authors, are mentioned by Gmelin; for which we refer the curious 
reader to that work, as it would occupy too much room, and be fo- 
reign to our defign to record them here. 

Lourreir in his Fl. Cochinchinenfis fpeaks of this plant. He advances 
nothing new upon the fubjecl:. Indeed he feems to know but little 
of this genus, having noticed only {even fpecies. 


F. caule tereti ramofo, foliis fimplicibus ovato-oblongis obtufis 
undulatis integerrimis. Herb, Linn. 
Mor. Hift. Oxon. 3. p. 645. f. 1$. t. 8. f. 6. R. Syn. p. 47. 
n. 35. Fl. Dan. 349. Gmelin, p. 185. t. 24. f. 2. Linn. 
Syjl. FL Ang. p. 573. FL Scot, p, 942. Withering, vol. 3. 
A 235. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis. 

Adhaeret rupibus callo folido difformi — From femipedalis, etiam 
pedalis, purpurea, diaphana— Caulis brevis, teres, pro magnitudine 


no Dr. Goodenotgh and Mr. WoodwardV Observations on 

plants variat, nunc craflitiem pennas corviiva?, nunc anferinae mi- 
noris sequans ; modo feme], modo bis iterumve ramofus — Rami 
petiolorum funguntur vice, et foliis membranaceis, tenerrimis, fim- 
plicibus, ovato-oblongis, obtufis, quorum margines elegantiffime un- 
dulati funt, terminantur — Folium nervus crafTiufculus percurrit, 
aliis minoribns oppofitis vel alternis ramofis, pinnatus ; nonnunquam 
e ncrvo primario petiolus prodit, folium alterum quafi proliferum 
formans — Fructification tubercula fphcerica pedunculata, atro-pur- 
purca in petiolis, rarius in nervis foliorum fita. 

This plant may undoubtedly be confidered as the mod beautiful 
of the whole genus. The elegant form, the waved margins, and 
delicate veining of the leaves w T ill readily diftinguifh it from all its 
congeners. The fubflance of the (tern is cartilaginous, that of the 
leaves membranaceous, extremely thin and tender ; the whole is 
generally diaphanous, though in a very advanced ftate the ftem is 
fometimes opake. It frequently is only fimply branched ; the ftem 
is then very Ihort, and bears a few leaves, each fupported on afhort 
footftalk: others are very much branched, but in thefe the feparate 
.branches foon terminate, and form footftalks to the leaves : in the 
former (late it is well reprefented by Gmelin, and in the latter is 
very well figured in FL Dan. The leaves vary from three or four 
inches to a foot in length, and from half an inch to two or more in 
breadth. The footftalk is nearly round, but is continued through 
the leaf, where it is comprefTed, and forms a ftrong midrib, which 
is pinnated with others very flender, and either fimple or branched' 
at the bale. Thefe are fometimes alternate, but more frequently 
oppofite, as reprefented in FL Dan. though they are very rarely fo 
confpicuous, or fo much branched as in that figure. Sometimes 
the leaf becomes proliferous, a footflalk arifing from the midrib, 


the Briti/Jj Fuci> with particular Defcriptions of each Species. in 

and forming a new leaf, (imilar to, and nearly as large as, that from 
which itifTues. The fructification, which is rarely met with, con- 
fifts of minute round tubercles, each fupported on a fhort peduncle, 
and when filled with ripe feeds of a dark purple colour, nearly 
black, fituate on the footftalks of the leaves. Similar tubercles are 
fometimes obferved placed on the midrib of the larger leaves. 
It adheres to the rocks by a fmall, thick, folid, but knobbed and 
mifhapen callofity, and is found on various parts of the Britifh 
coaft. We have met with it at Sidmouth in Devonshire, and Fal- 
mouth in Cornwall ; and it has alfo been thrown up along with 
other rejectamenta upon the fandy fhore at Yarmouth in Norfolk. 

3. Fucus sinuosus. 

F. caule tereti ramofo, foliis oblongis undulatis ramofo-finua- 
tis fpinofo-dentatis. Buddie, p. 26. «.. 3. Uvedale, p. 11.71. 3. 

R* Syn. p. 47. n. 34. Fl. Dan. t. 6 52. 
Fucus crenatus. Gmeiin y 184. /. 24./. I. 
Fucus rubens. Fl, Ang. p. $73. FL Scot. p. 943. Withering, vol. 3. 

A 2 35- 
Var. /3 foliis fubcartilagineis dentatis. 

Habitat in littoribus marinis ubique j /5 apud Cromer Norfolcias. 

Adhaeret rupibus callo paululum explanato — From palmaris, 
rubra — Caulis filiformis, teres, crailitie fill emporetici minoris, ra- 
mofus — Folia fub-oppofita membranacea, tenera, obovata, crenata 
crenis diftantibus, fefquiuncialia, nervofa — Nervus primarius me- 
dium folium percurrens, aliis conflanter oppofitis pinnatus eft — 
matura planta. folia prolifera evadunt ; fcilicet nervi laterales elon- 
gati, et demum foliorum oblongorum primarii fiunt ; exinde mar- 
9 gines,, 

112 Dr. GoodenOUgh and Mr. Woodward'j Obfervalhns on 

gines, necnon, fed rarius, utriufque paging nervi, proceffubus den- 
tato-fpinofis tuberculifcris armati funt. 

From the examination of the Linnaean Herbarium it appears, 
that this elegant fpecies was entirely unknown to Linnseus, and 
that the rutins of Sp. PL and his other works is the plant which is 
called crtfpus in the Flora Anglica y and prolifer in the Flora Scotica. 
We have therefore been under the necefTity of giving a new name 
to this fpecies. 

The different appearances of this plant in the different ft ages of 
its growth, render it very difficult to give a defcription by which it 
may be recognifed at all ages, and at the fame time to avoid that 
prolixity which is fo repugnant to the principles laid down in the 
Philofophia Boianica. 

In its young (late, it prefents a branched frond with obovate 
crenated leaves, extremely refembling in lhape the young leaves of 
the oak; whence its Englifh name. After this the lateral nerves 
{hoot out, the crence are formed into deep Mures, and the feparate 
leaves put on a pinnatifid appearance, with fomewhat linear feg- 
ments. In the change from one of thefe flates to the other, it is 
excellently figured Ft. Dan. 652, where both forts of leaves are re- 
prefented. Gm. 24. 1. reprefents it in a more advanced flate, but 
very indifferently. 

In maturity, the whole margin of the frond is clofely fringed 
with what appear to the naked eye to be minute fpines or cilia, and 
which examined with a common eye-glafs in a ftate of fructifica- 
tion might be fuppofed lanceolate pedunculated tubercles; but 
which when highly magnified are found to be dentated proceffes 
of the leaf, in which are imbedded minute tubercles replete with 

3 In 

the Briti/b Fuci, with particular Vefcriptions of each Species. 113 

In feme of the older fpecimens, but very rarely, thefe proceflTes are 
aifo to be feen on the nerves, as well lateral as principal, on each 
fur face of the leaf; and even on the naked nerve, where it has been 
deprived of its membrane. When in this ftate they are of different 
fizes, and clearly fhew themfelves to be really proliferous leaves, 
evincing the remarkably ftrong reproductive property polTeffed by 
this fpecies, to which the various forms in which it appears are 
principally owing ; for, in a very advanced ftate, it frequently hap- 
pens that the membranaceous part of the leaf is much torn and de- 
stroyed, the ribs then appear like branchings of the Item, and from 
every part of them young leaves are feen to arife, and even from 
the ribs and nerves of the decaying leaves. 

The whole plant is bright red, the leaves membranaceous, ex- 
tremely thin and delicate ; the fructification deep red, when ripe 
nearly black. 

jS. a variety occurs, though rarely of a fubftance approaching to 
cartilaginous, in which the proceffes on the margin are more dif- 
tant, much larger, and appear flat to the naked eye, mewing them- 
felves to be teeth and not fpines or cilia, each having, when in 
fructification, a larger and more conspicuous tubercle imbedded in 
it. We have met with this variety only at Cromer on the coaft of 

4. Fucus Hypoglossum. 

F. caule ramofo alato, foliis lineari-lanceolatis planis integer- 
rim is proliferis. Linn. Tranf. v. 1. p. 30. t. 7. 
F. Hypogloffum — F. lingulatus. Solander in Herb. Bankf. 
Habitat in rupibus fubmarinis fatis frequens. 
Radix callus minimus craffus — Frons 2 — 3 uncialis Iaste rubra, 
Vojl. III. Q membranacea 

114 Dr, GoODENOUGH and Mr. Woodward'j Obfervations on 

membranacea tenerrima — Caulis breviflimus, teres, filiformis ramo- 
fus, ramis membrana tenuiftima utrinque alatis — Folia membranacea 
plann, integerrima, figura. magnopere variant; plerumque lineari- 
lanceolata funt, faepe autem linearia, lanceolata ; nonnunquam ad 
formam ovalem accedentia inveniuntur. Folia adultiorum per- 
currit coda craffiufcula, ex qua oriuntur folia plurima prolifera, et 
ex his iterum iterumque alia, poflrema femper lanceolata — Frudiifi- 
cat'io, tubercula parva ruberrima, in ipsa. cofll fita — Occurrunt 
etiam fpecimina in quibus tubercula nulla in cofhis adfunt, fed gra~ 
nula minutiffima rubra in membrana ad utrumque coflas latus 
feriatim difpofita obfervantur. 

This elegant fpecies cannot be confounded with any other in 
this divifion, or indeed in the whole genus ; the perfectly entire 
leaves, repeatedly proliferous, and always from the midrib, with 
the total abfence of lateral nerves, fufficiently diftinguifhing it. 

The (talk, and the fhort branches, from which the leaves arife, 
are winged with a thin membrane in the younger plants ; and from 
this circumftance, in a former volume of thefe Tranfactions, it was 
propofed to place it in the order Alati: but in the older fpecimens 
this membrane is frequently wanting ; and the leaves being as com- 
pletely diftintt as mfanguineus, or any other fpecies in this divifion, 
it has been thought mod ccnfonant to the general arrangement 
to place it here. 

The twofold appearance of the fructification requires particular 
observation. In fome plants confpicuous tubercles of a deep red 
colour, and evidently filled with feeds, are to be obferved on the* 
midrib — in others, only very minute red dots, difpofed in parallel 
lines, upon the membrane on each fide of the midrib ; and thefe 
different appearances have never been obferved on the fame plant. 


the Brhiji) Fuci> with particular Defcriptions of each Species, 115 

In confequence of this, the celebrated Dr. Solander, in a manufcript 
preferved in the library of Sir Jofeph Banks, has defcribed them as 
two different fpecies ; at the fame time exprefTmg his doubts whether 
they might not be male and female of the fame fpecies. In the prefent 
imperfect knowledge of the nature and properties of marine plants, 
it is impoffible for us to determine this point; and from the imprac- 
ticability of examining thefe plants whilff. actually growing in their 
native element, it is probable that the manner in which the impreg- 
nation is performed may ever remain among the arcana of nature. 
We cannot however doubt, but that both thefe appearances are 
that of female fructification : for in F. a/atus, and fome other 
fpecies, granules as well as tubercles are obferved ; and they have 
been traced from one to the other, fo as to allow us to conclude 
that the granules are the firft vifible appearances of the female fruc- 
tification, and that fome of themfwell into tubercles, whilft others 
are abortive and difappear. It is extremely probable that thefe 
circumftances alfo take place in this fpecies : the only objection to 
it is, that the granules for the moft part appear on the membrana- 
ceous parts, and the feed-bearing tubercles are never found in any 
other fituation than on the midrib. 

That thefe granules are feeds efcaped from, or expofed by the 
deciduous co.ats of the tubercles, as fuggefted in the former defcrip- 
tion of this plant, is improbable, from the regularity of their difpo- 
fition, and the fpace which they fo regularly cover in every fpeci- 
men which has been obferved, though we have reafon to fuppofe 
that one of thefe circumftances does take place in a fpecies recently 
difcovered by the ingenious Mr. Stackhoufe, a member of this So- 
ciety, and which will be defcribed by him. 

In this ftate of uncertainty we muft conclude the fubject, with 
allowing that it is not impoffible, but that thefe plants, though fo 

Q^2 perfectly 

Ii6 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward j Obfervatiom on- 

perfectly fimilar in appearance, may be, as fuppofcd by Dr. Solan- 
der, really diftin£l fpecies, and recommending to botanifh fituated 
on the (hores where they ate iound, to obferve them carefully at 
all feafons. It may be proper to notice, that the fpecimens which 
have been found plentifully on the Norfolk coaft, have all been of 
the tuberculated fort ; and that thefe have been but rarely met with, 
on the weftern coaft, where the granulated fort is very frequent. 

5. Fucus ovalis. 

F. caule tereti ramofo rigidiufculo, foliis ovalibus carnofis* 

Jacquin CollcSl. v. 3. t. 13.^ I. 
FL Ang. p, 578. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 235. 
Habitat in rupibus marinis in Infula Portlandica— prope Ex- 
Radix ftbrofa — Frons 3 — 4uncialis, rubra — Cast/is teres, filiformis^ 
rigidiufculus, craflitie fill emporetici minoris, ramofus — Rami pauci 
ejufdem ac caulis craflitiei et fubftantia?, patentee — Folia ovalia 
valde carnofa, fubgelatinofa, tres lineas Ionga, vix fefquilineam lata, 
fa?pius feiiilia, nonnunquam petiolo breviffimo inftructa, nunc al- 
terna, nunc fparfa, inferne rariora, apicem frondis verfus fub-con- 
feita — FruSlificatio, tubercula parva, ex rubro nigrefcentia in foliis 
praefertim inferioribus fparfa, exferta, necnon ramis adhaerentia. 

This elegant fpecies is diftinguifhed from fedoides by its more 
rigid and patent branches, and by the fhape of its leaves, which 
are more thinly fcattered below, but fomewhat crowded upwards. 
It is farther diftinguiihed by the fructification, which confifls of 
much larger and fewer tubercles than in fedoides, fituated upon the 
furface of the leaves, from which they vifibly project. The diftinc- 


the Brtttjb Fuci y -with particular Defcriptions of each Species* 117 

t-ions between this and dafyphyllus are fufficiently pointed out under 
that fpecies. 

From' the fpecinc characters and defcriptions given of this 
plant, and Jedoides which follows it, they cannot but be confi- 
dent as perfectly diftinct; but a confufion has arifen from Mr. 
Hudfon's having quoted two different fpecies of Gmelin for this 
plant, which was probably occafioned by his having never feen 
fidoides. Mr. Lightfoot certainly confidered them as diftincl:, having 
quoted Gmelin's vermicular/^ and taken no notice whatsoever of his 
pofypodioides, or the ova/is of Hudfon. 

That the p lvp f >dioides of Gmelin ought to be referred to this fpe- 
cies cannot be doubted, when it is confidered that he inferts it folely 
on the authority of Marryn, whofe figure is very indifferent, and who 
has given no defcription. As to his defcribing the 1 a es as membra- 
naceous inftead of flethy, that ought' to have no weight, as the 
dried fpecimens maft always have that appearance. It is owing to 
this alfo that Gmelin has erroneonfly placed this fpecies amongft 
his membranaceous fuci r when it certainly ought to have been 
placed next to vermicularis. 

Sometimes largifh folitary tubercles are obferved adhering to the 
main branches and to the leaves alfo. This we deem the true form 
of the fr u&ification. It is very rarely to be met with in this Situa- 


F. caule tereti ramofo tenero, ramis dichotomis, foliis cylm- 
dricis utnnque attenuatis fuperioribus confertis. Reaumur, 
Act. Gall. 17 1 2. p. 40. t. 4. J. 8 - 

Eucus vermicularis. Gm.p. 162. U 18./ 4. mala. F-L Scot. p. 958. 


n8 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'; Obfervatiom on 

Habitat in rupibus Infularum Jurae. D. Lightfoot. Inter rejecta- 
menta maris apud Yarmouth Norfolcise legimus. 

Radix callus paululum explanatus — From triuncialis ex albo vire- 
fcens, nonnunquam etiam rubefcens, tenera — Caulis teres, filifor- 
mis, craffitie fili emporetici minoris, ramofus — Rami dichotomi, 
fubdivaricati, caule vix tenuiores — Folia cylindrica utrinque atte- 
nuata, nonnunquam bifida, fparfa, ad fuperiorem frondis partem 
confertiffima, gelatinofa — Fruciijicaiio, tubercula numerofiflima, 
minutiffirna, laete rubra, in foliis prasfertim fuperioribus fita. 

This fpecies is Sufficiently diftinguiihed from its affinities, ova/is 
and dafyphyllus, in the defcriptions of thofe plants. That it has been 
confounded with ovaiis cannot be doubted by any one who confi- 
ders the defcriptions of Hudfon and Lightfoot, and compares them 
with the account given by Gmelin in his FUJI. Fucorum (p. 162 — 
186) of his two fpecies, vermicularis and polypodioides. Mr, Lights 
foot's accurate defcription of vermicularis clearly points out this 
plant; and though it was not necefTary for him to mark any dis- 
tinctions between this and Mr. Hudfon's ovaiis, it is certain he con- 
fidered them diftincT:, from his not quoting ovaiis as a fyncnym, or 
taking any notice of Gmelin' 's polypodioides. 

The Shape and growth of the leaves very much refemble the 
Sedum album of Linn, as obferved in Fl. Scot. ; and this has induced us 
to give to this fpecies the trivial name oifedoides, inftead of the un- 
meaning one of vermicularis, which had been adopted from Gmelin. 
The whole plant is more tender and gelatinous than ovaiis, and 
the fructification differs confiderably, confiding of extremely mi- 
nute red tubercles, placed on the leaves, particularly the upper 
ones, and Scarcely riling above the furface. In this circumftance 
it nearly approaches the genus Viva ; but when it is confidered that 


the Br it if 3 Fua\ with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 119 


die fructification is not diftributed over the whole of the frond, 
and, though fituated almcft within the furfa ce, is not actually im- 
merfed, and that not any is to be found in the internal fubftance 
of the leaves, the propriety of placing it in the genus Fucus, will 
fcarcely be difputed. 

We have never found it in a growing ft ate, but have gathered it 
amongft other rejectamenta on the beach at Yarmouth in Norfolk ; 
we cannot therefore fpeak with certainty of its mode of growth, 
but have ventured to defcribe the root as diicoid on the authority 
of omelin- 


F. caule tereti ramofo, ramis filiformibus fub-fimplicibus, foliis 

cylindricis obtufis bafi attenuatis fparfis. 
Linn. Tranf vol. 2. p. 239. t, 2$f. I. 2. 3. 
H.ibitat in rupibus et faxis marinis apud Cromer Norfolcia?. 
Adhasret rupibus difco paululum explanato, furculos emittente,- 
unde novas frondes oriuntur — From folitaria leu gregaria, fub-carti- 
laginea tenera, teres, filiformis, rubra, ftatim ramofa — -Rami fili- 
formes, fub-fimplices, craflitie fili emporetici minoris, ad bafin fub- 
nudi, dein foliacei, apicibus obtufis — Folia cylindrica, fub-gelatinofa,. 
feffilia, apice obtufiflima, bafi valde attenuata, i — 4 ltneas longa, fe- 
milineam lata, inferiora longiora, fuperiora breviora, frequentiffime 
aliorum minorum prolifera, pallide rubra nonnunquam viridantia — 
FruSlificatio) tubercula minutiffima, ruberrima, fparfa, ad inferiorem 
ramorum partem,, aliquando etiam fed rarius in foliis fita. 

This fpecies is diftinguiihed from ovalis and fedoides, the only 

ones in this fub-divifion to which it has any affinity, by the 

1 fhape 

120 Dr. Ggodenough and Mr. Woodward'; Objervat'iom -on 

fhape of the leaves, and by the fructification, which in the two 
latter is ufually on the leaves, but in this is very rarely found in 
that fituation, but is fcattered on the lower branches where they 
are deftitute of leaves. 

In a delcription given of this plant in a former volume of the 
Linnasan Transactions, it is hinted that probably this fpecies and 
ovalh ought rather to be placed in the divifion fronde tereti "■; and 
moil certainly this in particular has great affinity with fome of the 
plants in that divifion, the leaves being nearly of the fame fub- 
ftance as the reft of the frond, and the tubercles being principally 
fituared on the naked branches. But on more mature confide- 
ration, we are convinced that avails cannot properly be ar- 
ranged in any other divifion than the prefent, the fhape of the 
leaves, and their fomewhat comprefTed furface, abfolutely forbid- 
ding it ; and the very great affinity which fubfifls between dafy- 
fby/lus, ovalis, and fedoides, requires that they lhould be placed to- 
gether. This muft therefore be conudered as adding One more to 
the numerous proofs of the impoffibility of confining the endlefs 
variety of nature within the bounds of any artificial fyfiem. 

It grows, but not very abundantly, on the rocks and ftones at 
Cromer on the coaft of Norfolk, and has been found on various 
other parts of the Britifh coaft. 

8. FUCUS MEMBRANIFOLIUS. Tab. l6. Fig. I, 2. 

F. caule tereti ramofo apice membranaceo dilatato dichotomo 
foliis enerviis fub-bilobis, tuberculis pedunculatia. 
Var. |3 radiams — foliis bafi incraftatis fanguineis. Buddie^ p. 27 

n. 6. 
Var. y lacer— foliis aequalibus fub-Iiuearibus. Buddie, p. 2j 7 n. 1.4. 


_ // ;/ fl . , />,tsl.i.\K..Arr/:/6/t /'" 


S'' //*cs/t (' it a ?/(/(■///{., 

the Britijh Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 121 

Mor. Hifl. Oxon. iii. p. 648. / 15. /. 9. f. 2. R. Syn. p. 44, 
n. 19. 

Fucus Pfeudoccranoides. Gmelin. p. 119. /. 7./. 4. 
Fucus ceranoides var. y lacerus. Fl. Ang. p. 583. Fl. Scot, 
p. 916. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 249. 
Var. & fimbriatus — foliis ciliatis. Fig. 2. 

Fucus fimbriatus. Fl. Ang. p. 574. Withering, vol. 3. p. 236. 

Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis. — Var. <P in Infula Portlan- 
dica, fed rarius. 

Radix, difcus explanatus — Cautis 2 — 9 uncialis, fubdichotomus, 
ramofus, bafi nudus, fimplex, teretiufculus, fuperne foliofus, rarao- 
fus, compreffus — Rami omnes ad latera folia membranacea, icmun- 
cialia, dilatata, breviter petiolata, rubra gerunt ; apex in membranam 
breviufculam, dilatatam, rubram, varie dichotomam abit — Hxc 
membrana foliorum formam omnino refert — Folia lateralia faepe 
fimplicia, modo biloba ; horum lobi, turn membranae terminalis, 
obtufi funt — Frudiificatioy tubercula, ad latera ramorum fita, parva, 
ovata, compreffa, glabra, breviter pedunculata, pedunculo comprefib, 
feminibus rubris foeta. 

Var. j8 in omnibus fere a. fimillima eft, at lobi foliorum, membra- 
nxque terminalis faepius acutiufculi — Rami, antequam in membranam 
abeunt, longius protenfi funt, et inde radicibus, quae ex cauliculis 
plantarum repentibus prodeunt, haud abfimiles. Quod autem prae- 
cipue obfervandum, bafis foliorum, turn etiam membranac terminalis, 
incraffatur, et colore fanguineo, five crudac carnis, notabilis. 

Var. y folia, et membranam terminalis diviiuras, tenuiores et 
acutiufculas habet — Paulo altius crefcit — Frutiificaiio, eadem ac in 
var. a. 

Var. 1 — Folia omnia et membrana terminalis longiora fun qflam 
in praecedentibus ; porro ciliata ; at ne veftigium quidem fructifi- 

Vol. III. R cationis 

122 Dr. Goodenough and'Mr, Woodward** Obfervations on 

cationis nobis cUia vifa funt dare — Ramidi aphylli protenfi funt ut in 
van j2 — Lobi foliorum et membranse terminalis acuti admodunu. 

The nrft variety is found upon the coaft of Norfolk, the fecond. 
and third are very general, the fourth has been gathered by us only 
on the hie of Portland. 

Mr. Hudfon, from obferving the branches at length terminating 
in a dilated membrane, daffed the third variety with his Ceranoidei 
in his dividon fronde plana avenid. At the fame time the fourth 
variety was placed in his divifion foliis diji'mclis ; as, in good truth, 
that and all the other varieties, from their having fo perfect a re- 
femblance of petiolated leaves, ought to have been. Perhaps, ltrictly 
fpeaking, thefe petiolated leaves are only young branches, ending,, 
like the larger ones, in a dilated membrane. 

There is no danger of its being miftaken for any other Fucus m 
this divifion, being kept perfectly diftinct by its nervelefs dichoto- 
mous leaves, and terminal membrane. 

In Gmelin's figure the tubercles are reprefented fefiile, in -our 
fpecimens they are all pedunculated ; from the narrownefs of the 
frond, that as well as Morifon's figure is more applicable to our 
third variety than the firft. The fyn. of Morifon quoted by 
Gmelin ought to be excluded. Whoever will take the trouble to 
confult Morifon, will immediately find that he is fpeaking of a plant 
of an entirely different order. 

The cilia on the edges of the fourth variety appear to be a fort 
of lufus nature, to be the rudiments of leaves or membranes, and to 
have no concern in the production of any thing relating to the 
fructification. In all our fpecimens the fructification is produced 
on the branches, and is always fupported by a very fhort pe- 


the Britijh Fuc/\ ivlth particular Defcriptions of each Species. 12 a 

The colour of this Fucus varies — fometimes it is of a li^ht red — ■ 
fometimes it appears herbaceous and green — at other times it is 
found of a parchment colour, and even white, owing to its having 
been expofed to the fun when call up upon the more. In the fe- 
cond variety the bafe of the leaves and terminal membrane keeps 
its colour of blood or raw fleih in all expofures. 


F. fronde plana avenia fub-triplicato-pinnata, ramis ramulifque 
dittichis, foliis lineari-lanceolatis fpinofo-dentatis. FL Scotica, 
p. 946. pi. 29. — IVlth. 3. p. 248. 
F. herbaceus. Fl. Anglica, p. 582. 

Inter rejectamenta maris apud Weymouth, Exmouth, et in Infnla. 
Portlandica, necnon apud Yarmouth in Norfolcia. 

Radix Frons valde ramofa, pallide virefcens, tenuis admodum 

et pellucida, plana avenia — Caulis primarius rectus perpetuus, lati- 
ufculus, fpinulis et ramis diftichis divaricatis-— Hi rami in ramulos 
faepe multoties dividuntur, omnes ejufdem ac primarius nature et 
fubftantia? — Tandem quafi in foliola abennt lanceolato-linearia, 
marginibus fpinofo-dentatis — Altitudo I — 3 pedalis et ultra — Frucli- 
Jtc-atio hodie latet. 

This plant grows ufually in very deep water, and is to be met 
with only when the force of feme current has feparated it from its 
native rock. We never remember to have feen an entire plant 
with its root. The fragments which we have feen have been 
fometimes more than a yard in length, and branching out to a con- 
fiderable extent. Mr. Lightfoot's figure (which is of a very fmall 
fragment) is executed with great fidelity* His defcription is very 

R 2 good, 

124 >Dr. Goodenough and Mr \ WoodwArdV Obfervathns on 

good, except with refpect to the expanfion of the plant, which he 
confines to fix or eight inches ; his own figure reprefents it much 
larger. Large fpecimens extend to nearly or quite two feet, or even 

Its green colour induced Mr. Hudfon to call it herbaceus — Mr. 
Lightfoot's name Ugulatus was prior, and is more characteriftic ; we 
have therefore reftorcd it. 

When carefully expanded it makes a very beautiful appearance. 
We have never feen any thing like fructification upon it. Its tex- 
ture borders very clofely upon that of U/va i which we almoft fufpect 
it to be ; but the fpinofity of the leaves connects it with Fucus. It 
may ferve perhaps as the link connecting thefe two genera. The 
main (talk produces all its branches, which are very ramofe, in 
adiftich order, and belides is befet with numerous but diftant fpines 
or tabulate rudiments of branches. The lad: divifions, which 
from their appearance we denominate leaves, (and under which 
idea we refer this plant to the divifion foliis unitisj) are beautifully 
ciliated with minute fpines or leaves, which are again alfo themfelves 

It feems fomething extraordinary that none of the older botanifts 
have noticed this plant. 

10. Fucus SILIgUOSUS. 

F. fronde comprefla ramofa ; foliis diftichis alternis oblongis ; 

veficulis pedunculatis oblongis articulatis mucronatis. Buddie, 

p. 15, n, I. lived ale, p. 1. n. 2. and p. 5. ». 1, 2. Buddie and 

Vernon, without fructification, p. 22. n. 3. 

Gmelin, p. 81, /. 2 B. Fl. Dan. 106. ./&?. Pari/. 1772 partie 2de, 

pL 4. /. 22, 1-m-n-o-f-q. in fructification — the root, f, 20, 21. 

7 R. Sytk 

the TSriti/Jj Fuci, with particular De/c rip t ions of each Species. 1 25 

R. Syn. P. 48. n. 39. "Linn. Sp. PL 1629. FL Ang. p. 574. 
Fl. Scot. p. 921. Withering, 3. p. 236. 

Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis paflim. 

Radix, callus expanfus, qui autem in plantis provectioribus fxpe 
conoideus, ligni inftar durus — From cartilaginca valde ramofa com- 
prefla, ramis ramulifque diftichis alternis, 1 — 4 pcdalis, glaberrima — 
Rami ramulique modo valde diftantes, modo conferti. Ad latera 
ramorum ramulorumque folia oriuntur, difticha omnia, plana, 
nervo medio dbfoletiufculo, oblonga, qua? mox filiqnarum inftar 
intumefcunt — Ergo ante fructificationem, folia quafi jure fuo appel- 
lentur, intumefcentia autem veficulae — Ex his veficulis quaedam 
grandiores evadunt, articulate, cellulis 9 — 12 cavis vacuis. Alue 
minores ad apicem ramorum omnino folida?, diflepimcnto medio 
longitudinali. Intus ad latera feminum minimorum congeries plu- 
rimae — Vejicula: omnes oblongce, et mucronatae, five apice producto 
obtufiufculo — Color olivaceus. 

There is no need of labouring the description of this plant, as 
it in fact has no rival ; its pod-like leaves or proceiTes being a pecu- 

We were furprifed to find at Weymouth large plants of this 
fpecies thrown up by the fea entirely void of all fructification, or 
indeed any approaches to it; the leaves being lengthened to a very 
considerable degree, and exceedingly narrow and thin. 

The procefTes which we call leaves, after fome time thicken and 
fwell, and afTume the form of pods. We have examined a great 
number of them, and have always obferved the generality of the 
older ones to be holiow, cellular, and void of feeds. Thofe placed 
towards the extremities of the branches are cartilaginous and folid, 


126 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'/ Obfervations on 

with a ftrong partition running up the middle, and clufters of feeds 
adhering to the fides of the pods on the in fide. In the hollow 
cellular pods, traces of this diffepiment or partition are to be 
obferved ; one largifh and feveral very fmall filaments running 
throughout longitudinally, and connecting all the cells. Whether 
thefe cavities arife from their having fried their feeds, or from the 
abortion of them, may be an object worthy of the attention of 
thoie who have an opportunity of watching them through the 
feveral ftages of their growth. It is obfervable that the leaves, as 
they are called, have all a rib or nerve palling up the middle; 
when the fructification takes place and the leaf fwells, this rib be- 
•comes a partition line or diffepiment. 

The pods are very liable to be broken off by the force of the 
waves. The plant often afTumes a very difguifed form from this 
accident ; oftentimes not a fingle pod or leaf remains throughout 
the whole frond. Here botanical experience afTumes its due con- 


F. fronde filiformi-compreiTa pinnata, ramulis extremis veficu- 
lofis, veliculis terminatis foliolis multipartitis obtufis. Herb. 
Linn. Sp. PI. 1629. FI. Ang. 575. 
Habitat in mari Anglico. Leofiing. 

Radix . From filiformis aliquantulum comprefTa, craffi- 

tie pennae corvinse, femipedalis — Folia pinnata fub-alterna, pro fitu 
varia ; inferiora fcilicet fimplicia, linearia, dentata ; dein pauca pin- 
natifida ; cetera ramofifTima et fupradecompofita fegmentis filifor- 
mibus— Folia fuperiora veficulofa funt, veficulis concatenatis, foliolis 
1 multi- 

the Briti/Jj Fuci^ with particular Defer ;f lions of each Species, j 27 

multipartitis obtufis terminals — Fruclifcatia, tubercula minuta in 
foliolis terminalibus, et in ipfis vcliculis feminitera,--G?/sr recentis 
plantse olivaceus, ficcatse niger. 

This fpecies has been involved in great doubt and obfeurity: but 
the inflection of the Linnaean Herbarium, in which the actual Spe- 
cimen gathered by Leofltng on the Britifh coaft: is prefcrved, has 
entirely removed the difficulty. 

The fpecific character and defcription given above weve made 
from a young and vigorous fpecimen brought from the Mediter- 
ranean, in which all the leaves were whole, and had apparently all 
their mod minute ramifications. That in the Lmnrcean collection, 
and from which Linnseus himfelf formed his fpecific character, is 
a much older one, in which the lower linear lei- es and the fine 
of the upper ones are broken off; as is the cafe with iiioit lea plants 
when long expofed to the action of the waves. 

In the fecond MantifTa this fpecies is 1-1 erred to Fucus catcnfis^ 
Gm. 157. /. 17. f. i.; but certainly erroneouih, as is evident from the 
Linnaean fpecimen before mentioned, than which nothing is more 
unlike caperfis. 

It differs from barbatus in having veficles, and in fome other par- 
ticulars which are pointed out under that fpecies. It agrees with 
fam'cu/ocetts, in having frequently one or more leaves growing from 
the fides of the veficles ; but differs in having thefe leaves constantly 
obtufely terminated, whilft thofe of faniculaceus are always fubulate. 
It differs alio from the latter in the fhape of the lower leaves and 
in colour. 

We have never met with this fpecies in a growing ftate ; but have 
defci ibed it as an Engliih plant on the authority of LeotYmg's fpe- 
cimen in the Linnaean Herbarium, and from having feen it among 


ia8 Dr. GoodenougH and Mr. WoodwardV Obfervations on 

the remains of Mr. Hudfon's collection, now in the pofTeflion of ' 
A. B. Lambeitj'Efq. F. L. S. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofiffima, ramulis extremis tuberculatis, 

tuberculis congeftis foliolo fubulato terminatis. 
Fucus foeniculaceus. Gmelin,p. 86. U 2. A. f. 1. 
Fucus fceniculaceus. FL Ang. 575. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 238. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis, in Devonia. Hudfon. 

Radix ■ --. Frons teres filiformis 6 — 8 uncialis, craflitie 

pennam corvinam vix asquans, ftatim a radice ramofa, ramis iterum 
inordinatim ramofiflimis, ramulis fupremis tenuiflimis tuberculatis 
— Tubercula aliquando folitaria, frequentiflime in formam ovalem 
congefta, haud raro fuprema bifida ; cuncta in juniore asque ac per- 
fection planta foliolo fubulato terminata, quod autem in fenefcenti 
frequenter deed — Color recentis plantas lutefcens, vel ex luteo rubef- 
cens, iiccatas nigernmus. 

After the account which has been given offaniculaceus, it will not 
be furprifmg that this plant fhould aifo have been the fubject of 
much error; and that it fhould have been defcribed as bearing 
veficles or air bladders ; which has tended to confound it, not only 
with foeniculaceus, but alfo with abrotanifolius zndjibro/us. What have 
been taken for veficles, on the mod careful examination with good 
glafles, evidently appear to be congeries of feed-bearing tubercles : 
and this is farther confirmed by the irregularity of their fhape ; 
for, though they are generally oval, they vary confiderably in their 
proportional length and thicknefs, and fome of the terminal ones are 


the Bi itiJJj Fuci y with particular Defcriptions of each Species. 129 

frequently bifid, reprcfenting in miuiature the fruit-bearing termina- 
tions of Fuctts veftculofuL 

The figure of Gmelin is fo accurate, though it reprefents a fingle 
branch only, and not an entire plant, that it cannot be miftaken ; 
and his defcription confirms our affertion of the want of air blad- 
ders, as he fays, the veficles confiil of a congeries of tubercles ap- 
pearing to be full of feeds. 

We have never obferved the terminating fubulate leaves to be 
wanting in the perfect plants, though in old ones they frequently 
arc, being broken off by the force of the waves ; we have there- 
fore adopted this as part of the fpecific character, to diitinguifh this 
fpecies from abrotanlfoUus^ which always has the branches terminated 
by a multipartite leaf with obtufc fegments. It is farther diftin- 
guiflied from abrotamjolius by the want of veficles, by being branched 
directly from the root, and by the branches and lubdivifions growing 
without order ; in the latter alfo the veficles and fructification arc 
obfervable on the upper branches only, but in this the tubercles 
are to be found on all the fmall ramifications. It is diftinguiuhable 
from jibrofus, by its fmaller fize, its terminating fructification and 
want of veficles ; and from fcenkulaceus and concatenatus of Linnxus, ' 
by its want of veficles and its black colour when dried. 

The quotation of Gmelin' s accurate figure and defcription of this 
plant in Syjl. Nat. and the erroneous fynonyms given by Gmelin him- 
felf, are a fufficient apology for Mr. Hudfon's fuppofing this plant 
thcfcenfculaceus of Linnaeus ; notwithstanding the mention of veficles 
in the fpecific character, which are totally wanting in this fpecies, 
might have led him to lufpett fome error. 

We have not defcribed the root; the fpecimens which have fallen 
under our obfervation not having any : but it is reafonable to con- 
dude, that both this fpecies and abrotamjolius adhere to the rocks by 

Vol. III. S fome 

130 Dr. GoonEuovGB and Mr, Woodward'/ Obfervatwns on 

fome fort of callous expanfion, as we -.know that fuch are the roots- 
of their affinities finicukceus and fbrcfus. 


F. fronde filiform! ramofiflima, foliis fubularis, terminalibus 
confertis arete imbricatis, bafi tuberculiferis. Herb. Linn. 
Buddie ', p. 18. n. 2. 19. n. 2. 5, P ether, p. 40. n. 3. 
Fucus erica marina. Gmeiirs^ p. 128. & II. f 2. — non bona, 

Linn. MSS. 
Fucus tamarifcifolius. FL Ang. 576. Withering, 3. p. 239. 
Habitat in rupibus fubmarinis in Infula. Portlandia. — In corn. 

Cornubise, Devoniae, Eboraei. 
Radix callus expanfus craffus durus — Frons primo ortu dura lig- 
nofa teres, at frequentius ramis vi fluctuum abruptis, fuperficie in- 
asquali. Haud mora ramofa fit ramis omnibus dense ftipatis 
— Rami longiufcull in plurimos ramulos alternatim fitos divi- 
duntur. Hi ramuli folia plurima alterna fubulata gerunt inferne 
remotiufcula, fuperne conferta arete imbricata— Ad apicem ramulo- 
rum haic folia bafi extus tubercula exhibent, minuta, rotunda, gla- 
berrima, veficulas referentia, quse fructificationem praeftant — Color 
nigricans — Altitudo 3 — 9 uncialis, 

Obf. Tubercula ad bafm foliorum, foliis ipfis fub-duplo ampliora. 

Mr. Hudfon confounded our F. ericoides and fclaginoidcs under the 
same tamarifcifolius, and, imagining them to be one and the fame, 
framed his defcription accordingly. We have fpoken fufficiently 
of fthginoides under that article. F. ericoides is conftantly diftin- 
guiihable by its numerous branches growing clofe together in the 
manner of a fhrub, and by its leaves alternate and fomewhat re- 

6 mote 

the Br it ft Fact, with particular T)ejcriptkns of each Species. \^\ 

mote from each other at the bafe of the branches, but cluttered 
together at the fummit. Thefe cluttered leaves produce a fmall 
veficle or tubercle on the outfide of their bafe, not much larger 
than the leaf itfclf : — this proportion of the veficle to the leaf flioukl 
be conftantly attended to, as it is a very talking mark of diltinclion 
from felaghw/des in its moil difguifed forms. The leaves at the 
fummit, cluttered together with the tubercles at their bafe, refemble 
in fome degree a bunch of grapes in miniature. The fmall branches 
in this fpecies grow fomewhat zigzag. 

Dr. Withering is the flrft who {tyattXedfeldgtrtotdes from iamarif- 
cifollus of Hudfon. He gives us alfo Major Velley's remark upon 
the casrulean tints which are reflected from the branches. It 
always appeared to us a blue faint light, fuch as is often obferv- 
able on oyfter-fhells, when the friction of the knife has touched 
upon a part loaded with nitrous particles. At times this light is 
very copious, and of courfe truly characteriftic and ornamental : it 
is obfervable only when under water. 

It adheres to rocks moft ftrongly ; no fucus having a much 
Wronger organ of adhefion, or a tougher fubttance. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofiflima, debili ; foliis fubulatis, laxiuf- 

cule imbricatis, bafi tuberculiferis ; tuberculis contiguis. 
Sp, PI. 1629. FL Ban, 591. 
Inter rejectamenta maris apud Yarmouth. 

Radix . Frons ramofiflima pedalis et ultra debilis, effufa, 

ramis alternis denuo confertiflimis, foliis fubulatis acutis brevibus, 
bafi ad dorfum tuberculiferis — 'Tubercula fubrotunda, minuta con- 

S 2 tigua 

13^ £>•« Goodenough <*W iWr, Woodward^ 03/ervaticns an 

tigua fubimbricata, per extremes ramulos confita, bafi foliorum vix 
majora — 5W^/tf«//tfcai"tilaginca — Color i ecentis olivaceus, ficcata^ nigei. 

F. granulatus, ericcides> and felaginoides, approach fa near to each 
other, that it requires the utmoft attention to keep them feparate. 
— Ericoides is of low ftature, erect like a little (limb, and very bufhy ; 
and the tubercles are cluttered at the ends of the ramuli like grapes. 
— Gramilatus and Jelaginoides are of tall and more infirm growth. 
Of thefe, felaginoides has its tubercles folitary, and fomewhat diftant, 
at the bafe of the leaves of the extreme branches ; but granulatus 
has them contiguous, and fet clofe all along the extreme branches, 
and even part of the greater branches. The leaves in all are 
fubulate and acute, but vary in proportion to the fize of the tu- 
bercle. — In felaginoides they are four times larger, in ericoides twice as 
large, and in granulatus not much larger. We have never feen it in 
a growing (late, but have found it along with ericoides and felagi* 
noides wafhed on the fhore at North Yarmouth. 

The leaves in all thefe fpecies are very liable to fall off; in this 
ftate the fructification affords clear marks of diftinction. F. bar- 
batus alfo comes very near to ericoides when thus mutilated ; but 
the branches are ufually dichotomous and always entire, whereas 
in ericoides they are very ramofe, and bent in fomewhat an angular 
or zigzag direction. 


F. fronde filiformi flexuofa ramofiffima ; foliis fubulatis remo- 
tiufculis ; vefkuiis foliorum fuperiorum bafi innatis. Herh 
Linn. Buddie, p. 19. n, 1, & p. 39. n. 5, Old fpecimens. 


the Britifi Fuci, with particular Defer /prions of each Species. I 


Fucus abics marina. Gmelin, p. S3, t. 2. A. f. 1. 

Linn. Syjl. Withering, 3. p. 239. 

Inter rejectamenta maris prope Weymouth, et apud Infulam 
Portlandicam menfibus Jnnio et Julio. 

Radix — . From fub-lignofa,dura, teres, erechi, ramofif- 

fima — Rami in ramulos plurimos tiexuofos alternos abeunt — Folia 
omnia alterna, fubulata, adicendentia, finubus obtufiufculis, fu- 
periora bail extns tuberculo inflato f. veficula flavefcenti, muco 
plena, feminifera — Folia omnia remotiufcula nee dense ftipata — 
Fruclificatione abfoluta, f. veficulis dilatatis, folia ad apiccm ramo- 
rum contigua videntur — Color recentis plantar lutefcens, ficcata: 
niger — Veficula? autetn vel ficcatas fbspius flaveicentes — Altitudo^ 
fefquipedalis et ultra, Gmelin. 

Obf. Veficulae f. tubercula ad bafin foliorum, foliis ipfis faepe 
plufquam quadruplo ampliora. 

We have never had the good fortune to fee this plant in a 
ftate of growth j only fragments thrown upon the Chore have come 
to our hands. We can fpeak therefore only of the upper parts of 
the frond ; we give the height and the fubftance from Gmelin. 

The account which Gmelin gives of its growth feems rather ex- 
traordinary. His words are — c The branches arifing from the main 
6 ftalk produce a footftalk which bears an oblong veficle; from this 

* veficle another footftalk proceeds, and again this footftalk is fwelled 

* with another veficle, fo that the branches make up a feries of pro- 
' liferous veficles.' We have an idea that Gmelin's defcription is 
applicable to the unfolding of the frond, rather than the growth 
itfelf ; for the leaves at the bafe of the little branches are without 
any veficle at all — then riot unfrequently after the branch has 
proceeded to the production of a veficle, a barren leaf or two inter- 

134 2fc Goodekough and Mr* WoodwaedV Ohfervziions on 

venes before another veficle occurs ; but this intervention deftroys his 
law of vegetation. However, it muft be allowed that the terminal 
leaves are all loaded with a velicle at their bafe, which veficles as 
they are enlarged become contiguous. 

The flendernefs of its habit, its lax appearance, the zigzag 
growth of the branches (occafioned poflibly by the protrufion of 
the leaves, which, after all, perhaps may be rathe** rudiments of 
branches than leaves, and thus occafion fuch revuifions), then the 
leaves being all alternate, adfcendent, and remote to a certain de- 
gree from each other, and at the end of the branches loaded with a 
veficle at the bafe, many times larger and broader than the leaf 
itfelf, keep it fufficiently diftincl:. 

It appears to us that thefe leaves are in fac~l new branches, it 
being eafy to trace thofe at the bafe of the branches into ramifica- 
tion. At the top of the branches where thefe leaf-like rudiments 
cannot go into farther divifion, there the veficle is formed. Thus 
no part is ufelefs ; the plant is as much enlarged, and as fruitful, as 
the law of nature defigned it. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofiflirna ; ramis fub-dichotomis ; foliis 

fubulatis aequalibus ; veficulis oblongis concatenates innatis. 

Herb. Linn. P ether, p. 34, ». 4, 5, 6. Buddie, p. 15. n, 2, 3. 

Sep. 39. n. 3. 

Reaumur, Adl. Gall. 171 2. /. 3. f. 5. Linn. Sp. PI. 1629. 

Fucus concatenatus. Fl. Ang. 574. Fl. Scot. 923. Withering, 

vol. 3. p. 237. Velley, t. 2. f. 1. 
Habitat apud Weymouth Junio, Julio. 

Radix callus crafrus vix expanfus — From fpithamsea vel pedalis, 


the Britifh Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species, 1 35- 

teres filiformis, Itatim in ramos plurimos dividitur — Hi rami alios 
ramos ramulof'qne fimiles inordinatim fitos protrudunt; ultimi 
veficulas oblongas concatenating difpofitas, parnm diftantes, faepe 
tuberculatas innatas habent, et foliis multipartitis fubulatis termi- 
rtantur ; folia fimilia in ramulis et in veficulis ipfis frequenter occur- 
runt — Frudfifcatioy tubercula minutiflirna in foliis multipartitis ter- 
tninalibus, et in feneicentibus etiam in veficulis fita — Color brunneus 
vel fubf ulcus. * 

In no part of the vegetable fyftem, has the introduction of the 
Linnsean Herbarium into England, and the free infpecYion of it 
which the liberal pofTeilbr permits for the benefit of fcience, 
been the means of detecting more errors than in the genus Fucus\ 
and in no fpecies of that genus is this more confpicuous than in 
the prefent. Without this authority, it would hard'y have been, 
credited by the Britifh botanift, that the plant defcribed by Mr. 
Hudlbn and the other Enghiri authors by the name of Fit c us con- 
catenates r was in reality the foeniculaceus of Linnaeus, than which 
nothing is more certain ; and that the concatenates of Linnaeus, of 
which we have received fpecimens from the Mediterranean exactly 
correfponding with that in the Herbarium, is a very different plant, 
and has not hitherto, as we believe, been found on the Britifh. 
co a ft. 

This fpecies is branched immediately from the root, and thefe 
branches generally proceed throughout, but are each of them again 
divided and fnbdivided, the fmaller branches having numerous 
oval veficles, nearly contiguous to each other, refembling a chain, 
and terminated by a multipartite leaf, with fubulate fegments, 
which, when in fructification, are furrounded by minute tubercles, 
The veficles are not always confined to the terminating branches, 


136 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'.? Obfervathns on 

but are fometimes obferved on the others. In a young (late they 
are regularly formed and naked ; but when the plant is more ad- 
vanced, they frequently grow larger, are irregular in their fhape, 
and are often in part covered with tubercles, nmiiar to thofe on the 
terminating foliaceous fegments. 

The diftinctions between this, abroianlfol'ms, and barbatus, are 
mentioned under thofe fpecies ; but as it has been confounded with 
concatenates of Linnaeus, it may not be improper to point out in 
what they differ, notwithstanding the defcribing of the latter does 
not come within our prefent plan. In famiculaceus the plant 
branches directly from the root ; in concatenates the principal Item 
is continued throughout — in the former the branches grow with- 
out order ; in the latter they are more regularly oppofite than 
in any other marine plant we have feen — the concatenated 
veficlcs are larger and fewer in fceniculaceus than in concatenatus^ 
and in the latter the veficlcs are conftantly naked, never having 
any tubercles upon them : the whole plant alfo, though perhaps 
longer, is much more flender, and more delicately formed in all its 

Whether barhaius Sp. PI. fcenkulacens /3 Syfl. Nat. be the plant 
we have called barbaius, as from the reference to Gmelin might 
reafonably be fuppofed, or whether it may be fome varied ap- 
pearance of this plant, it is impoffible from the imperfection 
and uncertainty of the fpecimens fo named in the herbarium to 

This plant is thrown up on the fhore at Weymouth in May, 
June, and July, and but rarely after that time. 

Obf. Since this article was written, young fpecimens of fenicula- 
ceus and concatenates have fallen under our obfervation; from which 
we are enabled to ftate, that in both fpecies the firft branches are 

3 ia 

the Briti/Jj Fuci, wkb particular Defcriptions of each Species. 1 3 7 

in the form of linear leaves, which branch into others, and thefe 
contracting at intervals become vender, the fubdivifions forming 
the (lender ramifications. Specimens of this appearance occur Co 
rarely, that it was thought better not to alter the defcriptton, which 
applies to the more general habit of the plant, as it might only 
tend to miflead or confound the young botanift. 

17. Fucus FIBROSUS. 

F. fronde filiformi ramofiflima ; ramis primariis fub-ditlichis ; 

foliis filiformibus linearibuique ; veficulis fub-rotundis in- 

natis. Buddie, p. 18. n. 4, 5. Petive)\ p. 40. n. 5. Morijbn, 

Hj/l. Ox. iii. p. 648. U 8./. 17. R. Svn. p. 49. ». 45. 

Fucus abrotanoides. Gmelin, p. 89 — baccatus, />. 90. /, 3. f, 2. 

Fl. Ang. p. 575. Withering, 3. 238. 
Var. /3 fetaceus. Fl. Ang. p. 575. 
Foliis infimis fub-linearibus, ceteris fetaceis. 
Habitat nullibi copiolius quam apud Ilfracombe in Devonia. 
Inter rejectamenta mark prope Weymouth. 
Radix callus expanfus — Frons ramofiflima, in feme fub-compreiTa, 
fcabra, dura, lignofa — Rami primarii alterni diftichi, bsfi incrafTati; 
duri et lignofi — Rami casteri ramulique fparfi alterni numerofifllmi, 
mox tenuiflimi — Per hos ramos ramulofque, veficul* lubrotunda:, 
modolblitaria?, fxpe concatenate videntur, omnes innatse, glabrae, fo- 
holouno aut altero laterali brevifhmo fubulato ereclo armatse — In 
plantis adultioribus, bafin verfus, folia linearia plana nervo medio 
tenui — In plantis adultioribus junioribufque fuperne folia omnia te- 
reria, fetacea aut fub-fubulafa, longitudine multum variantia; modo 
uncialia, modo breviflima, pro habitu plants et ftatura — Ramulorum 
foliolabreviaadmodum,bafi tumefcentia, tuberculofa — Altitudo peda* 
Vol. III. T lis 

238 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. WoodwardV ObfervaUons on 

lis — 3-pedalis — Color lutefcens- f. ex flavefcenti olivaceus j poft ex- 
iiccationem niger. 

Obf. Folia omnia alterna, ante fructificationem longa funt, et in 
ramos ftatim abeunt — Foliola tandem breviffima, fubulata, bafi tu- 
mida et tuberculofa — Veficulae, utut fefe frondes quoad aetatem ha- 
beant, fortuito ad funt, ant, fi fors tulerit, ut in $ defunt — In utroque 
cafu nihil fructificationis intereft. 

We have reafon to think that there has been much confufion 
made by different authors with refpect to this plant. In the firft. 
place, the figure of Morifon is given with a fibrous root, with 
which we may venture to affert this plant was never feen. In 
other refpects it is very good. 

In the next place, Gmelin appears to have feen this plant only in 
the two extreme ft ages of its growth : in its younger, when the 
upper leaves are all entire and fetaceous, as he charade rifes it un- 
der the name F. abrotanoides ; and in its oldeft, when the finer leaves 
are all either for the mofl part broken off, or changed into 
branches ; when alfo the veficles are confiderably enlarged. Not 
having iecn the intermediate gradation of its progrefs, we cannot 
wonder that he deemed his F. baccatus a diftindt fpecies. We 
would hold out this inftance, among many others we could name, 
as a warning to naturalifts how they defcribe from fingle fpeci- 
mens : they cannot be aware, and that more particularly in marine 
plants, of their true character from fuch a flight acquaintance. 

Mr. Hudfon having found different fragments of this plant, and 
concluding that they belonged to different fpecies, called it in its 
finer and more delicate appearance fetaceus, in its more diffufe one 

We found F. fbrofus growing in great plenty on the rocky fhore 


the Brit ft Fuci y with particular Dejcriptkm cf each Species. 139 

near Ufracombe. Few fpecimens were more than a foot high ; 
but we havefeen it at Weymouth thrown up, after florins, of gi eat 
fize, and well juftifying Mr. Ray's apt companion to roots of 

In a recent (late it is of a yellow olive colour, but always turns 
black in drying. It is fome thing extraordinary, that fomctimes the 
bladders are wanting even in very old plants. The fructifica- 
tion is tubercles at the bafe of the (hotter leaves, towards the end 
of the branches, fomething in the manner of tamarifcifol'nu. 

The F. bdecatus of Gmciin is this plant in a very old (fate, and 
may be found not uncommon, thrown up on the pebbly beaches oi 
Dover, Haftings, Weymouth, &c. The lower leaves are quite flat 
and broadiih, and have a rib or nerve running up the middle. 

We hardly know how to call Mr. Hudfon's jetaccus a varictv, 
and mark it fo only by way of including that fpecies. All the gra- 
dations from the firft fetaceous (late, to that in which Gmelin has 
figured it, are to be found conflantly — the former when young or 
growing in (hallow water near the fhore ; the latter when old and 
in deep water, not to be perceived in the extreme ebb of the tide. 

In all flages of its growth, the lower leaves are more or Iefs linear 
and flat, the upper ones filiform and fetaceous. The bladders have 
ufually one or two fhort fubulate leaves growing upon their fides. 

Obf. In general this plant has mod numerous branches, and 
thofe crowded together; but we have feen it thrown up on the 
coafl with very few and thin branches, fo as to be diflinguifhed 
only by perfons who have well known it in its various flages : 
but here alfo the branches and leaves are always alternate, and 
ufually diflich. Thefe are young plants not yet in fructification. 
At the ferry at the Ifle of Portland, we found young dwarf 
plants, without bladders, with many branches tolerably clofe, all 

T 2 diftich 

140 Dr. Good enough and Mr. WoodwahdV Ohfervatkm on 

diftich and alternate ; and the main ftems crowded with very finall 
Watty excrefcencies. They were adhering to (tones of a moderate 
faze, fometimes loofe. 


F. fronde fimplici enfiformi bafi rotundata. ; llipite alato qua- 
Fucus fimbriatus. Gmelin, p. 200. t. 29. f. I. 
&&£rfibrofa — Siipes inferne teres nudus, mox tetragonus mcm- 
brana. lata membranacea, bafi rotundata ornatus — Anteaquam mem- 
brana incipit, foliola f. frondium novarum quafi rudimenta diftiche 
proveniunt — Haec foliola circiter 12 aut plura, conferta, fubcaitila- 
ginea fijnt et enervia, pro magnitudine plants: minora, longiora, 
2 — 6 uncialia et ultra. 


F. fronde fimplici enfiformi bafi attenuata ; ftipite alato tereti 

Fucus alatus f. phafganoides. Bauh. Pr. p. 154. 

Fucus efculentus. Fl. Scot. p. 938. /. 28. 

Omnia quae priori et huic accidunt, praeterquam quod in hoc 
membrana bafi attenuata in latius crefcit, et quodjlipes intra mem- 
branam ne minime quidem tetragonus, at teres et comprefTiufculus. 
Porro foliola ad bafin membranae, membranacea funt nee cartilagi- 
nea. From in utroque maxima, longifllma, modo pedalis, faspc 
ultra humanam altitudinem — At tetragonus longe major evadit. 

We are in doubt to which of thefe fpecics we fhould apply the 


the Brttijh Fuc/\ -with particular Defer iptions of each Species. 141 

term efcukntus ; for Linnaeus regarded them both as the fame, and 
accordingly refers to the descriptions of both of them indifferently. 
However, there are fo many differences obfervable in them that we 
have ventured to feparate them, and have named them from the 
leading mark of their diftinclion : the fquarenefs or roundnefs of 
the rib or nerve when it becomes inverted with the membrane. 

In the firft place, they are not found in the fame place : the 
tetragonus is met with in the Ifle of Man, where teres does not make 
its appearance ; teres is found in the Ifle of Anglefey, and in many 
places on the northern coafts of England and Scotland both eaft 
and weft, where tetragonus has no place. 

Tetragonus has a fquare ftalk or rib — teres a roundifh one ; tetrago- 
nus has the bafe of the frond rounded and fub-cordate, as is cx- 
prefled in Gmelin's figure— teres has it very much attenuated, as 
may be feen in Mr. Lightfoot's reprefentation. In tetragonus the 
little leaves at the bafe of the frond are thick and fomewhat carti- 
lagineous— in teres they are membranaceous. Tetragonus is found 
growing above the low-water mark — teres always juft within the 
low-water mark. Tetragonus is by far the greater. 

We are much indebted to our valuable friend the Rev. Mr. 
Davies, Rector of Aber near Bangor, for his apprifing us of the 
differences between thefe two fpecies. 

Gmelin with his ufual fagacity fuppofed tetragonus to have a 
fibrous root; but his draftfman unfortunately has made it a folid 
one. There is an omiflion alfo of the leaves at the bafe of the 


Mr. Lightfoot, who met only with teres, defcribes it with a fquare 
rib. He was led into this error moft probably from examining only 
dried fpecimens : in drying, the ftalk becomes flat, and in that /late 
is not dift in gui friable from tetragonus. 


142 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward** Obfervatkns on 

Bauhin's defcription is very fatisfaclory. 
Both fpccies are eaten, as indeed are other Fuel. 
Tetragonus is found on the rocks in the Iile of Man ; teres on the 
rocks out at fea near Holyhead in the Ifle of Anglefey. 

20. Fucus alatus. 

F. fronde membranacea tenerrima ramofa fubdichotoma. 
Herb, Buddie, p. 12. n. 2. 6. P ether, p. 25. n. 4. Gmelin\ 
p. 187. /. 25. f. 1, 2. PL Dan. t. 352. R. Syn. p. 44. n. 20. 
Linn. Mant. 135. Fl. Ang. p. 578. Fl. Scot. p. 951. Wither- 
ing, vol. 3. p. 243. 
Habitat in rupibus, faxis et tignis fubmarinis paflim. 
Racix callus expanfus — Caules plurimi, omnes alati, ab eadem 
radice oriuntur, qui fub ipfo ortu ramofi hunt, et faspius dicho- 
tomi — Subft.mtia omnino tenera — Ramuli diflichi alterni, et pra: 
membrana per totam plantam connexa, decurrere videntur — Apices 
ipfi ramorum ramulorumque a tuberculis omnino immunes ; 
variant integri et bifidi, obtufi et acutiufculi, pro setate et loco 
— Fruclificatio, tubercula parva rotunda apicem ramulorum verfus 
nervo adhaerentia — Color omnino amoeniffimus, modo virefcens 
nervo rubro, modo omnino ruber. 

Rami variant latitudine { lin. — \ unciales et ultra — Altitudo 
I — 5 uncialis. 

Our fpecific defcription is fully fufficient to diftinguiih this 
plant; for no other in this divifion has a thin membranaceous 
pellucid fubftance. Its beauty makes the moft incurious obferver 
notice it. 

21. Fucus 

the Britijlj Fuel, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species, 143 


F. fronde dichotoma ferrato-dentata, apicibus planis tubercu- 
latis obtufis. Herb. Linn. Buddie, p. 8. optima. Pctiver, 
p. 28. n. I. Uveda/e, vol. 1. p. 2. n. 2. and p. 3. Mori/on, Hi/?. 
Oxon. iii. / 15. t. 9. / 1. R. Syn. p. 42. n. 7. AS. Par if. 
I7II. //. 9, IO, tf 1712 partie 2dr, pi. 3. /. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7. 9. 
Lam, £/. PL 1626. §y?. jR£ -Ay. p. 576. i7. &*. 902. 
IVithering, vol. 3. /». 241. Stackhoufe, Ner. But. p. 1. t. 1. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis paflim. 
Radix callus expanfus, attamen nervi quidam fuperne extant, 
qnafi ex fibris coadunatis conftaret — From pedalis bipedalis, plana, 
alata, dichotoma, obtufa, marginibus profunde arguteque fcrratis — 
Per totam paginam puncta prominula fparfa — Apices obtufi, crofo- 
dentati plani, tuberculati, tuberculis plurimis confertis, prominulis 
-~Color olivaceus — Subjiantia cartilaginea. 

From variat ramofa et ramofiflima ; argute et crenato-ferrata ; lata 
et angufta, at femper ferrata, apicibus obtufis planis tubeiculatis. 

There can be no difficulty in determining this fpecies, in what- 
ever ftage of its growth it may be found. The fmgularity of its 
root, having nerves or fibres (landing out above the iurface of the 
callus, thus connecting the folid and fibrous rooted Fuci, the edges 
being conftantly ferrated, and the ends of the branches plain and 
not fwelled, are marks by which a child may diftinguiih it, This 
fpecies never has bladders. 

The plate in Acl. Parif. 1712, which we have referred to, fhews 
the plant in all the ftages of its growth. 

Little points are obfervable en the membranous parts of all 
the branches. Nothing characreriftic (as w r e have obferved in our 
preface) can be drawn from them ; for they are alike obiervable 


j 44 D; . G o o d e n o u g H and Mr. Woo dward'; Obfet -vat tons on 

upon its affinities vejiculofus, fpiralis^ and ceranoides. Indeed thefe 
four fpecies feem from their texture and habit to form a diftinct 
family, although the artificial fyftem which we have adopted, necef- 
farily includes others extremely diilimilar in thofe refpecls. 


F. fronde dichotoma integcrrima, veficulis innatis axillaribuf- 
que, apicibus tumidis tuberculatis acutiufculis. Herb, 
Buddie, p. 4. Petiver, p. 32. Uvedale, vol. 1. p. 1. n. t. & 
p. 5. n. i, 2, 3. R. Syn. p. 40. n. 4. ./£#. Parif, 1772, 
/wrf/V lde,pl. 3. /! 6. 10. II, 12, 13. 

Fucus Quercus marina. Gm. p. 60. 

veficulofus. Linn. Sp. PL 1626. Fl. Ang. p. 576. 

Fl. Scot. p. 904. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 241. Stackhoufe, 
Ner. Brit. p. 4. t. 1. 

f3, Divaricates — veficulis axillaribus dilatatis, axillis divaricatis. 
Uvedale, vol. 1. /. 4. Afor. Hy?. Cb?/z. iii. 647. yT 15. /. 8. 

F. divaricatus. Linn. Sp. PL 1627. Sv/l. FL Scot. p. 909. 

F. veficulofus y. F/. ^«g. p. 577. Withering, vol. 3. p. 242. 

7. Inflates — fronde apicem verfus veficulofo-inflata. Buddie, 

p. 5. n. 2. 

F. inflatus. Fl. Scot. p. 910. Smith, Icones Plant, rar, fafc. 3. 


<f. Acutus — fronde apicibus productis lanceolatis. Buddie, p, 4. 


i. Foliaceus — ramis proliferis, ramulis obovatis. Buddie, p. 5. n. 4. 
£. VolubiUs—t "ronde contortuplicata. Buddie, p. 7. «. 4, 5. 
F. volubilis. /7. ^/g-. ^. 577. 

2 Habitat 

the Brit i/Jj Fuci> with particular Defcriptions of each Species. 14; 

Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis frequens. £ propc Fam- 
bridgc ferry, Effex. Buddie. — In ^ftuario Ciceftrienfi. Ray. 

Radix callus expanfus — From pedalis, bipedalis, plana, alara, di- 
chotoma, marginibus integerrimis, ramis fterilibus obtufis — Per totam 
paginam puncla prominula fparfa — apices valde tumidi ovati acu- 
tiufculi (in cT lanceolati acuti), tuberculati, tuberculis plurimis con- 
fertis prominulis — Per totam frondem veficula: duplici ferie innatas ; 
quaxiam etiam folitaria? ad axillas — Color olivaceus — Subjlantia car- 

Var. ft. Ramos ad dichotomias valde divaricatos habet, nimi- 
rum prse veficula. axillari dilatata, vei forfan pne duabus veficulis 
coadunatis — Cetera ut in a. 

Var. y. Rami ex cafu quodam, fiv r e forfan morbo innari viden- 
tur, quafi hydropico. 

Var. «T. Omnia habet ut var, a, praeterquam quod apices lanceo- 
lati acuti, at in eadem planta, nonnunquam apices hi lanceolati, illi 
ovati acutiufculi. 

Var. g. Ramis vi fluctuum abruptis, quo injuriam reparare queat, 
ramulos plurimos confertos obovatos plerumque emittit, adeo ut vix 
varietas dici poteft. 

Var. £. Frons contorquetur adeo ut non facile explicari poteft — 
Csetera cum a habet communia. 

The various authors who have written upon the Fuci, have very 
unwarrantably divided the varieties included in the denomination 
veficulofus % into numerous fpecies ; but nature has (hewn the true 
limit: the appearance of bladders in the frond is its unerring cha- 
radteriftic. By this mark it becomes feparated from ferratus, fpiralis, 
and ceranoides — the fize and fituation of thefe bladders are not 
fufficiently conftant to conftitute different fpecies. 

Vol. III. U 1. In 

146 Dr. Goodenough and Mr, Woodward** Obfervaiions on 

1. In the firfl variety the veftcles are ranged on each fide of the 
rib throughout the frond, and alio at the axillae. The frond itfelr" 
varies in having its branches from a quarter of an inch to a full 
inch in breadth, with edges either plane or undulated as in fpiralh* 
The ends of the branches when in fructification are fwollen and 
fomewhat acute. 

2. The variety divaricates is remarkable for having the bladders 
in fome of the axillae (for it is by no means conftant in all) ex- 
tremely dilated, as if two veficles had been confluent into one ;• 
m confequence the branches fork off wider than ufual, and become 
divaricated. We have not obferved this variety in fructification : 
in Southampton river we have feen it fomewhat twitted. 

3. The variety injlatus is occafioned by a difeafe. By fome means or 
other a body of air is introduced between the two coats of the frond, 
and thus gives it a bladder-like appearance. That it is accidental 
is evident, from its not happening ufually in more. than one or 
two branches in any given plant. 

4. The variety acutus we fo call from the lanceolate terminations 
of its branches. The fame plant, however, occafionally 
lanceolate terminations, and others fomewhat bluntifh. 

5. We can fearcely call foli actus a variety ; it is merely a plant 
which, in the vigour of its growth having been broken off by fome 
violence, endeavours to repair itfelf in an irregular manner, pro- 
ducing clutters of new branches refembling obovate leaves. Thefe 
are principally from the broken extremities ; but they are alfo found 
on the fides, and even upon the expanded root. As in cer amides t 
this proliferous tendency does not take place nnlefs the membrane is 
torn off. It differs from the firft variety in no other particular. 

6. This is the volubilis of Mr. Hudfon. It cannot however be 
called a diftincl; fpecies; for its form is the fame nearly as the firft, 


the B? iti/h Fuc/\ with particular Def captions of each Species. 147 

only it is extremely twifted: however, the contortion of the frond 
in Fuci is no character of diftinttion, as occafionally it is feen in all 
the varieties above mentioned. The volubilis of Linnaeus is not a 
Britiih plant. 

He who would wilh for farther information, would do well to 
confult Gmelin, Lightfoot, and others, who have written largely 
upon the fubject. 

Its true and conftant character is veficles on the branches, and 
at the axilla? of the dichotomies. 

The figure of Morifonyi 15. /. S.f 10, as quoted by Gmelin to 

his a, and by Hudfon to his variety /3, belongs to that variety of 

fpiralis which has plain and entire margins, and not to veftcuhfus. 

The fynonyms of Gmelin are to be received with great caution : 

he has fallen into many miftakes. 

In Buddie's Herbarium, p. 7. n. 4, 5. are fpecimens of veficuhfus ex- 
tremely twifted. They are the fpiralis or volubilis of Mr. Hudfon, 
not of Linnaeus and Mr. Lightfoot. There is a note fubjoined, 
mentioning, that they were gathered near Fambridge ferry in EfTcx. 
They are our laft variety, if indeed any exact limit can be drawn 
between that and the firft; for, as we have already obferved, 
contortion feems accidental in this fpecies. 

23. Fucus spiralis. 

F. fronde plana dichotoma asquali, apicibus tumidis tubercula- 
tis obtufis. 
Var. a. undulatus — ramis margine fub-undulato, apicibus obtufif- 
fimis. Herb. Linn. Buddie, p. 6. n. 2. R. Syn. p. 41. n. j. 
Fl. Ban. t. 286. Finn. Sp. PL 1627. Fl. Ang. p. SU- 
FI. Scot. p. 911. Stackboufe, Ner. Brit. p. 10. /. 5. 

U 2 Var. 

148 Dr. Goodenough and Mr, WoodwardV Olfervations on 

Var. 0. Integer — ramis margine integerrimo, apicibus ovatis ot> 
tufiufculis. Buddie, p. 6. n. I. Donati Adriatic, p. 34. t. j» 
Morifon, Hi ft. Ox. 3./. 15. U 8./. IO. 

F. fpiralis y* Ft. Scot. p. 912. 

F. veficulofus [2. Fl. Ang. p. 577. Withering, vol. 3. p. 242, 

Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis. 

Radix callus expanfus — From 4-uncialis dodrantalis et ultra, 
alata, inferne fsepius membranis orba — Rami in a latiorcs, margini- 
bus undulatis, apicibufque tumidis et obtufis — in /3 anguftiores^ 
marginibus integerrimis, apicibufque valde tumidis ovatis, et non- 
nunquam acutiufculis— Habitus F. veficulofi, at veficulis omniriO; 
caret — Mod© fpiraliter contorta, modo. omnino plana — Color oliva- 
ceus — Subjiantia membranacea. 

F'ucus fpiralis has entirely the habit of F. veficulofus. It is how- 
ever readily diftinguifhed from it by its being entirely free from 
bladders. If there fhould be any danger of confounding it with 
~F. ceranoides, that difficulty may be avoided by obferving, that in 
fpiralis the ends of the branches are very much fwelled and obtufe 
— and in ceranoides, they are but (lightly tumid, and extremely 

Our firft variety exactly acords with Linnaeus's and Mr. Light- 
foot's fpecimens. The margins of the branches appear fomewhat 
undulated. The lower parts of the plant are apt to lofe the mem- 
brane ; neither does it ufually make any attempt to repair the in- 
jury, as veficulofus and ceranoides do : the ends of the branches are not 
fo very tumid as in the var. /3. The branches towards the top of the 
plant where the membrane is entire, are from \ to ~ of an inch broad. 

In our var. /?, the branches have their margin entire. The 
membrane of the lower parts of the plant is alike torn off by the 


the Britjjh Fuel, with particular Defc rip t tons of each Species, j 49 

violence of the waves : the branches, where entire, are ufually 
fomething more than j of an inch broad— the ends of them are 
much fwelled, and not quite blunt. This variety gives much 
trouble in drying, owing to the great quantity of mucilage in the 
ends of the branches : when dry, the ends often appear more acute 
than they are in their freih ftate. 

Ray mentions it as being very common near Chicheiter. We 
have found it frequently in feveral places on the fouth coaft. 

We cannot help remarking upon the name of this plant. One 
would imagine that it was conftantly and fingularly fpiral : that is 
by no means the cafe ; for it is often found perfectly plain. Alt 
the varieties of vejiculcfus occafionally affect a fpiral growth : the 
diffufe divaricatus is not exempt from it — fo that the name is not 
exclufively applicable to this fpecies. It is known moft furely by 
its extremities being fwelled and obtufe, and being free from blad- 
ders. Thefe are its conftant diftin&ion : its fpirality is accidental* 


F. fronde plana dichotoma integerrima aiquali, apicibus tumi- 
diufculis tuberculatis lanceolatis. Herb, Linn, Buddie, p, 6, 
n. 3. Buddie & Vernon, p. 21. n. 4. 
F. filiformis. Gmelin,p. 72. t. 1. A.f. I. 
F. ceranoides. Linn. Sp, PL 1626. 
F. linearis. Fl, Ang, p. 578. 

F. diflichus. Fl. Scot. p. 912. Withering, vol. 3./. 242. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis prope Chriftchurch in-agrc 

Radix, callus parvus expanfus — Frons 3-uncialis — fefquipedalis, 
alata, angufta, plana, dichotoma, veficularum expers; ab ipfo fere 


j 50 Dr. GoodenoUgh and Mr, Woodward'j Obfervathns on 

ortu ramofa fit, rami omnes multoties dichotomi, apicibus patenti- 
bus lanccolatis acutis — Fndiificatio, tubercula conferta in ipfis apici- 
bus fita. * 

Obf. From denuo inferne membrana alata faepius vi fluctuum 
orba eft — Inde, quo injuriam citius, pro effcetis quafi viribus, repa- 
rare qneat, ramulos plurimos, breves, diftichos, foliornm aemulos, 
•cmittit — Margines ramorum per totam plantam femper integerrimi 
Q olor olivaceus. 

This plant is not to be found fo generally as moft of this order. 
It is very frequent at Chriftchurch, and indeed more common there 
than vejiculofus. It is moft readily diftinguifhed from veficulofus by 
its having no bladders, by its narrow form throughout, and by the 
{harp forked termination of its branches : thefe two laft. circum- 
ftances ferve to diftinguifh it very effectually from F. Jpiralis. Al- 
though we lay fome ftrefs upon the narrownefs of the branches, 
yet it muft not be underftood, that we are always to have that cir- 
cumftance to direct our judgment; for fometimes it is to be met 
with, with branches as broad as the narrower ones of veficulofus — 
and in this cafe oftentimes not only the points of the branches, 
but the two laft dichotomies, are entirely loaded with cluttered tu- 
bercles. The points of the branches are always very acute. 

We have no hefitation in pronouncing this the ceranoides of Lin- 
naeus. We have been fo long accuftomed to call the crifpus of 
Linn, by this name, that it may feem grievous to fome to have fo 
apt an appellation totally changed : however, they muft confider 
that the having continued long in an error is no juftification 
for having done fo ; and they fhould rejoice, not regret, at gaining 
more perfect knowledge. 

This plant has been thought by fome, particularly Mr. Lightfoot, 


the Britijh Fua\ with particular Defer ipt ions of each Specie u I gt 

to be the diftkhus of Linnaeus, From examining the Linnaean Her- 
barium, and from Murray's defcription of diftkhus in the S\ft. Nat. 
we are convinced that it is not a native of Britain. The difticbut 
is quite thin and herbaceous — the ceranoides always membranaceous, 
and of a firm texture. 

The branches have numerous fmall dots in rows on each fide of 
the rib or nerve, as happens in ferratus and veficulofus : it varies in 
height from three inches to nearly, or perhaps quite, two feet. 

As the plant grows old, it lofes the membrane of the whole 
lower part of the frond. In this cafe it has the property of put- 
ting forth new branches, which, growing clofe to each other, and 
from their multitude not very large, give the plant a pretty fringed 
appearance. Before it has lofl the membrane, this proliferous qua- 
lity does not make its appearance. 

Mr. Laghtfoot's defcription mentions its being only a few inches 
in height. It is very probable that in certain fituations, and efpe- 
cially when remote from freih water, it may be of more humble 


F. fronde fimplice enfiformi. Herb. Buddie, p. 21. Petiver, 
vol. 1. p. 15. Act. Natures Curioforum, vol. 8. p. 450. /. g„. 
f. 2. Gmelift, t. 28. 
Var. /3. bullatus — fronde bullata marginibus undulatis. Buddie, 
p. 22. Petiver, vol. 1. p. 16. Uvedale, vol. I. p. 14, 15. 
Acl. Par if. 17 1 2. p. 29. t. 3. f. 4. Gmelin, t, 27. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis iubmarinis pafTim. 
Radix fibrofa — From modo folitaria, modo gregaiia ; nempe ali- 


152 Dr. Goodenough arid Air. Woodward'; Obfcrvathns on 

quando frondes plurimas fatis diftinctae (nam revera quseque fua ra- 
dice nititur),at radicibus invioem implicatis, ex eodem loco oriuntm* 
— Porro frons flipitata — Stipes teres, magnitudine et altitudine pro 
estate et loco variat— In junioribus fili inftar tenuis breviflimus; 
in adultioribus digiti fere craffitie, pedalis — Frons ipfa plana avenia 
enfiformis, pro astate breviflima aut longiffima, angufta aut lata, 
membranacea aut cartilaginea variat — Color fordide viret. 

Var. /3. Radix et Jlipes ut in var. a. — Frons marginibus crifpis un- 
dulatis, et praterea fxpe difco rugofo five bullato-finuofo — Sinus 
muco repleti funt, et femina plurima nuda, ex Gmelini fententia, 
muco obtecta f. recepta continent. Hasc femina nos non vidimus. 

We have fpoken fufRciently of this fpecies under our article 
bulbofus, particularly of the arrangement of thefe varieties. 

The fecond variety here defcribed is fuppofed by Mr. Lightfoot 
to be the plant in its perfect or fructifying ftate. As little is 
known of the fructification of fea-plants, we rather for the conve- 
nience of defcription place it lad. 

Reaumur obferves, that he had found upon this fpecies what he 
calls flowers (Jieurs compofees dejilets courts) about ten or twelve on a 
plant, but no feeds. 


F. fronde palmata laciniis enfiformibus ; ffcipite tereti ; radice 

fibrofa. Herb. Buddie ', p. 24. n. 1. Petiver, p. 18. n. I. 
Fuco giganteo. Imp. Hijl. Nat. p. 741. 

Fl. Dan. /. 392. FL Norweg. par. 1. t. 3. f. 1. FI. Jlng. 

p. 579. FL Scot. p. 935. Withering, vol. 3. p. 244. Stackhoufe y 

Ner. Brit. ^.5. /. 3. 

4 Habitat 

the Briti/h Fuc/ 9 ivith particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 153 

Habitat in rupibns fubmarinis frequens. 

•Radix ut in F. faccharino fibrofa — From ftipitata — Stipes teres, un- 
cialis, pedalis, bipedalis, tenuis, aut craflus pro aztate etloco. From 
ipfa membranacea, cartilaginea, in lacinias en fi formes quatuor, faepe 
in plurimas dividitur, omnes planas avenias acntas — Aititudo in 
adultioribus, ulnaris et ultra — Color fordide virct — Frucliiicationem 
nondum vidimus. 


F. fronde palmata laciniis enfiformibus, ftipite piano ; radice 

inflato-bulbofa. Act. Parif 1712. p. 21. /. I. /. I. 
F. palmatus. Gmelin, p. 202. /. 30. 
F. bulbofus. Fl. Ang. p. 579. 

F. polyfchides. FL Scot. p. 936. Withering,, vol, 3, p. 244. 
Stackhoufe, Ner. Brit. p. 6. t. 4. 
Habitat in Infula. Portlandias — in littore Cornubienfi. 
Adhaeret rupibus fibris, qua? finguke in callum minutum ex- 
panfum definunt — From ftipitata — Stipes planus, bafi inflato-bulbosa 
(quae radicem bulbofam cavam refert) tuberculosa, quad ex rudi- 
mentis frondium novarum, magnitudine ab ovo motacilla? ufque ad 
infantis caput, fub-tortuofus, marginibus inferne crifpo-undulatis, 
in adultis pedalis et ultra — Hie flipes in frondem abit planam ave- 
niam, in lacinias plurimas divifam, enfi formes acutas — Color ut in 
praecedentibus fordide viret — Fruciificatio latet — An tubercula qua: ex 
ftipitis bafi enafcuntur, fructification is receptacula? Videant au- 
toptse — Aititudo variat ufque ad quinque ulnas. 

The F. dlgitatus and bulbofus feem extremely alike; but, to an at- 
tentive obferver, no two plants can differ more. In F. dlgitatus the 
Vol. III. X ftalk 

1^4 D'' Goodenougii and Mr. Woodward'; O&Jhrvaikns en 

flalk is round — in bulbofus perfectly flat : in digkatus it is Gmple 
throughout — in bulbofus it is inflated at the bafe, whence it refem- 
bles a hollow bulbous root. This apparent bulb is covered with fhort 
pezizi-form excrefcences, which authors have imagined to be ru- 
diments of other plants. However, as this focus is always found 
folitary, we would fuggeft the idea, that they may be receptacles of 
fructification. We rather dwell upon this idea, becaufe in the 
younger plants there is no appearance of tubercles. The (talk in 
Bulbofus is fometimes (lightly twilled, and juft above the bafe has its 
margins thinnifh, and extremely curled or undulated : in dighatus 
the (talk is fimple throughout ; it has no inflation at the bafe, 
and is entirely free from all excrefcences whatfoever. The divifions 
of the frond, except that they are rather more numerous in bulbofus ,. 
are in both alike, as to their fword-like, or rather fcymetar-like 
fhape, and, according to their age, of a membranaceous, car- 
tilaginous or leathery texture. The colour in both is a dirty 

There is fuch a fimilarity in the habit, texture, and root otfaccha- 
rmuSydigiiatiiS) and bulbofus, that we cannot but be ftrongly inclined 
to think the fructification is alike in them all. They feem to form 
a feparate family. It was this idea which induced us chiefly to look 
upon the bullated facchaiinus to be the variety, and the fmooth one 
fo like bulbofus and digltalus, to be the principal. All thefe fpecies 
have mucus enough to conftitute a receptacle for the feeds or fruc- 
tification ; fo that that confederation need not force us to have re- 
courfe to the bullated variety of faccharlnus to account for the fource 
of propagation of that fpecies. If there were bullated varieties of di- 
ghatus and bulbofus, we might in that cafe allow that the bullated 
variety was the perfect plant ; but as that is not the cafe, and as in 
two of thefe fpecies the fructification is latent in the fmooth frond, 

3 we 

the Britj/h Fuel, with particular DeJ captions of each Species. t tj£ 

we have every resfon to think that it is fo in the fmooth variety of 

Specimens of F. digitatus have been gathered at Harwich 
with fwellings on the lower part of fome of the fegments, and 
both digitatus and bulbofus have been obferved in Cornwall with 
fwellings on the upper part of the fegments, as reprefented in FL 
Dan. Whether thefe fwellings were mere inflations, or full of 
mucilage, was not obferved ; however, no feeds were obferved in 
them. The fame fort of fwellings appear mfaccharinus var. a , but 
no feeds have been difcovered. However, all this confirms us in our 
idea of the analogy between all thefe plants, and of the propriety of 
calling our faccharinus var. <* the perfect plant, and bullatus the acci- 
dental variety. We are thus al fo more ftrongly peifuaded to look 
upon the mucus contained in the finuofities merely as the natural 
confequence of fuch cavities in an extremely mucilaginous plant. 

Both thefe fpecies grow to a-*vaft fize, from one to nearly five 

Meffrs. Fongeroux de Bondaroy and Tillet, in their very ingeni- 
ous treatife upon marine plants, Acl. Pari/. 1772, have confounded 
digitatus and bulbofus together, alleging that the fipes is both round 
and flat. 


F. fronde membranacea tenerrima ramofa; ramis ramulifque 

fublinearibus apice obtufrs. 
F. laceratus. Gmelin, 179. /. 21./? 4. 
F. endiviaefolius. Fl. Scot. p. 948. t. 32. 
F. crifpatus. Fl. Ang. p. 580. lFithering\ vol. 3. p. 247. 
¥ar. /3 papyraceus — ramis ramulifque tenuioribus fub-finnatis* 

X 2 Far. 

156 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward' j Obfervatiomon 

Far, y laciniatus — ramis dilatatis palmatis, ramulis fublineari* 
bus. FL Ang. p. 579. FL Scot. p. 947. Withering, vol. 5, 
p. 245. 

Obf. Variant omnes marginibus crifpo-undulatis, laciniatis, inte- 

Habitant a et y in ruplbus, faxis ct plantis fubmarinis fatis fre- 
quentes — Fiwvj3apud Ilfracombe in com. Damnonienfi. 

Adhaerct rnpibns, faxis, pi antifve fubmarinis qallo minutoj proximo 
fit furculofa: furculi iterum, qua fors tulerit, fortiter adherent, ct 
novas fiunt plantac — Inderaro fimplex et folitaria; at quafi frons re- 
peret, et furculos confeftim emitteret, numerofa— Ab ipfo ortu, frons 
membranacea eft, rubicunda, fanguinea, tenerrima— Haud mora in 
ramos abit varie divifos — Rami ramulique lineares, aftenii, obtufi— 
Fructification tubcrcula rotundiufc.ula feminibus, ut videtur, repleta, 
propter latera apicefque ramorum ramulorumque fita — Aliitudo 
frondis 1 — 5 uncialis— Pro aetate .et loco ramuli longiufculi aut 
breves; lineares, aut fig ura quafi nondum perfecta, ovati, oblongi, 
pauciores five plurimi. 

Var. (3 omnia cum var. a communia habet, at ab omni parte 
minor et tenuior — In ramulos plurimos fsepius dividitur — Hi autem 
non rard perbreves funt, adeo ut rami linuofi potius quam ramofi 
videntur — Omnia autem hare ex folo natali oriuntur. 

Var. y ad omncm divifuram frondis dilatatur— Inde divifio in 
ramos plurimos fit, in palmos modum extenfos — Color, fubjiantia it 
ramulorum forma, et frutlifcatio eadem ac in var, a et . /3.. 

Subjlantia in omnibus plerumque tenerrima ; eft ubi firmior et 
durior occurrit. Frondes nonnullse, quando rupibus folitariae. enaf- 
cuntur, ftipite breviflimo comprefliufculo nituntur. 

We have not departed from Mr. Hudfon's arrangement. of thefe 


the Briti/h Fua\ with particular Defcriptiom of each Species, i 57 

plants without repeated examination of their feveral properties. 
The fructification is the fame in all the varieties: the only differ* 
ence to be dated is, the enlargement of the var. y at all its divi- 
iions, and, at thofe divifions, the palmated form in which the 
branches feem to be produced. But this divifion is by no means 
conftant in any one plant which may be found; fome of the 
branches being dilated and palmated, and others linear, as in the 
var, a , in the felf-fame plant. — This then deftroys all fpecific 
character taken from that circumftance. This dilated variety 
oftentimes is fomewhat dichotomous, but the branches are always 
more or lefs linear and obtufe. The var w 3 in fome ftages of its 
growth approaches very near to dentatus ; but it is fufheiently 
diftincf, by the branches being obtufe. All thefe varieties have the 
edges. of the branches perfectly entire, or mod beautifully fringed 
as it were with rudiments of branches, too clofely fet for any one of 
them to arrive at any material fize. Tubercles are fometimes found 
in thefe little rudiments. 

The var. /3 grows in great abundance at Ilfracombe in the north 
of Devonfhire, where it creeps round the edges of the bafons in the 
rocks, and makes a beautiful appearance. 

This focus attaches itfelf not un frequently to other foci and the 
coarfer conferva, and very commonly to the corallina officinalis. 
When it attaches itfelf to plants, it feems to cling round them, and 
foon totally inverts them if they are of fmall fize. 

When it grows fmgle on rocks, it appears to have a very fhort 
and thickifh comprelTed Item. 

Its delicate texture and beautiful red colour catch the eye of the 
moft incurious obferver. 

The fructification is tubercles, or warty clutters of feeds, fcattered: 
along or rather juft within the edges of the branches. 

15*8 Dr. Goodenough mid Mr. Woodward^ Obfervatiom on 

As Linnasus has taken no notice of this plant (F. corymh'fcrus of 
GmeJin is his crijlatus), we necefTarily recur to the name by which 
Gmelin originally fet it forth. 


F. fronde membranacea tenerrima ramosa alternatim pinnati- 
fida; ramulis linearibus apice incifis, lacinulis acutis. Herb. 
Linn. Morifon, Hi//. Oxon. iii. f. 15. /. 8. f. 5. bona. 
Linn. Syjl. FL Ang. p. 582. Fl. Scot. p. 952. Withering, vol. 3, 
p. 248. 
Radix callus — Sub ipfo ortu frons ramofa fit — Rami alternatim 
pinnatifidi, finubuc ramulorum obtufiufculis — Ramuli breves linea- 
res, nonnunquam etiam pinnatifidi, apicibus femper f. in lacinulas 
plerumque acutas divifis — Subjlantia membranacea tenera admodum 
et avenia — Color ruber — Altitudo 2 — 4 uncialis — Fruclificationem non- 
dum vidimus. 

Obf. Oculo bene armato, ramuli, praefertim ad iinus ramulorum, 
ciliis breviffimis obfiti videntur. 

We have not admitted the fynonym of Gmelin's corymbiferus, al- 
though adduced by the authority of Mr. Hudfon and Mr. Light- 
foot. We have little doubt but that is the F. ciifiatus of Linnseus. 
It certainly is not dentatus. — That is a large plant, growing a foot 
high or more : dentatus rarely exceeds five or fix inches. 

We lament extremely our utter inability to fay one word about 
the fructification. 

Morifon's figure is excellent. There is no danger of confound- 
ing it with any of its affinities. Teh only one which at all ap- 
proaches it is the laceratas var. papyraceus ; but the ends of the 
^branches in that variety are entire and obtufe — in this divided, 


J&ttii^ Wftl/yyd JJy. 


■A s7f(/fi.> u 

the Britijb Fuel, with particular Defiriptions of each Species, 1 59 

and the fegments for the mod part acute. As the plant mereafes 
in ftature, the fharp terminations of the hranches grow broader, 
and appear fomewhat truncated. In this ftate they are preparing 
for a frefh divifion, and each blunt fegment becomes divided into- 
two acute ones ; and thus the increafe of the plant is carried on. 

The great point of diftinclion to be depended upon, is the ends 
of the branches being divided into acute fegments. In Mr. Light- 
foot's collection we faw feveral fpecimens whofe frond had at the 
bafe a faint nerve, exactly like what is obferved in F. alatus. The 
nerve, however, in thefe foon terminates ; but in* fome fpecimens, 
with which our friend Mr. M'Leay has favoured us, a faint nerve 
appears to run through all the branches. They were gathered 
near John o'Groat's houfe in Caithnefsfhire. 

This anomaly is apt to perplex the young botauift : the fame, 
irregularity is obfervable in F. rubens* 

30. Fucus bifidus. Tab. 17. Fig. i, 

F. frondibus mensbranaceis dilatatis bifidis, fegmentis divaricatis- 
obtufls ; tuberculis marginalibus diftantibus. Fl. Ang. p. 581. 
Withering^ vol. 3, p. 247. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis apud Cromer in Norfolcia. 
Adharet faxis et lapillis radice fibrosa — Frondes a radice plures, a 
tenui principio ftatim latefcentes ; fingulse 1 — 2 unciales, membra- 
naceae, tenerrimae, laete rubra?, pro altitudine bis, 3 — 4 bifidse, feg- 
mentis 1 — 3 lineas latis, fub-divaricatis, unde cuneiformes appa- 
rent ; terminationes plerumque obtufa?, raro acutiufcula? — Frudliji- 
catio, tubercula fphaerica, parva admodum, atro-purpurea, rara,. 
diftantia, in ipfo margine frondis, feminibus minutiffimis repleta. 


iGo Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'* Obfervattons on 

This fpecies, which does not appear to have been noticed by any 
author before Hudfon, approaches neareft to young fpecimens of 
our laceratus |3. It apppears however to differ in its much more 
humble growth, and the more tender and delicate fubftance of the 
frond, w r hich is perfectly entire at the margins, never having that 
jagged appearance obiervable on the margins of the other. 

The divifions are never palmated, but conftantly dichotomous, 
often divaricated, and having the dichotomy fometimes three and 
even four times repeated, when the frond rifes to two inches 
or more in height; although in the FL Ang. they are faid to be 
once or twice only. 

The fructification, which feems to have been unknown to Mr. 
Hudlbn, is very particular; confifting of fmall tubercles partly im- 
merfed in the very margin of the frond, whence they project fome- 
what more than half their diameter, always folitary, and confiderably 
diftant ; fo that there are feldom more than three or four on any 
one frond. The plant is of a pale purplifh red, extremely thin 
and delicate ; the tubercles dark purple, and when ripe turning 
almoft black. 

It adheres by fmall fibres to the large mafTes and rough ftones 
which form the more at Cromer on the coaft of Norfolk ; and is not 
unfrequently wafhed up by the tide on the fandy beach at Yar- 
mouth, and other places to the fouthward. We have met with it 
alfo at Ilfracombe. 


F. fronde fub-membranacea ramosa, ramis lanceolatis acutis 
ciliatis, ciliis fimplicibus brevibus. Hcrk Buddie, p, 26. n. 4. 

R. Syn. 

the Erlttjh Fuci, with particular T)efcriptions of each Species. 161 

R. 47. n. 33. Petiver, p. 19. f. 2, 3. 

F. ciliatus. Gmelin^ p. 176. /. 21. f 1. 

F. ligulatus. Gmelin, p. 178. /. 21. /! 3. 

F. holofetaceus. Gmelin, p. 177. /. 21. /I 2. 

F. ciliatus. Fl. Aug. p. 580. F/. Scot. p. 944. Withering, vol. 3. 

/>. 246. 
Ptfr. /3 — ramis fublinearibus. Buddie^ p. 26. n. 1. .F/. &:o/. 
p. 946. 
Habitant — a in rupibus marinis paiTim — /3 rarius. 
Radix callus minutus, furcillos emittens, unde fibrofa vidctur. 
Frons fub-membranacea, rubefcens, palmaris, vcl femipedalis, ftatim 
latefcens et in ramos inter fe fimiles varie difpofitos divifa — Rami 
lanceolati, plerumque dichotomi, apicibus acutis — Totius frondis 
mapgines ciliati, ciliis fimplicibus brevibus patentibus — Frons ma- 
tura incraffatur et fub-cartilaginea fit ; dein utraque pagina ciliis 
numerofis fcabra, quorum plurima tuberculis globofis feminiferis 
terminata; tubercula etiam in ciliis marginalibus, fed rarius, occur- 

This fpecies includes three of Gmelin : his ciliatus, ligulatus, and 
holofetaceus. The frond is at firft membranaceous, divided almoft 
immediately from the root, the branches ~ or J of an inch broad, 
the margins fringed with numerous patent cilia. This is Gmelin' s 
ciliatus, t. 21. f, I. but this figure is not nearly fo good as the 

In fome fpecimens many ligula are interfperfed among the cilia, 
which are nothing more than young branches. This is the ligu- 
latus of Gmelin, f. 3, which certainly is by no means to be consi- 
dered as diftineT:. 

When the plant is arrived at maturity it acquires a thicker fub- 

Vol. III. Y fiance, 

162 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'j Obfervations on 

fiance, and becomes almofl cartilaginous ; and in this flate each 
furface of the frond is frequently rough, with numerous round 
fpines from half a line to a line in length, of which fome are bifid. 
Some of thefe bear globular tubercles filled with feeds, and are cer- 
tainly no other than the peduncles of thefe tubercles, though 
many of them are abortive. This is Gmelin's holofetaccus^ t. i r 
though he does not appear to have feen the tubercles. 

The marginal cilia are always fimple; fuch as appear otherwife 
being in fact ligulte, about to form young branches ; thefe fome- 
times, but rarely, bear tubercles. 

It adheres firmly to the rocks by its fibrous bafe, and when taken 
out of the water is generally of a pale flefh colour, but, on being 
expofed to the air, foon acquires a full red; but fometimes it is 
found of a bright red colour w hi lft in a growing flate. 

The var. /3 which is defcribed by Mr. Lightfoo't, differs in being 
much narrower with almofl linear branches. It is alfo more 
branched, and the branches are fometimes deftitute of cilia on their 
margins. We have found it along with a, but much more rarely,. 


F . fronde membranacea ramosa ; ramis lanceolatis acutis, cilia* 
tis, ciliis ramofis. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis apud Ufracombe in agro 
Damnonienfi, copiose — In Infula Portlandiae rarius. 

Adhccret rupibus callo minuto — From a primo ortu furculofa fit 
— "quacunque furculi faxa attingunt radicem agunt, et inde novas 
fiunt plantas, atque hae confertas — Porro valde ramofa fit — Rami 
alterni plani lanceolati — E marginibus ramorum cilia emittuntur 
numerofiffima, ramofifTima, linearia, faspe fub-capillaria — Subftantia 
membranacea — Color ruber — Fruftificationem nondum vidimus, at 


the Bt itiJJj Fuel, with particular Dejcriptions of each Species. 163 

baud dubium eft quia cadeni fit ac F. ciliaii — Anne ab illo fatis 

Whoever will be at the trouble of comparing fpecimens of this 
Fucus with thofe of ciliatus will find a very ftriking fimilarity : 
however, we diftinguifh this by its cilia being very ramofc — in ciliatus 
they are fimple and undivided. The cilia are often round — the 
root, the fubftance, the colour and habit are nearly alike in both. 

We have not found this common. We gathered a fingle fpcci- 
men at Weymouth, where the ciliatus is very common. But at II- 
fracombe in Devonfhire, where this fpecies is very frequent, we 
did not find one fpecimen of ciliatus. 

We have not feen it in fructification ; moft probably it is fimilar 
in this refpect to F. ciliatus ; and it certainly is to be doubted whe- 
ther it be abfolutely diftintt from that fpecies. 

The figure FL Dan. 1066, which is molt unaccountably referred 
to F. pumilus Fl, Ang. appears to be a reprefentation of this plant; 
but it is not fufficiently exact to allow us to quote it as fuch with 

Where there is fo much uncertainty concerning a fubjedfc, we 
wifh to throw out every hint which occurs. Perhaps the ramofity 
of the cilia in this plant is in confeqnence of its not being exhaufted 
as to its ftrength by the production of fructification, and thus the 
efforts of the plant are diverted in this channel. 


F. fronde membranacea varie divisa palmata. Buddie^ p. 23. 
& p. 25. &c p. 27. n. 3. Peiker, p. 19. n. 4. Uvedale, vol. 1. 
p. 2. n. 4. Mori/on, Hi ft. Ox. 646. / 15. t. S.f. I. 

Y 2 Fucus 

164 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'; Obfervaihns m 

Fucus clulcis. Gmdin^ f, 189. /. 26. 

Fl. Angi 579. FL Scot. 933. pi. 27. Withering, vol. 3,/, 245. 

Habitat in rupibus & fax is lubmarinis pa (Tim. 

Radix callus parvus expanfus — Frons fubmembranacea, aliquando 
coriacea, plerumque tenuis membranacea — Stipes brevis admodum, 
Iiaud mora in ramos varie divifos abit : moJo frons pfimaria brevis, 
indivifa, cbtufa & cuneiformis eft, modo dichotoma ? modo eiongata 
ramis lateralibus indivifts dichotomifque : at denique rami palma- 
tim quodammodo dividuntur. Saepe frons vere palmata eft, etiam 
fub ipfo ortu — FruElificatio etiam variis ludit imaginibus — Modo non 
Fucum fed Ufa am diceres, quippe granulis folitariis humer ofiftimis 
confpergi videtur. In plantis coriaceis fructiflcationem Fuci li- 
cet detegere, tubercula fcilicet in fronde innata, apice dehifcentia 
— Haec perraro accidunt — Magnitudo biuncialis, pedalis & ultra — 
Color ruber. 

Were not this plant extremely common, and not liable to be 
confounded with any other, we fhould think it our duty to draw 
up an elaborate defcription of it in all its various forms. Scarcely 
a plant in nature varies more : as the extremity of the branches 
ufually terminates in fomething of a palmated form, the effential 
character is taken from that circumftance. But it muft be obferved, 
that it often is very backward in appearing without difguife : often- 
times the branches are lengthened out without any divihon ; fome- 
times they are merely dichotomous. Sometimes the frond is proli- 
ferous, fo as to lay claim to a place in our firft divifion, foliis dif- 

The defcription in the Fl. Scotica perfectly coincides with our 

own obfervations. At Weymouth and elfewhere we have found it 

of a perfectly coriaceous fubftance, as well as the thinned mem- 

3 brane. 

the Brhi/Io Fuci, with particular Definitions of each Species. 16^ 

brane. We obferved only in thefe dwarf coriaceous fpecimens the 
true fructification, which is tubercles immerfed in the frond, and 
projecting from it, and opening at the point. In one of our 
fmalleft fpecimens, a largilh tubercle appears Handing on the fur- 
face of the dine, and not immerfed : but thefe tubercles are rarely to 
be obferved. In general the plant fhoots out to fome length; in 
this (late it has only fmall feeds like grannies (the character of an 
U/va) difperfed over the whole frond, fo that one would conclude 
it to be an U/va. 

May it not happen, that having fulfilled the purpofe of its pro- 
duction, viz. the fructification, the growth of the plant accommo- 
dates itfelf to its jult limits; but, failing in that, it runs out wild, 
and irregular, fportive and impatient of all controul ? 

34. Fucus RUBENS. 

F. fronde fubmembranacea dichotoma ; ramis proliferis lineari- 
bus, ramulis apice dilatatis bifidis, laciniis acutiufcul s. Herb. 
Linn. Buddie, p. 26. n. 5. and p. 27. n. 5. Ginanni Op. Pojlh. 
t. 26. f. 61. • Buxbau/n, cent. 1. /. 60. f. 2. 
Fucus rubens. Linn. Sp. PL 1650. 
Fucus crifpus. F/. Ang. p. 580. 

Fucus prolifer. FL Scot. p. 949. t. 30. fig. optima. tVithering r 
vol. 3. p. 246. 
Habitat in rupibus, faxis, et plantis fubmarinis frequens. 
Radix callus expanfus— From ab ipfo ortu faepius ramofiflima fit, 
nonnunquam fimplex oritur, at in omnibus haud mora dichotoma 
eft — Rami plani fub-enervii lineares, fubinde proliferi — Ramu/i de- 
mum dilatati bindique, et in lacinias f. lobos acutos definunt. Ali- 
quando frons videtur ftipitata ftipite brevi teretiufculo cartilagineo, 


i66 Dr. Go ode no ugh mid Mr. Woodward'; Obfervaiiom en 

— Rami ramulique procefTubus fub lente foliaceis notabiles — Sub* 
Jl.,ntia fub-membranacea — Color fanguineus — Altiiudo 3 — 6uncialis. 

Mr. Light foot has given fuch an admirable defcription of this 
Fucus, that it is needlefs to add to it. 

He mentions that it has no rib or nerve ; but it is no uncommon 
thing to find plants in their advanced date with a manifefl appear- 
ance of a nerve running up the centre of the larger or thicker 

Its proliferous production of new branches diftinguifhes it at nrfl 
fight from every other Fucus, which has the lean: affinity to it. 

The nerve which we have fpoken of as viable in the branches, 
is difcovered by holding the plant before a very ftrong light. In- 
deed this is the belt mode of examining Fuel in general : the fructi- 
fication and original colour of any plant, be it to outward appear- 
ance from drying what it will, are molt furely detected by this 
method. When a plant has been once bleached by its expofure 
to wind and weather, no art can reftore its colour ordifcover it. 

As we are certain that this is the F. rubem of Linnaeus, the names 
of Mr. Hudibn and Mr. Lightfoot are necenarily fuperfeded. 

It is a matter of curious enquiry, whether the proliferous tend- 
ency of this plant be its natural growth, or whether it be its na- 
tural power of repairing any injury (to which its tender and brittle 
quality expofes it at all times) which it may have received. We 
have found entire plants bearing no proliferous divifion at all. 

What appear to be tubercles upon this plant are in reality rudi- 
ments of branches. Our fpecimens do not enable us to pronounce 
whether they produce feeds, or whether they are calculated to 
feparate from their parent plant, and thus taking root, to carry 
on the progeny. 

35. Fucus 

the Briti/h Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 167 


F. fronde cartilaginea ramofa ; ramis patentibus fub-duplicato- 
pinnatifidis, ramulis obtufis callofis. Herb. Buddie, p. 18. 
». 7, 8. Petiver, p. 25. n. I, 2. Uvedale, p. 12. n. 4. Acl. 
Pari/. 17 1 2. p. 34.'/. 4. / 6. M?r. J2J?, Oxon. iii. /. 646. 
/ I* t. %.f. 2. ' 
Fucus Ofmunda. Gme/in, p. 155. /. 16. jC 2. 
F. pinnatifidus. Gmelin, p, 156. /. 16. f. 3. 
F. pinnatifidus. FL Ang. p. 581. F/. Scot. p. 953. Withering 

vo/.^.p. 247. 
F. multifidus. FY. Ang. p. 581. JVithering, vol. 3. /. 248. 
F. fi lie in us. F/. Sec/. ^. 954. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis frequens. 
Radix callus expanfus ex quo cauliculi plurimi conferti oriuntur 
. — From cartilaginea plana avenia ramofior, ramis et ramulis difti- 
chis oppofitis alternifque — Ramuli breves, modo truncati, faepius 
apice obtufo rotundato, et pra? tuberculis innatis, ut videtur, callofo. 
Rami pro habitu et loco, pinnatifidi, 2 — ^plicato-pinnatifidi et 
multifidi — Altitudo 1 — 5uncialis — Subjlantia fub-cartilaginea — Color 
variat flavefcens, olivaceus, et ex olivaceo ruber — Fruelificatio tuber- 
cula ad ramulorum apices. 

Fucus pinnatifidus varies very much with refpecl: to the divifion 
of its frond. Hence botanifts have imagined it to contain different 
fpecies, and have been at no fmall pains to afcertain their refpective 
limits. As it happens to be a very common plant, frequent have 
been our opportunities of obferving it. After very careful and re- 
peated examinations, we can venture to pronounce that the pinnati-. 
fidus and multifidus of Hudfon and the pinnatifidus and filicinus of 


l68 Dr. Goodenougii and Mr, Woodward\t Obfervahons on 

Lightfoot are one and the fame plant. This will be readily allowed 
by any one who will take upa clufter of thefe plants when grow- 
ing near the low-water mark at a fpring tide. In almofl every iuch 
duller he will find all the gradations of divillon to which we 
allude. F. Ofmunda fhews it when of free growth in a young date. 
Mr. Lightfoot remarks (but it proves his flight acquaintance with 
it), that it (his filicinus) never producer feeds — How fhould it in 
this immature flate? Morifon's figure exhibits it in full and per- 
fect growth. This is an excellent reprefentation ; but we have 
found it ftill more luxuriant on the rocks near Ilfracombe. 

There is fcarcely any poffibility of afcertaining the caufe of luxu- 
rious growth in any of the cryptogamic plants, be they mufcz, algce, or 
fungi. The plants of our very gardens vary in £tat<ure and monftro- 
fity, though cultivated with the fame means and precifely the fame 
care. How much more then may we imagine fubmarine plants to 
give into irregularities, whofe occult fituation and expofure to un» 
feen currents baffle the moil acute refearches ! On the fame root 
may be found plants of a fimple frond barely dentated ; compound 
plants with a fimple pinnatifid divifion ; and others with ramifica- 
tions of a multiplied nature. The colour fometimes is yellowifh 
or buff, in its more advanced flate of a dark dirty red. The ter- 
minations of the fmaller branches are loaded with minute tuber- 
cles; this gives them a callous appearance. Thefe tubercles extend 
themfelves not unfrequently a little way down the branches, and 
are fometimes fupported on fhort thick peduncles. 

36. Fucus 

the Britj/h Fuci, with particular Defcriptions of each Species. 169 

36. Fucus CRISPUS. 

F. frondc fub-membranacea. dichotoma ; ramis integris ; tuber- 

culis folitariis fparfis. Linn. Svjl. Nat. p. 970. 
F. ceranoides «, /3, =T. Fl. Ang. p. 582. «, (3. FL Scot. p. 913. 

915. a y /3, h Withering) vol. 3. p. 249. 
Var. a. brunneus — membranaccus, ramis dilatatis crifpo-undu- 
latis, laciniis obtufiufculis. Herb. Linn, Buddie, p. 10. n. 8. 
F. ceranoides. Gmelin, t. 7. f. 1. 
Var. /3 virens — membranaceus, ramis dilatatis planiufculis, 

laciniis acutis longiufculis. Petiver, p. 20. n. 3, 4. 
Var. y ftellatus — fub-membranaceus, ramis dilatatis apice crii- 
po-undulatis, laciniis numerofifrimis confertis breviufculis. 
Herb. Linn, Buddie, f* IO. n, 5, 6, 
Var. S sequalis — membranaceus, ramis omnibus xqualibus linea- 

ribus planis, laciniis obtufis. 
Var. e compreflus — fub-cartilagineus, inferno fub-compremis, 
ramis fub-linearibus planis, laciniis elongatiufculis acutis. 
Buddie, p. 9. n. 2. and p. 10. n. 1, 2, 3. Petiver, p. 10. n. 5. 
F. ceranoides. Gmelin, t. j.f. 3. 
F. filiformis. FL Ang. p. 585 ? 
Radix, callus expanfus — Ex callo confurgunt trondes plurimae, 
1 — 6unciales, omnes, praeterquam in var g, planx aveniae; in var. 
a , /g, y % fenfim dilatatse, dichotomy — Fruclificatio, tubercula difco 
frondis, interdum marginibus innata, ovata, faepe rotundiufcula, 
rubra- 1 — Color variat ruber, brunneus, virens, pallidus. 

Var. cc plerumque brunnei coloris eft — Extremitates ramorum 
crifpo-undulataz — lacinix obtufiufculse — variant autem acutiufculae 
« — Nullibi frequentius quam apud Ilfracombe enafcitur. 

Vol. III. Z Far. /3 

170 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'; Obfervatlons on 

l r ar. /3 plerunique viret — Extremitates ramorum fubcrifpo-un- 
dulatas — laciniae Iongiufculae et fsepius acutre — Habitat parTim, 

Var. y mire in lacinias numeronffimas coni"ertas dividitur — Vide- 
tur potius natutx lufus quam quse vel varietas dici poffit— Inter 
pan 16 rariores. 

Far. $ ramos omnes asquales fub-lineares laciniis obtufis exhibet 
— Anguli dichotomiarum obtufiufculi — Color, ruber — Habitat in 
Infula Portlandica, fed rarius. 

Far. g haud raro ad altitudinem 06I0 unciarum crefcit — From 
cai tilaginea, ad bafin fxpius comprefla quam plana, fed rami omnes 
demum plani aut faltem planiufculi evadunt — Rami valde tenues, 
lineares, cequales, laciniis longis acutis — Frudiificatio in omnibus 
hifce varietatibus eadem — Habitat paflim. 

No plant can well be fuppofed to vary more than this. If we 
view the extremities of its variation, the one will be found with a 
broad dilated membranaceous frond — the other with a narrow 
linear cartilaginous compreffed one. Neverthelefs the tranfition 
from the one to the other is fo gradual, that it is not eafy to be 
perceived where any difference takes place — 

Ufque adeb quod tangit idem eji — 

It comes in competition with none of the Fuci which are arranged 
in this order, except the young fpecimens of F. rubens; but the 
flighteft attention will diftinguilh it from this. In the firft place, 
this plant is never in any degree proliferous ; and in the next, its 
fructification is fmooth tubercles imbedded almoft or entirely in the 
fubftance of the frond, not what Mr. Lightfoot calls warts, which 
when magnified appear to be the curled rudiments of young leaves. 
See F.prolifer. FL Scot. p. 951. 

2 . To 

the Briii/Jj Fuc/\ with particular Defer iptions of each Species. iyi 

To date all the varieties of this Proteus would be an endlefs 
tafk : we have only endeavoured to give an outline of the princi- 
pal ones, to which the reft may more readily be reduced. 

There is prodigious confufion in all modern authors about this 
Fucus. Having all of them taken it for granted that it is the Coanci- 
des of Linnaeus, they have brought together a flrange mafs of plants, 
no one agreeing with the Linnaean defcription, or confident with 
its brethren. One could fcarccly imagine that fuch eminent writers 
as Gmelin and Mr. Lightfoot would have joined crifpus, mammillofus y 
palmet t a, and mcmbranifoliu$ $ as one and the fame plant, or that Mr. 
Hudfon fhould have feen a fimilarity in thofe above mentioned, 
adding alio that variety of veficu'ofus which we call injiatuu 

Our firft variety (lands in theLinnasan herbarium marked crifpus y 
and it agrees with Linnasus's defcription. We have traced it regu- 
larly through thofe varieties which we have defcribed, and can pro- 
nounce that they all proceed from the fame origin. 

We call our third variety (which is alfo in the Linnacan herba- 
rium along with the firft) fe/Iatus, after Mr. Lightfoot ; but we 
have reafon to think from the fynonyms in Buddie's hort. ficcus, 
that our laft variety was meant by the defcription F. cer amides albi- 
dus ramulorum apicibusflellatis, R, Syn. p. 44. 

The fourth variety has all its branches of the fame breadth 
throughout, and the points are all obtufe. 

The fifth variety feems at firft fight fcarcety to belong to this 
fpecies ; but to an attentive obferver fumcient proof will arife, it 
being no difficult matter to trace the gradations from the firft va- 
riety down to this. We have little doubt but that Mr. Hudfon 
named this variety fliformis ; and, from its comprefTed form, claffed 
it in his divifion Fronde camprejpi. If this be not Mr. Hudfon's 
fhformis, we xmift profefs ourfelves ignorant of it altogether, 

Z 2 having 

172 Dr. GooDEKOUGii and Mr \ Woodward^ Obfervations on 

having never met with any thing which correfponds with hi* 

The conftant dilKnclion of this plant is the dichotomous frond, 
and the fmooth veficle-like tubercles, placed irregularly towards the 
fummits of the frond. 


F. fronde dichotoma lineari, apicibus obtufis tuberculofis. 
Herb. Linn. Petiver, p. 31. n. 2, 3. 9. Act, Pari/. 171-1, 
ph 11. f. 5. radicem frudtinxationemque exhibct. Fl. Dan. 
t. 214. optima. Gmelin, p. 73. t. I. A.f. 2, Mori/bn, Hijl. 
Qxon. 3. p. 647./ 15. t. 8.f. 12. 
F. excifus. Linn. Sp. PL 1627. — Canaliculars. Sjft. FL Ang. 
/. 583. FL Scot. p. 917. Withering, vol. 3,/. 250. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis. 

Radix callus expanlus — From fub ipfo ortu ramofa — Rami modo 
nati fspe rupibus adherent et novae fiunt plantae, unde plurimae 
Irondes ex eodem callo oriri vifae funt — From omnino dichotoma 
canaliculata evadit — Apices ramorum obtufi, tumidi, tuberculofi — 
Aititudoi — 5uncialis— Color ex flavefcenti olivaceus — Subjlantia car- 
tilaginea — Fructificatio, tubercula conferta apices ramorum occu- 

Obf. Rami non revera canaliculati, at marginibus longitudinaliter 
bine contraclis f. inflexis, fpeciem canaliculorum pras fe ferunt. 

The order we here eftablilh is perfectly diftinct. It agrees with 
the order Fronde plana avenid in having no nerve, but differs from it 
in being channelled on one fide, and not flat or plain. This appear- 
ance arifes not from any canaliculation or groove being made in 


the Briti/h Fact, with particular Defcriptions of each Species, 173 

the folid fubftance of the plant, but rather from the margins being 
contracted as it were, and drawn through their whole leneth to 
one fide— fo that it has the appearance of being channelled rather 
than the reality. However, as the appearance is conftant, we are 
glad, in arranging fo numerous a family, to take advantage of it, and 
eftablifh a new order founded upon this circumftance. 

This plant is found on all rocky fhores. Where it is expofed to 
freili water, the points of the branches, as well as the branches 
themfelves, are longer and coarfer, and the tubercles more nume- 
rous, and confequently appear to be more tumid. We obfervcJ 
this particularly in the river Severn. 

38. Fucus PATENS. 

F. fronde dichotoma lineari apicibus obtufiufculis planis ; tu- 
berculis fubglobofis fparfis. 

Habitat prope Marazion in littore Cornubienfi, et apud Iifra- 
combe in com. Devon, frequens. 

Radix callus — Frons bafi ipsa furculofa, unde plurimi caules con- 
ferti enafcuntur — From linearis, et hinc leviter canaliculata — Rami 
omnes dichotomi, dichotomiis patentibus — Apices ramorum plani, 
tuberculorum immunes, obtufiufculi — Aliitiido variat 2— 6uncialis 
—Color plerumque brunneus — Subjlantia membranacea — Fruttijicatin, 
tubercula fubglobofa prominula per extremos ramos fpaffa. 

Obf. Habitus F. crifpi var. cvqualis, at margines ramorum longitu- 
dinaliter levius inflexi, unde canaliculati videntur rami nee plani. 

Hitherto we have noticed this plant only at Ilfracombe in Devon- 
fhire, and near Marazion in Cornwall. Some care is ncceflary to avoid 
confounding it with fome of the varieties of F. crijpus. The leading 


174 Dr. Gooden"OUGH and Mr. Woodward'/ Obfervations on 

mark of diftinction is that appearance of being channelled, which, 
though but (lightly impreiled, yet is fufficiently vifible, particularly 
towards the bale of the frond. The branches are patent, the di- 
chotomies forming fometiines almoft right angles. We have per- 
ceived in fome fpecimens, when dried, a very flrong, rank fmell. 


F. fronde dichotoma ramis fuperne dilatatis, utrinque mammil- 

lofo-tuberculiferis, apicibus acutis. Herb. Buddie, p. 10. n. 7. 

9, 10. Mmjon, H'ifl. Ox. 3. p. 646. / 15. /. 8./ 13. bona. 

F. canaliculatus var. <3. Fl. Ang. p. 583. 

Vary y. Withering* vol. 3. p. 250, 

'F ceranoides var. e. Fl. Scot. p. 917. 

Far, (3 — fronde angufta lineari apicibus acutiufculis* 

F. ceranoides var. £. Fl. Scot. p. 916. 

Habitat in rupibus et faxis fubmarinis frequens — /3 prope Haftings, 

fed parce. 

Radix callus expanfus — From bafi furculofa, unde plurimi caules 

conferti ex eodem callo oriuntur — Haud mora dichotoma fit ; ante 

-unamquamque dichotomiam dilatatio accidit, unde rami ramulique 

quodammodo cuneiformes videntur — Apices bifidi; laciniis acutis 

— From inferne angufta canaliculars ut in praecedentib us, fuperne 

rami lati et faepius plani — Per totam paginam utrinque mammillae 

fub-pedunculatae fparguntur — Hse mammillae modo fieriles et quafl 

rudimenta novarum frondium, modo tuberculiferas, omnes incurvae 

— Subjiantia membranacea firma — Color variat rubens, brunnens — 

Altitude 2 — 5uncialis. 

Var. /3 omnia fere quae var. a habet — At frons angufta admodum, 

et linearis — Mammillae rarius proveniunt, et apices ramorum obtu- 



the Britijh Fuci, with particular Defcriptions of each Species. 175 

The errors which have attended the inveftigation of this plant, 
are owing in a great meafure to Linnaeus himfelf, who inadvertently 
under his ceranoides quoted the figure of Morifon ahove mentioned. 
The figure altogether militates again ft the defcription which he 
gives of ceranoides; for he defcribes it as having apices veficulofos t 
which mammillofus never has : befides, the fpecimen prefer ved in his 
herbarium has no affinity to it; for that is never found with thofe 
excrefcences which we mention as the characteriftic of this plant. 

Lin nanus's quoting this figure of Morifon to his ceranoides, led 
fubfequent authors, who naturally trufted more to fuch an ex- 
preflive figure than to his verbal defcription, to miftake the plant 
which he named ceranoides. Thus Gmelin fuppofed crifpus to be 
ceranoides, and mammillofus, inafmuch as it was fo cited by Linnaeus 
himfelf, a variety of it. 

Mr. Hudfon obferving the frond to be channelled, referred mam* 
millofus to canaliculars ; but they differ moll widely, the ends of 
the branches in one being exceedingly tuberculated, and the other 
plain. So that we cannot but wonder at fuch a want of accuracy. 

Mr. Lightfoot again carries it back to ceranoides in defiance of the 
wide difference of the very fructification, of which he feems perfectly 
aware. He does not feem tohave noticed the frond being channelled. 

When the learned in the fcience fo differ, we mud deprecate all 
cenfure upon our vanity, if we prefume to hold out a truer invefti- 
gation. It cannot be ceranoides of Linnasus or canaliculars, for the 
ends of the branches in both thofe fpecies are full of tubercles— in 
this, plain. It cannot be crifpus, becaufe the frond is plain and the 
tubercles are folitary and fixed in the fubftance of the plant ; in 
this the frond is always channelled, and the fructification is minute 
tubercles in the mammillofe proceffes (landing out on each fide 
of the feveral branches. 


Tj6 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'/ Obfervations on 

It will always be diflinguiihed by its dilated branches with acute 
points, even when not in a ftate of frucliri cation. The breadth of 
the branches varies from a line to half an inch. The colour is 
fometimes of a line bright red — mod commonly of a dark red 
brown. The plant varies in height from two to five inches. 

In our var. ft the branches it is true are very numerous, but not 
more fo (notwith (landing Mr. Lightfoot afTerts otherwife) than in 
var. a. The whole frond is about four inches high ; the branches 
are all nearly of an equal breadth, from \ a line to \ of an inch. 
The dilatation of the frond takes place in this alfo ; but from the 
extreme narrownefs of the branches, it is difcernible only by atten- 
tive obfervation. 

40. Fucus loreus. 

F. fronde dichotoma acuta, glabra utrinque tuberculata. Herb, 
Linn. Buddie, p. 20. Petiver, p. 35. n. I. Uvedale, app. 
/>. 87. R. Syn. p. 43. n. 11 arid 15. Ger. em. p. 1568. f. 5. 
Act. Gall. 17 1 2. p. 24. pL 1. f. 2. ubi cum floribus feminibuf- 
qne depingitur. Act. Gail. 1771. partie 1. pi. 3. f, 14. y. 
Fl. Dan. t. 710. Gent. Mag. 1756./. 64. 
F. elongatus. Linn. Sp. Pi. 1627. Syn. Mor. exclufo. 
F. loreus. Linn. Syji. Nat. Fl. Ang. p. 583. Fl. Scot. p. 920. 

Withering^ vol. 3. p. 250. 
Var. (i inxqualis — fronde plana latiore incequali, angulis dicho- 
tomic obtufioribus. Act. Gall. 1772. partie 2. pi. 4. f. 18. 
Habitat — « in Infula Portlandica, et in littore auftrali frequens. 
/3 inter rejectamenta maris apud Yarmouth in Norfolcia legimus. 

Adhczret fortiter rupibus callo explanato unciali — Stipes teres, un- 
cialis, craflitie pcnnas cygnana?, dein in difcum concavum pezizae- 


the Br'il'ifh Fi/ci, with particular Deft/ ip lions of each Specks, ijj 

formem uncialem vel fefquiuncialcm dilatatur — Fro?is una ai (crave, 
nonnunquam etiam plurima: c cjifci (lipids dilatati centro, tres wl 
quatuor lineas latas, craffae, compreffic, coriaccai, glabrie, modo ad 
ipfam originem, modo pod paululum progreflus dichotomic — ■ 
Rami iterum iterumque dichotomi, dein frons fingula ad duarurr. 
vel trium ulnarum longitudincm extenfa, et in plufquam vigiuti 
fegmenta acute terminata divifa — Fruflificatio, tubercula numero- 
fiffima per totam frondem utrinque fparfa, apice perforata, et fe- 
minibus repleta — Color recentis plants olivaceus, ficcata- niger. 

Far, $ — frudificationem, fubftantiam et colorem ut in a. cxhi- 
bet — Sed Frons omnino plana et latior, latitudine admedum vari- 
ans — Anguli dichotomize, qui in a acuti, in hac varietate obtufifiimi 
et quafi rotundati funt. 

This fpecies is fo fingular in its form and mode of growth, that 
it is impoffible to confound it with any other in the genus. 

At the firft appearance it exactly refembies a Peziza Handing on 
a fhort thick footflalk, and in this flate has been defcribed by 
Ray, Syn. p. 43. n. 15, and by others of the older authors by the 
very apt name of ' Fucusfungis ajfwis? The frond, which arifes from 
the centre of this pezizseform rudiment, exactly refembies in fub- 
ftance a leather thong, is without rib or nerve, bears neither leaves 
nor branches ltrictly to be fo called; but is conftantly dichotomouilv 
divided at intervals of 3 or 4 inches each, until not unfrequently it 
attains a length of 2 or 3 yards, and ibmetimes much more ; and the 
divifions, being in proportion to the length, have been found to 
exceed twenty or thirty. The breadth, which is originally 3 or 4 
lines, does not much vary, except towards the extremity, when it 
becomes narrower and ends in an acute point — The angles formed 
by the dichotomy are acute. The whole furface of the plant is 

Vol. III. A a imooth, 

178 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward* j Obfervatiom on 

fmooth, and it is covered on both furfaces with nearly iiriifterfcf 
tubercles, perforated at the top, and filled with feeds — Bcfides- 
thefc, are oblervable on the recent plant numerous pencils of 
fine hairs, which have been fuppofed by fo me authors to be the 
{lamina, and by others the iryles ; but which are probably organs, 
by which the plant receives nourishment ; the fame being obfer- 
vablc on the Y.ferraius and fome other fpecies, in which the fruc- 
tification is fituated very differently from what it is on this plant. 

We have quoted elongates of Linn., as well as loreus for this fpe- 
cies, being convinced from a careful examination of the fpecimens- 
in the herbarium, that they do not differ, and that the breaking 
of the former, which is defcribed in Syjl. Vegei. as characteriftic of 
the fpecies, is merely the effect of drying after having been fixed 
to the paper. It is further to be obferved, that the fpecimen named 
elongatus is mentioned as having been found in the Britiih feas as 
well as loreus, and that no other than, the latter, and its above- 
mentioned variety have ever been found fince on the Britiih coaft. 

The F. lor ens is figured in A8. Gall. 1772, part. 2. pi 3. f. 14. y. 
where the fructification is magnified. It is the work of Meffrs. 
Fougeroux de Bondaroy and Tillet.. They have examined the 
marine plants very minutely, but they confound digiiatus and 
hdbofus together, faying the ftipes is both flat and round. The 
following remark upon the fructification occurs in their treatife : — 

* J'ai deffme une des ramifications de cette plante vue a la loupe; 
4 Ton y decouvre de petits fucoirs que M. de Reaumur a deja re- 

* marques, et qui font les capfules des grains de ce fucus.* The 
root is figured pi. 4. f. 18, 19. but the confufion. of F. digiiatus 
and bulbo/us is rather an argument againft their accuracy as well as * 

This fpecies is found abundantly on the rocks on the fouth- 


the Briti/h Fuci, with particular Defer iptiom of each Species, 1 70 

weftern coaft, and in various other places. We have gathered it 
alio amongft other rejectamenta on the beach at Yarmouth 10 

The var. /3 differs from & in having the frond quite plain and 
flat, very irregularly varying from half an inch to an inch and 
half in width. The divifions are much fewer, and the angles of 
the dichotomy very obtule. The pezizseform bafe is fimilar, and 
the whole furface is ftudded with fructification fimilar to a, leav- 
ing no doubt of its being a variety of that plant. It was found 
with ol on the fandy beach at Yarmouth. 

4r. Fucus ACULEATUS. 

F. fronde fub-cartilaginea ramofifTima dentata, dentibus mar- 
ginalibus fubulatis ereclis. Herb. Linn. Buddie, p. 14. 
Uvedaky p, 8. Mor. Hijl. Oxon. 3. f, 15. /. 9. f. 4. 
R. Syn. p. 48. n. 38. Ft. Dan. U 355. 
F. mufcoides. Gmelin y p. 130. /. 12. 

F. aculeatus. Sp. PL p. 1630. Fl. Ang. p. 585. FL Scot, 
p. 924. Withering, vol. 3. p. 259. Stackhoufe, Ner. Brit. 
p. 24. /. 8. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis paflim. 

Adhneret rupibus et faxis cailo craffo vix explanato — From 
1-2 pedalis, olivaceo-viridis, ad originem cartilaginea, filiformis, 
teres, crailitie pennce corvinae, in ramos omnino fimiles, attamen 
paulo tenuiores, ftatim dividitur. Hi Rami aliis ramis ramulifque 
membranaceis, linearibus, fub-pellucidis, vix quartam lineas par- 
tem latis, utrinque dentatis, dentibus fubulatis, mollibus, alternis, 
ereclis, femilineam circiter longis obfiti funt. Fruclificatio, tuber- 
cula minutiflima nigricantia in ramis ramulifque, fparfa. 

A a 2 In 

iSo Dr. Goodenough and Mr. WooDWARd'jt Objervatiom on 

\w this fpecies a part of the frond is filiform and a part com- 
p relied ; whence it might be confidered as doubtful under which di- 
vifion it ought be arranged. We have thought proper to place it 
here, becaufe much the greater part of the plant is linear and com- 
prefled ; and becaufe the fpecimens which are found feparated from 
their native rocks, have very rarely the lower filiform branches 
adhering — and therefore, if it had been arranged in the next divi- 
ilon, difficulties might have been occafioned in afcertaining a plant 
not otherwife eafily to be miftaken. 

It partakes of the nature of the cartilagineous and membranaceous 
feci) the lower filiform branches being entirely of the former, and 
rhe comprefTed branches abfolutely of the latter defcription. The 
fubulate erect teeth, which proceed from the margins of the fmaller 
branches in a regularly alternate order, do not differ in fubftance 
from the branches themfelves, and are like them comprefTed ; and 
this circumftance prevents the poffibility of confounding this fpecies 
with any other in the genus. 

The fructification has been hitherto unnoticed ; but we have 
been favoured with fpecimens gathered by Dr. Withering on the 
ihores of the Tagus, on which are difcernible extremely minute 
tubercles, thinly fcattered on -the furface and on the margins of 
the linear branches, almoft black, and apparently filled with feeds. 
Befides thefe, in fome of the older fpecimens axillary nodules have 
been difcovered, having the appearance of congefted tubercles ; but 
we dare not pofitively afTert that they are fuch, and recommend it 
to bctanift s rending on the fea-fhore carefully to examine the recent 
plants, in order to ascertain the real nature of thefe excrefcences. 

The variety mentioned by Mr. Lightfoot, p. 926, under the name 
of fi caudaius, has never yet fallen under our obfervation ; but that 
t'nis is the Mufcoides Sp. PL p. 1630, cannot be doubted, that fpecies 


the Britifh Fuci, with particular Defer iptlons of each Species, 181 

being in Syft. Veget. given as a variety of aculeatus, and referred to 
Gunner. Acl. Hidrof. 4. p. 83. /. 7. notwith (landing this figure is i'o 
extremely bad that nothing could be conje&ured from it alone. 
To this variety alfo muft undoubtedly be referred Mufcoides Fl. Aug. 
p. 590. Gmelin has included both under the name of Mufcoides. 

It is frequent on the northern and wefrern coafts of Great Britain, 
and has been found amongft other rejectamenta on the beach at 
Yarmouth in Norfolk. 


F. fronde cartilaginea ramouflima, ramis latioribus alternis, 

ramulis oppofitis divaricato-adfeendentibus obtufis. 
Herb. Buddie, p. 2. n. I. -\ 

9 p. 28. n. 1. 2. 4. > majores. 

Petiver, p. 25. n. 6. J 

F. fpinofus. Gmelin, p. 161. /. 18. /. 3. 
F. corneus. FL Ang. p. 585. Withering, vol. 3. p. 252. 
Var. (i filicinus — fronde tenui, ramulis horizontalibus obtufim- 
F. filicinus. Fl. Ang. p. 586. 
F. nereideus. Fl. Scot. p. 
Far. y pinnatus — fronde tenui, ramulis patentibus obtufiufculis. 

F. pinnatus. Fl. A?ig. p. 586. 
Var. <F nniformis — fronde tenui, ramis ramulifque bafi attenuatis 
patentibus obtufis. 

Habitat in littoribus faxofis, in rupibus et faxis — *, /?, prope 

Exmouth in Devonia — y in Infula Portlandia — I prope Ilfracombe. 

Var. a.. Radix callus minutus — From ad bafm ipfam ramofa et 

quafi furculofa, furculis ftatim radicantibus, unde frondes plurirrux 

conferta: exoriuntur, et cava faxorum faspe cingunt, ex quo radicem 

I repentem 

lS2 Di . Goodenough and Mr. Woodward^ Obfcrvatiom an 

repentem dicas — Rami primariiramulislatiores funt, varie ramofi — ■ 
Hamuli diftichi, fub-oppofiti, modo divaricati, modo adfcendentes, 
juniorcs tenues acuti fub-fetacei, adultiores paulum dilatati obtufi. 
Hi ramuli aliquando fimplices evadunt, faepius apicem verfus ramu- 
los minores gerunt, ejufdem ac priorum, pro astate, forma: — Color 
amoene ruber — Subflaniia cartilaginea — Fruffificaiio, tubercnla in ra- 
mulorum adultiorum apicibus — Altiiudo i — 4 uncialis. 

Far. fi. Omnia ut in var. a. — Sed from omnino tenuis et inter- 
num fere capillaris — Ramuli extremi nonnunquam pro habitu fron- 
dis valde dilatati — Ramuli omnes horizontaliter fefe porrigunt — 
From faturatius rubra, 

Var. y. Frons inferne fazpe fimplex et nudiufcula eft — Ramuli 
•omnes patentes acutiufculi — In hac var. fructificationem nondum 
vidimus. — Rami tenues admodum fub-triplicato-pinnati — Frons 
pallide rufa. 

Far. £, Haec var. prsecedentibus paulo altior exfurgit — Rami 
omnes et ramuli fere pari latitudine, angufti f. tenues, obtufi, ra- 
mofiflimi — Ramuli patentes bafi attenuati — Color faturatius ruber — 
Fruclificatio hodie ignota. 

We have not proceeded in our arrangement and defcription of 
the feveral varieties above mentioned, without much caution and 
repeated examination. That in an artificial fyftem they cannot be 
ieparated, but are really connected by links of nice gradation, will 
be evident to any one who will trace them out carefully. We are 
confirmed in this the more by obferving, that all botanifts * 
have been puzzled in allotting limits to Mr. Hudfon's comeus, pin- 
natus, and filicinus. The grand character in all is, their throwing 

* Gmelin remarks/. 239 — Fuc'% in Flora Anglica Hudfoni duhn\ F. filicinus et 


6 out 

the B'rilijh Fucf 9 ivith particular Defer ipticns of each Species. 1S3 

out fmall branches more or lefs horizontal and obtufc : the varia- 
tion conn lis in the breadth or finenefs of the principal branches,, 
and the proportion which they bear to each other. The difference 
of foil' and fituation mod likely occafions this variety of appearance. 

We found the two firft varieties, both fmall in their kind, on the 
rocks near Exmouth in Devonshire — the van « on the edges of 
the little cavities of the rocks under the coarfer forts, viz. F.ferratus, 
veJtculofus i &c. — the var. (B was a little more expofed. The third var. 
we have found only on the extremity of the Ifle of Portland near 
the lighthoufes — the fourth near Ilfracombe, where it is very plen- 
tiful. All thefe varieties are re*adily kept diftin<5l from obtufus by 
their extreme branches being obtuie and entire, and not truncated. 

Thefpeeknens preferved in Buddie are large, and, being blanched, 
fo juftly anfwer his defcriptioa of corneus et tenax, that we preferve 
the name corneus. The propriety of this appellation is feen only in 
thefe larger and thicker fpecimens. Mr. Lightfoot does not appear 
to have {een it otherwife than in its fmaller ftate, fuch as it appears 
in our fecond variety. He called it nereideus, from its fimilarity to 
the Nereis, an animal claffed by Linnaeus among the Mollufca. 

It is a great argument, we own, for thefe varieties being feparated 
into diftinct fpecies, that they are found growing in fuch diftant 
fituations, and fo detached from each other ; but their limits are 
not to be afcertained. 

We have not obferved any fructification upon the two lafl: 

43. Fucus GrGARTiNus— Tab. 17. Fig. 3, 4. 

F. fronde cartilaginea dichotoma ramofa, ramis asqualibus 
acutis fpinofo-dentatis ; tuberculis globofis lateralibus 
feffilibus. Herb. Linn. Murray Syjl. Veg*p.tyi* 


184 Dr. Gocdenough and Mr. Woodward'^ Qhftrvathns on 

Habitat in littore Cornubienfi — D. Wenman — Copiofiflime ad ica- 
las adfcenfus in ponte marino St. Ives. D. Loejling in Herbaria 

Radix callus expanfus, ex quo caulkuli plurimi arTurgunt, con- 
fcrti. From filiformis compreffa palmarisbafi fimplex, mox ramofa 
rigida. Rami dichotomi, ramulis acutis hinc inde dentibns validis 
cornuum infrar armatis : hi dentes re vera rudimentafunt aliorum 
ramulorum. Fruclificaiiones globofa?, dentium axillisi' five fub apice 
dentium affix as — hinc fructificatio fsepius quafi mucrone live ieta attt 
proceffu qnodam fubtendi videtur. Color .nigro-purpu reus apicibus 
dilutioribus, faspe olivaceis 5 quod et in F. lumbricaii necnon in 
caeteris accidir. Subjlantia cartilaginea. 

Obf. Variat magis minufve compreffa. 

It is but very lately that we have been enabled to clafs this fpe- 
cies among the tribes which adorn our (bores. We owe this privi- 
lege to the information given us by the Hon. Dr. Wenman of All 
Souls College, Oxford. 

It will be readily diftinguifhed from any other in this divifion, by 
the fharp thorny appearance of the plant, and by its feffile globofe 
imooth tubercles, not to mention its rigid texture. 

Murray, who was the firfl who gave a defcription of this plant, 
mentions the tubercle as fuftained by a fhort footftalk, which fub- 
tends and is longer than the tubercle. No dependance can be 
placed upon this remark. The fructification is always feffile at 
the bafe or axilla of a little branch. In its perfect form this little 
branch projects beyond the tubercle ; but it is rarely found with 
any regularity in this (late; for, in confequence of the agitation of 
the fea, the branch is often broken off; whence the tubercle ap- 
pears in its true fituation, always leffile, fometimes fmgle on a 


the Brltjjb Fuci, with particular Defer iptions of each Species. 1 85 

main branch, fometimes double or treble on a little one, and not 
un frequently terminal. 

The frond appears fometimes to have roundifh branches, fo as 
fcarcely to juftify our placing it in this divifion — but they are gene- 
rally comprefTed, the upper ones always fo in a greater or lefs de- 


F. fronde cartilaginea ramofiflima, ramulis obtufis multifidis 
fub-confertis ; tuberculis globofis pedunculatis, fefiilibufque. 
Herb. Buddie, p. 12. «. 1. — P ether, p. 25. n. 3. 
Fucus coronopi facie. R. Syn. p. 45. n. 23. 
Habitat in rupibus fubmarinis Dorfetiae, Devonian et Cornubia?. 
" Adhasret rupibus callo paullulum explanato — From 4 — 6 uncia- 
lis, cartilaginea, comprefTa, fub-diaphana, ftatim in ramos pluri- 
mos divifa — Rami faspius alterni, nonnunquam dichotomi, apicem 
verfus tenuiores — £tf;7z#// numerofiflimi, plerumque conferti, lineares 
apicibus obtufis — anguli ramificationum totius planrae femper ob- 
tufi funt — Fruclifcatio, tubercula minutiflima, modo feflilia, mod6 
pedunculata, in ramulis extremis fita, atro-purpurea — Color ex ru- 
bro p'^purafcens. 

That the plant now defcribed is the Fucus coronopi facie of R. Syn. 
has been afecrtained from the examination of Buddie's Hortus 
Siccus, where the original fpecimen gathered by Mr. Stevens on the 
coaft of Cornwall is preferved. We have alfo received fpecimens 
from the fame coaft, correfponding exactly with that above men- 

The Fucus cartilagineus of Hudfon fhould, from his reference to 
Ray's Synopfs, be this plant; but as his fpeciiic character is taken 

Vol. III. B b from 

i86 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodv/ardV Obfervailons on 

from the Syjl. Nat. and as this as well as the other references (except 
thofe of Ray and Buddie) certainly belong to cartilaginens Linn, or 
Cape Fucus, it is impoflible to quote the Flora Anglka with any 
degree of certainty. 

The whole plant is ftrongly cartilagineous; the principal branches 
are thickefl in the middle, and attenuated towards the fides, giving 
them fomewhat of a two-edged form, and in the dried fpecimens 
fomewhat of the appearance of a nerve ; but this vanifhes on being 
held to a flrong light. The terminating ramuli grow without order, 
are linear, end obtufely, and are generally crowded. The angles 
of the ramification throughout the whole plant are very obtufe. 
Thefe particulars fufficiently diftinguifh it from any of its conge- 
ners with which it might be fuppofed to have any affinity. The 
fructification confifts of globular tubercles, very minute, and appa- 
rently fupported on peduncles, longer, equal to, or fhorter than 
the tubercles. When filled with ripe feeds, thefe are nearly black. 
The reft of the plant is reddifh purple, the terminating branches 
paler than the reft. 

Perhaps the tubercles ought, flriclly fpeaking, to be defcribed 
feflile on the fides, or in the axillae of the fmall branches at the 
extremity of the frond. But thefe fmall branches are almoft always 
broken off by the agitation of the fea. Hence the tubercle is necef- 
farily oftentimes terminal, and of courfe to all appearance pedun- 
culated. We have feen many fpecimens, when on the point of pro- 
ducing their tubercles, with their extreme branches perfect:, and in 
this cafe the tubercles feflile, as before obferved. F. gtgarttnus ap- 
pears to be affected by the like accidents. 

45. Fucus 

the Britifh Fuci, with particular Descriptions of each Species. 187 

45. Fucus COCCINEUS. 

F. fronde fub-cartilaginea ramofifTima, ramulis fubulatis fe- 
cundis ; tuberculis globofis fubfefTilibus. Herb. Buddie, p. 29. 
n. 1. 4. Petiver, p. 26. ». 1 . 
F. plocamium. Gmelin t p. 153. /. 26. f 1. R. Syn.p. 37. n. 1. 
F. coccineus. FL Aug. p. 587. FL Scot. p. 955. Withering^ 

vol. 3./. 253. 
F. cartilagineus. Fl. Ang. ed. 1. p. 473. 
Habitat in rupibus faxis plantifve marinis ubiquc. 
Radix fibrofa furculos emittens unde novae fiunt plants — From 
folitariavel numerofa conferta, dodrantalis aut femipedalis, vix car- 
tilaginea, filiformi-compreiTa, craffitie fili emporetici minoris, coc- 
cinea, diaphana, fupra-decompofita — Rami ramulique nonnunquam 
alterni, plerumque autem alternatim fecundi funt, i. e. duo vel tres 
ramuli ex uno ramorum latere, dein duo vel tres ex altero latere 
alterno ordine prodeunt — Ramuli extremi brevirlimi,fubulati,conftan- 
ter fecundi — Fruc~tificatio> tubercula minima, ex rubro-nigrefecntia, 
in ramulis feflilia, et nonnunquam, fed rariflime, pedunculata. 

This very beautiful fpecies is diftinguifhed from all its affinities 
by the difpofition of its branches, particularly the extreme ones, and 
by its much brighter colour. The fecondary branches fometimes 
grow alternate, but much more frequently from one fide of the pri- 
mary branches, and this in a regularly alternate order, as has been 
already defcribed, and in which lingular difpofition of its ramifica- 
tion, this plant differs from all its congeners. — The remaining divi- 
fions of the branches, except the laft, conftantly follow the fame 
difpofition : but the extreme ramuli are always clothed with minute 
fubulate teeth, growing from one fide only, and fomewhat refem- 

B b 2 bline 

1 88 Dr. Goodenough and Mr, Woodward*/ Observations, on 

bling a comb in form. Thefe teeth, when the plant is dried and dis- 
played, give it fomething of a reticulated appearance, and probably 
induced Gmelin to adopt the not very appofite name ofplocamium. 

The fructification confifts of minute tubercles fcarcely fo large 
as muftard feed, for the moft part feflile, it being very rare to meet 
with one fupported on a peduncle, affixed to the fides of the fmaller 
branches in considerable quantity, but always fingle, and. when 
filled with ripe feeds nearly black. We have obferved, on fome fpe- 
cimens, tubercles fomewhat larger, of the fame colour as the frond*, 
and always empty. Whether the plant be dioecious, and this the 
male fructification, muft be left to future enquiry.. 

When old, orexpofed on the beach, the colour is frequently pale 
yellow or white intermixed with the red ; but when young and vi- 
gorous, it is never feen of any other colour than bright red ap- 
proaching to fcarlet, and the moft brilliant of any of the genus : 
when dried, this changes to a purplifh red. 

It is found on every part of the Britifh coaft, and is very often 
parafitical on other plants, particularly the larger Fuci. — We have 
obferved it on veficulofus and fibrofus, and alfo on crifpus. — When in 
this fituation it frequently forms thick tufts not exceeding an inch 
in height, and might eafily be miftaken for a different plant* 

46. Fucus plumosus. 

F. fronde fubcartilaginea. ramofifuma,ramis fupra-decompoiito* 
pinnatis, ramulis oppofitis ; tuberculis globofis pedunculatis. 
Herb. Linn. Buddie, p. 29. n. 7. Ft. Dan. t. 350. R. Syn.. 
p. 38. «. 2. t. i.f. 5. Linn. Syjl. Nat. FL Ang % p. 587. FL 
Scot. p. 955. Withering, vol. 3. p. 254. 
Habitat in littoribus Britannicis pafllm. 


the Britijh Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Specie*. 189 

Radix callus craffus — Frons purpurea, fub-cartilaginea,ramofiflima; 
Tarlat longitudine 2 — 6 uncialis et ultra —Rami primarii filiformi- 
comprefli, opaci, inordinatim pofiti, in alios ramos ramulofquc 
compreflbs, fub-diaphanos, fupra-decompofitos dividuntur — RamuVt 
terminales oppofiti, patentes, modo fubulati dentati, nonnunquam 
fimplices, fsepius fpinis mollibus fubulatis pinnati funt — Frucllfi- 
catio, tubercula globofa, pedunculate, atro-purpurea, in ramulis 
fupremis fita, matura quadrifariain dehifcentia. 

If this fpecies cannot rival coccineus in brilliancy of colour, it is 
far fuperior in the elegant form of its ramifications, giving it the 
appearance of a beautifully branched feather, which fumciently dif- 
tinguifhes it from all in the fame divifion. 

It varies fomewhat in different fituations, and, when the extreme 
ramuli are more diftant than ufual, fomewhat refembles fome of 
the varieties of corneus. It may nevertnelefs always be cttftinguifhed 
by the form of the main branch and its fub-divifions, which are 
always between filiform and comprefTed, of a darker colour than 
the reft of the frond, and opake ; whilft in the narrow varieties of 
corneus, they are flat, alike in colour, and have always fome degree 
of tranfparency. 

This plant varies extremely in fize. On the fouthern coaft it 
rarely exceeds three inches in height, and is frequently much 
fmaller, as reprefented by Dillenius in R. Syn. — In Scotland it rifes 
often to fix inches or more, as has been obferved by Mr. Lightfcot ; 
and w T e have fpecimens now before us gathered at Scarborough, 
which are full fix inches in height. 

The ingenious author of the Flora Scotica has well defcribed the 
fructification, except that the tubercles before burfting appear to 
us to be rather globular than oval. 


i go Dr. Goodenough and Mr, Woodward^ Obfavatiom on 

A confiderable variation of appearance is obfervable in the ex- 
treme ramifications, which are oppofite, ufually naked at the bafe, 
and pinnated at the fummit ; but are fometimes alternately fhort 
and long, the (hotter being Tubulate, and either entire or finely 
toothed, and the oppofite one pinnated, with fubulate proceffes. 

The figure in FL Dan. reprefents the larger fpecimens of this 
plant, but without the delicacy obfervable in the original. F. plu- 
mo/us of Gmelin is moft probably our plant; but fome little doubt 
cannot but arife from the ramuli being defcribed as fub-articulate ; 
which feems rather to point it out to be Conferva plumofa, as we 
have never obierved the fmalleft appearance of articulations in the 
plant now defcribed. 

47. Fucus NODOSUS. 


F. fronde fubdichotoma, foliis diftichis obovatis, integer- 
rimis ; veficulis innatis folitariis fronde latioribus. Herb. 
Linn. Buddie, p. 13. opt. P ether, p. 3 5- Uvedale, p. 3*. 
Gmelin, U 1. B. f. 1. FL Dan, 146. Hijl. Ox. f. 15. /. 8. N 
f. 2. Reaumur, A51. Gall. 1 71 1, p. 26. t. 2. f. 3. Linn. Sp. 
PL 1628. FL AngL 584. FL Scot. 918. Withering, v. 3. 
p. 251. Ray. Syn. p. 48. n. 41. 
Habitat in littoribus Britannicis ubique. 

Radix callus expanfus crafTiffimus. Frondes plurimse e radice ori- 
nntur, lineares comprefTas craffae. Divifura ramorum varia, plerum- 
que autem dichotoma. Folia difticha, gemina vel plura obovata 
iutegerrioia, in petiolum attenuata, unde aliquantulum fpatulata, 
tandem mucofa intumefcunt & tuberculis numerofis repleta funt. 
Vefwula: ellipticae, ovatse, folitarias, diftantes, caule ramifque innataz, 
& his bis terve latiores. Color recentis plants olivaceus, ficcatasni- 


the Brit if Fuc/\ with particular Defci iptions of each Species. 101 

ger. Subftantia cartilagineaomnino coriacea ct tenax. jfltitudovavht 
— ad duas ulnas. 

This Fucus is fo common and fowell known, that any longde- 
fcription of it muft be unneceiTary : the large elliptical vcflels or air- 
bladders, which form its moft confpicnous character, and from 
which its trivial name is taken, iufficientlv diftinguifh it from ah 
other Britifh fpecies. Thefe veficles are folitar} r , diftant from each 
other, much wider than the ftalk, and decreafe regularly in fize 
from the lowed to the uppermoft on each frond or branch. The 
lower part of the frond is ufually deftitute of veficles as well as 
leaves ; but there is always a finall veficle above the uppermost 
leaves, from which the branch continues again naked to the lum- 
mit, which is obtufe. The diftichous leaves in an advanced (late 
are fwelled, replete with mucus, and contain numerous tubercles, 
each having a correfponding opening on the furface of the leaf. 

It is common on every part of the Britifh coaft, on the rocks, 
and alfo on the piles and other wood-work of the harbours, and is 
often adorned with large tufts of Conferva poly morpha, which appears 
particularly to attach itfelf to this fpeciesof Fucus. 

The veficles vary in fize from the bignefs of a pea to that of a 
crow's egg, and even larger. 

48. Fucus obtusus. 

F. fronde cartilaginea ramofifTima, ramis ramulifque fub-oppo- 
fitis erecliufculis obtufiflimis truncatis. 
FL dng. p. 586. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 253. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis haud infrequens — In Infula 
Portlandiae— prope Weymouth— Exmouth.- 

I Radix 

192 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'j Obfervatiom on 

Radix callus minimus furcnlos protruclens unde nova* fiunt 
plants — From folitaria vel numerofa, comprefla, purpurafcens, 
3 — 4imcialis,craflitie fili emporetici minoris, ramofiffima — Ramifxpl- 
us oppofiti, ram fparfi, bafi attenuati — Ramuli fefiiles, fed brevifli- 
mi, erectiufculi, apicibus incraflatis obtufiffimis truncatis — Fruftifi- 
atfloy tubercula riilnutajn ramulorum apicibus, necnon ad ramorum 
latera fita, atro- purpurea. 

This fpecies, which appears to have been firft defcribed by the 
author of the Flora Angiica, cannot be confounded with any in this 
divifion, unlefs the varieties (i and y of corneus, from both which it 
is eafily to be diftinguithed by being, though cartilagineous, of a 
more tender fubftance ; by having the branches attenuated at the 
bafe ; and, notwith (landing they are comprefTed, not fo completely 
flattened ; by the fomewhat erect growth of the ramuli ; and more 
particularly by having the branches truncated at the end, and by 
the fructification : this confifts of minute nearly black tubercles, 
fituated in the dilated terminations of the ramuli, as defcribed by 
Mr. Hudfon ; and alfo, as we have obferved not unfrequently on 
our fpecimens, on the fides of the larger as well as the fmaller 
branches. The primary frond is continued throughout, the branches 
are fhort near the bafe, longer in the middle, and very lliort towards 
the fummit, giving the whole an ovate form. — The principal 
branches are clothed with fecondary ones growing in the fame 
manner, and thefe with the extreme ramuli; nor have we obferved 
it farther divided. 


F. fronde dichotoma ramofa, ramis apice dilatatis ; tuberculis 
globofis terminalibiis. 

6 Lichen 

the Bn'ti/h Fua\ with particular Dcfcriptions of each Specie u 19 3 

Lichen faxatilis, maritimus, mufcofus, minimus, nigerrimus. 

Michel. Nov. Gen. ^.103. 
F. pygmaeus. Fl. Scot. p. 964./. 32. Withering vol. 3. p. 232. 
F. pumilus. Fl. Ang. p. 584. 
Habitat in rupibus etfaxis marinis inter fluxum etrcfiuxum maris 
frcquens — in Insula Portlandia* — prope Ilfracombe — in Infuia. Tune. 
Ex callo minuto expanfo latefcenti cauliculi plurimi oriuntur — 
From a primo ortu ramofa fit, ramis radicantibus, unde repentem 
dicas — Ad ipfam bafin cauliculi teretes font, at ftatim comprefli, ct in 
cartilaginem dichotomam dilatati — Apices ramorum obtufi, fubtrun- 
cati — Fruftificatio, tubercula faepius glabra veficulas referenda, apice 
pertufa, ipfisfummitatibus ramulorum adhasrentia — Color variat oli- 
vaceus, viridi-olivaceus, nigcr, ater — Subjlantia cartilaginea — Alti- 
tude \ — iuncialis. 

Wherever this little Fucus is found, it covers whole mafles of 
fiones in the manner of Lichens. From its great likenels to this 
genus, we have changed the uninterefting names of Mr. Lightfoot 
and Mr. Hudfon to Lichenoides. This very appellation will lead to 
its distinction. 

Mr. Lightfoot was fo ftruck with this fimilarity, that his whole 
defcription dwells upon it. — His figure is excellent. 

The fructification of this little fpecies is fomewhat lingular. 
Generally fpeaking, it is a round and perfectly fmooth tubercle, re- 
fembling a minute bladder, opening more or lefs at the top; but 
we fee occafionally minute granulations on the furface of it. 


F. fronde filiformi fimplice fub-fragili. ITerk Lin. — Buddie^ 
Vol III. C c A 24. 

194 & r - Goodenough and Mr. Woodward* j Obftrvatkm on 

p. 24. n. % — Petiver, p. 35.* n. 2. Uvedale* p. 6. n. 4. R. Syn. 

p. 43. n. 3. F/. ZW. t. 821. jL/w.v. £/>. /V. />. 1 63 1. F/. ^g-. 

A 5 87. F/. SfcafJ />. 963. Withering, vel 3 . p. 2 54. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis mar in is apud Cromer in Norfolcia 
& alibi frequens. 

Radix callo minimo expanfo — jFVww fimpliciflima, fxpius conferta, 
aliquando folitaria, fiJiformis, teres, glabra, craflkie penna? corvina> 
ad duarum vel trium ulnarum longitudinem faepe extenditur; bafi 
apiceque attenuate, cetera uniformis — Subftantia membranacea et 
fubfragilis, fiftulofa, conftanter cava abfque medulla — Annuli pluri- 
mi per totam cavitatem irregulariter pofiti, confervarum fepta asmu- 
lantes,vifi iunt— Cokr recentis plantar olivaceo-viridis, (iccatae niger — 
Fruciifcatio incognita. 

This fpecies differs from all other Fuci in habit, and has been fup- 
pofed by fome authors to belong more properly to the genus Confer- 
va, from having the appearance of tranfverfe fepta or diaphragms 
through the whole length of the frond. On holding the plant to the 
light, it will however be obferved that thefe apparent fepta are 
placed at unequal diftances, are frequently oblique, and that there 
are no correfponding contractions vifible on the exterior furface ; 
in all which particulars it differs from the Conferva?. If the recent 
plant be differed longitudinally, and examined with a glafs, it 
will be found, that inftead of fepta thefe are merely rings formed 
on the internal fubftance of the tube, and that no diaphragms what- 
ever can have been connected with them, as they are uniform, and 
covered with a flight woollinefs exactly in the fame manner as the 
reft of that furface. They do not appear to contain the fructifica- 
tion, and may perhaps be intended only to ftrengthen the plant, 
and to enable it the better to maintain its round and tubular form. 




the Britijh Fuci, with particular Defer iptions of each Species. 19 5 

We have never obferved any kind of fructification in this fpe- 
cies, and it is very doubtful whether it be really a Fucus ; if not, 
it certainly has more affinity with fome plants at prefent placet! in 
the genus Uha, than with any of the Conferva, It very much re- 
fembles the Uha jjftuhf* of the Flora Anglica, particularly in a youn^ 
ftate, but differs in its much more extended growth, by beino- left 
tender and fragile, and, moft of all, from the internal annuli, which 
are never obfervable in the latter plant. 

It may be proper to obferve, that the reference in Sp. PI. to Am. 
Acad. p. 259. /. %.f 2. is erroneous; what is there deicribed being 
Fucus Tendo, a production now well known to belong to the ani- 
mal and not to the vegetable kingdom. — This fpecies is fometimoi 
met with extremely twifted. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofiffima tomentofa ; ramis dichotomis 

apicibus angulifque obtufis. Herb. Buddie, p. 34. n. 5. opt. 

Petiver, p. 42. n. 5. opt. Marfan, Hf. Ox. 3./.15. /. 8. f. 7. 

Petiver, Gaz, t. 4.7C 12. 
Spongia dichotomos teretifolia viridis. R. Syn. p. 29. n. 3. 
comprefTa ex viridi-fplendens. R, Syiu 

p. 29. n. 4. 
F. tomentofus. Fl. Ang.p. 584. 
F. elongatus. Withering^ 'vol. 3. p. 251. Stackhoufe, Ner. Britt. 

p. 21. /. 7. 

Habitat in Infula Portlandia?, fed rarius — prope Exmouth — prope 
Plymouth, et per totum littus Cornubienfe auftrale; frequens nullibi. 

Radix nulla nifi bads frondis paululum explanata — From 4 — 6 
vmcialis, filiformis, vix ac ne vix comprefTa, craflltie pennse anferi- 

C c 2 na\ 

io6 Dr. Goodenough an d Mr. Woodward'j Obfcrvations en 

n& 9 ramofiffima — ictf«/dichoromi, apicibus necnon angulis ramifi- 
cationum obtufis — Subjiantla membranacea, fiftulofa, extus tomen- 
tofa feu potius velutina, fplendcns — Color viridis — Fruclificatio incog- 

The frond in this fpecies is (lightly comprefTed ; but as it ap- 
proaches much nearer to a round than to a flattened form, it feems 
to belong more properly to this divifion than to the preceding. 

The whole plant is membranaceous and hollow, covered with a 
glofly velvet down, which fufficiently it from all with 
which it might be fuppofed to have any affinity. From thefe cir* 
cumftances, and from there never having been yet any fructifica- 
tion difcovered, it is very doubtful whether it may not belong to the 
genus Ulva ; but till this can be afcertained, we have thought it 
mod proper to continue it in the fituation where it has been hither- 
to arranged. 

The root is merely an expanfion of the frond, by which it adheres 
to the rocks. — It is of a grafs green colour, much branched, the 
branches dichotomoufly divided with obtufe angles ; the terminat- 
ing forks 2, 3 or 4, varying in length from a line to half an inch, 
more or lefs blunt, with the angles very much rounded. The plant 
retains water like a fponge, and is as eafily preffed dry ; a circum- 
ftance noted in Ray's Synopjis. 

This fpecies is erroneouily referred in the Flora Anglica, and in 

Withering's Bot.Arrang. to elongatus Linn, which we believe not at all 

to differ from loreus, and to which it has not the fmalleft affinity. 

That it is the plant figured in Morifon, the Spongia dkhotomos tereti- 
folia viridis of R+Syn. cannot be doubted; nor do we hefitate to refer 

to this the Spongia dichotomos compreffa ex viridi-fplendemoi Dillenius/?. 

Syn. found by Mr. Stevens on the coaft of Cornwall, having in our 


the Br hip Fuci, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species, 197 

pofTeffion fpecimens agreeing exactly with the defcription, and with 
the figure of Petiver there quoted. 

We have never had an opportunity of examining this fpecies in a 
recent ftate, but have been favoured by Mr. Stackhoufe with a draw- 
ing accompanied with an account of the plant; from which, and 
from dried fpecimens, we have been enabled to draw up the fore- 
going defcription. 

The dried fpecimens, preferved in Petiver's and Buddie's Hortus 
f ecus in the Britilh Mufeum, are exceedingly good ones. 


F. fronde filiformi dichotoma articulata; ramis divaricatis dif- 
fufis apice acutis. Fl. AngLp. 589. 
Habitat in rupibus & faxis fubmarinis — apud Weymouth, Has- 
tings, & alibi. 

Radix callus parvus expanfus — Frons filiformis, dichotoma, ra- 
mofa, faspius ramofiffima, fili emporetici minoris craffitie, ramis di- 
varicatis, difFufis, articulatis, articulis breviflimis, npice acutis — 
Magnitudo biuncialis, dodrantalis — SuhJIantia cartilaginea — Color ru« 
bens— FruEiificatio nondum a nobis vifa eft. 

W T e have felt fome little difficulty in arranging this fpecies among 
the Fuci. Its habit and jointed form, and want of fructification 
as far as we have been able to obferve, indicate fo clofe an affinity 
to the genus Conferva, that we were almoft tempted to omit it. 
However, as we have reafon to believe that this is the plant de- 
figned by Mr. Hudfon, under this name, we looked upon the 
onus probandi as laid upon us, if we ventured to alter his arrange- 
ment. The fubftance is of a firmer texture than Conferva ufually 

are 5 

1 98 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Wood w a r d\>* Obferoationt on 

are ; and perhaps that circumftance influenced his judgment. At 
the time in which he wrote, that appearance had greater force 
than perhaps it deferved. 

We have never yet feen it in fructification : could that be found, 
we fhould have fure grounds for our determination. 

This is by no means an uncommon plant. It may be found on 
moft rocky fhores. Its beautiful red colour, and its extremely dif- 
fufe and divaricated habit, render the inveftigation of it perfectly 
eafy. Under a glafs, and even to the naked eye fometimes, the 
branches appear jointed with very fliort joints. — They are always 
lharp-pointed. In a recent date it is of a fine lively red : in drying, 
it becomes quite of a dark or black red colour. 


F. fronde nliformi dichotoma ; ramis inaequalibus obtufis apice 
tuberculatis, angulis ramificationum obtufis. R. Syn.p. 43. 
». 13. FL Ang. p. 588. 
F. bifurcatus. Withering* vol. 3. p. 257. t. 17*/. I. 
Habitat in rupibus marinis in Infula Portlandiae — Ilfracombe in 
agro Devon. — St. Ives in agro Cornub. 

Adhaeret fortiter rupibus callo explanato — Frons teres filiformis, 
craflitie penna? corvinae 2 — nuncialis & ultra, erccta, glabra, oli- 
vacea — cito fit dichotoma, angulis obtufis, ramis ramulifque inasqua- 
libus — Dichotomize variant pro magnitudine plantar 1-2-3 pluri- 
ma: — Fruclificatio, femina obtufa in apicibus ramulorum tubercu- 
latorum inclufa. 

This fpecies is fufficiently diftinct from all its affinities : from 
lumbrkaliSffaftigiatus and radiatus, by.having its branches of unequal 


the Britj/b Fuci, with particular Defer iptlons of $acb Species', 199 

lengths, and not faftigiated or level ; from dift'ufus, by havin^ its 
branches all blunted at the end, and fwclled by the fru&ification 
included in them ; and from p/icatus, by its upright, fimple and 
unentangled growth. 

The plants found at the Ifle of Portland are ufually of humble 
growth, and are well reprefented by Dr. Withering* s figure : but 
at Ilfracombe in the north of Devonfhire they are of a much taller 
figure, and the divifions of the frond are very numerous. 

The fructifications are always at the ends of the branches, and 
imbedded in the fubftance of them. The plant in a recent flute 
is always of a pale olive colour, but when dried it turns nearly or 
quite black. 

It adheres to the firmed rocks very ftrongly by means of a thick 
leathery fubftance, from which feveralftalks fometimes arife in a 
fort of clufter. We have never obferved it growing upon movea- 
ble ftones, but only on the fixed firm rock. 


F. fronde filiformi dichotoma ramofiflima ; ramis faftioqatis 
obtufis, angulis ramificationum fub-rectis. Herb. Linn. Pe- 
liver, p. 31. n. 4. Mori/on, Hi/?. Ox. 3. p. 649. / 15. /. g, 
f. 9. FI. Dan, 393. optima. 
Far, Interceptus. Dichotomiis ultimis omnibus geniculato- 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis marinis paflim--/3 apud Cromer in 

Radix callus expanfus — fed frons ad bafin valde furculofa — Surcu- 

li ubi faxa attingunt difco novo explanato, qui radix alterius fit, faz- 

pius adhaerent, unde caulicuh plurimi conferti affurgunt— Hi cauli- 

2 culi 

200 Dr. Gooden'Ough and Mr. Woodward'; Obfervatlons on 

culi rhodd erceti raodo procumbentes, diffufiufculi, teretes, ramo- 
fiflimi, dichotomi, ad apicem fjcpe trindi, apicibus obtufis — Anguli 
ramificationum magis patentes quam inaffinibus, immo fub- recti — 
Rami faitigiati, et fiepiflimc ad ultimas dichotomias annulati et quad 
geniculati — Eft ubi vix ac ne vix unum geniculum adeft — Interdum 
ut in /3 omnis extrema dichotomia annulo ornatur — Subflanlia car- 
tilaginea — Colo?- nigro-olivaceus, in apicibus ramorum faepe viref- 
cens, pallidus — Fruiiifcatio, tubercula lateralia in ramis ramulifque 
fparfa — AltUudo in a. I — 3uncialis et ultra; in |3 3 — 7uncialis. 

The different appearances which this plant aflumes have created 
no ("mall trouble in endeavouring to ftrike out a proper fpecific cha- 
racter. This difficulty has arifen in no fmall degree from that ap- 
pearance of rings which is obfervable in fome, but more efpecially 
in the larger fpecimens. They have perplexed many. 

We have diflccted many of thefe rings in various directions, 
and have never been able to difcover any tendency to fructification 
in them. We obferve alfo, in general, that thefe rings very feldom 
occur in the fmaller plants. We mention thefe two circumftances 
as grounds of argument, that the rings ought to have nothing to do 
in constituting the fpecies ; for we argue that they are owing to 
an injury having been received, and in confequence, the progrefs 
of growth being carried on by a new branch (hooting out from the 
internal part, a fort of callous fear, or annular feam, remains as a 
memorial of the truncation of the part. Thus, as this is no organ 
of fructification, we fay it is not a neceffary part ; and as it is not 
conftant in the fmaller fpecimens (by fmaller we do not mean 
younger, for the fmaller fpecimens we fpeak of are fo from foil 
and fituation) we argue it is no character. We are therefore fairly 
at liberty to ufe our own ideas, and fuppofe thefe rings merely as 
the effect of injury. 


the BrhiJJj Fad, 'with particular Defcriptiom of each Species, aoi 

Our firft variety entirely accords with the fpecimens in the 
Linnaean Herbarium. We found it in great plenty on the rocks at 
Ilfracombe. It there feldom exceeded three inches in height: it 
grew erect and compact, the branches of the thicknefs of fmall 
Wire, and fcarcely a ring upon them. Very few of the branches 
(probably owing to their humble growth and firm texture) had 
ever fuffered any injury. At Haftings we have found it from three 
to nearly five inches in height. The plants were all fomewhat 
difFufe and procumbent. The injuries done them (being very much 
expofed to the force of the waves) were frequent, and the rings (for 
rings are almoft conftantly attendant upon the injuries, at lead: 
where the injury has not flopped the farther growth of the plant) 
were obfervable in proportion. As thefe plants grew taller, fo alio 
their branches are fomewhat thicker than at Ilfracombe. 

At Cromer in Norfolk we have met with our variety /3 inter- 
ceptus in abundance. We fo call it from all the branches having 
almoft conftantly thefe annular calJofities juft at their laft divifion. 
It here grows to the height of fix or eight inches, and the branches 
are all proportionably thicker. In this variety the branches pro- 
duced after the annular procefs are more pellucid (owing perhaps 
to the thinnefs of the new tender fubfhnce) than ufually is feen 
in the former : but nothing is more common than to fee, in all 
ftages of growth, the tips of the branches gre^nifh and of a clearifh 


Two things are too ftriking not to be mentioned : firft, that thefe 
rings are never to be feen but at the extremities of the frond, and 
when the length of the branches makes them more capable of 
being broken off; and farther, that no one branch has fcarcely ever 
more than one ring. All fubjecis in nature are endued with a power 
of repairing ordinary injuries ; but reparation is the confequence of 

Vol- III. Dd extraordinary 

202 Dr. Go ode xoug it and Mr, Woodward'j Obfervatlons on 

extraordinary exertion, and of courfe there is not flrength to repeat 
it often. We apprehend that this is the cafe with our prefent 
plant : having received an injury, it is capable of making a feeble 
effort to reftore itfelf, and after that fubmits to its fate. 

We have thus defcribed faithfully what we have feen. If any- 
one fhould doubt our folution of the phenomenon of the rings, 
perhaps if he refides for any length of time on the fea-fide, and will 
take the trouble of marking any particular plant, and will cut, or 
rather break off, the extremities of the branches, poflibly he may 
fee the reparation made in the manner which we have mentioned. 

It differs from lumbricalis by the wide, opening of the ramifications 
of the branches approaching almoft to a right angle ; and from, 
that and radlatus by the fhortnefs and bluntnefs of the branches. 
Lumbricalis has thefe rings occafionally, but,being of a firmer texture, 
is more feldom broken off, and of courfe bears fewer marks of re- 

Specimen's whereon the rings are to be feen, remain in Uvedalis 
Herbarium,/. 9. n. 4. and in the Collection by Buddie and Vernon* 
^.18.77.5. This laft anfwers very nearly to our defcription of 
var. (3. 


F. fronde filiformi dichotoma ramofa, ramis fubaequalibus 
acuminatis, angulis ramificationum obtufiufculis ; tuber- 
culis lateralibus. 
F. rotundus. Gmelin, p. no. /. 6.f. 3. R. Syn. p. 45. n, 24. 
var. ad finem. 
Habitat in faxis marinis apud Cromer in Nbrfoleia. 
Adhaeret faxis callo explanato, furculos emittente, unde novse 


the Britj/b Fttci, with particular Defer tptlons of each Specie* 20-5 

fiunt plantx — From teres, filiformis, fub-diaphana purpurea, 4 — 6 
uncialis, craflitie fili em pore tic i minoris, dichotoma, ramofa, angulis 
ramificationum obtufioribus — Ramorum furnmitates attenuate!, 
acutiflimae — FruStiJJeatio, tubercula hemifphrerica verrucoia, magni- 
tudine feminis rapi, diftantia, ad latera ramorum. 

This fpecies is unnoticed in the Flora Anglica, but is certainly 
mentioned by Ray as a variety of lumbricalis> Syn. p. 45. n. 24 ad 
finem — * banc fpeciem cufn nodulis fol'idis per intervalla mediis cauliculis 
* et ramulis innafcentibus obfervavit rever. vir D. ALumingbam.' — This 
defcription clearly points out the preient plant. From Gmclin's 
defcription of his F. rotundus we have no doubt of this being his 
plant ; but the figure is bad, reprefenting the fummits very ihort 
and very obtufe, which in the growing plant arc extremely acute. 
The tubercles are well reprefented as they appear in the dry, not in 
the recent plant — but we have never obferved them fo near the 
fummits of the branches; from which, and from the fhort blunt 
terminations, it is probable the figure was taken from a fpecimen 
in which the extremities were broken off by the waves. 

The plant, when growing, expands in a radiated or umbellnted 
form, and has blunt angles ; whence the rounded appearance of 
thofe angles when dry. The dichotomy is more exact in this fpe- 
cies than in any of its affinities, the correfponding branches gene- 
rally dividing very regularly at the fame height. The perfect tu- 
bercles when recent, are of a pale pink or fleih colour, rough on the 
furface,and are extremely refemhling to the head of the Spha?ria 
entomorrhha as reprefented in Dickfon's plate Crypt, fafc. 1. /. $.f. 4. 
— In this ftate the feeds, which are of a full bright red colour, may- 
be difcerned with a good common eye-glafs. When the plant is 
dry, the tubercles acquire the fame colour as the reft of the plant. 

D d 2 Before 

204 -^ r ' Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'j Obfervations on 

Before the feeds are ripe, the tubercles appear as reprefented in 
Gmelin's figure, and have conftantly one or two furrows acrofs 
them. They are fituated on the upper part of the frond, but not 
on the extreme divifions, and are ufually diftant, but fometimes two 
or three are found aggregate. 

This fpecies is readily diftinguifhed from all its affinities, by its 
expanded leathery root — its very different mode of fructifying — its 
very acute terminations — and by its brighter and more tranfparent 
purple colour, which is clearly discernible when dry, if the plant be 
held to a ftrong light. 

It grows on the large (tones at Cromer on the coaft of Norfolk, 
and is found amongft other rejectamenta at Yarmouth and other 
places to the Southward. 


F. fronde filiformi dichotoma ramofa, ramis fub-xqualibus 

acuminatis, angulis ramihxationum acutis. Herb, Buddie, 

p. J I. n. 1, i, 3. Petiver,p, 31. n. 8. 
R. Syn.p, 45. n, 24, 25. Mori/on. H'tjl. Ox.f. 15. t.g.f.4.9. 
F. faftigiatus. FL Ang. p. 588. FL Scot. p. 930. Withering, vol. 3. 

p. 257.. Gmelin, p.106. t. 6.f, 1. Stackhoufe^ Ner. Brit I. p. 15. 

/. 6. 
F. furcellatus. FL Ang. p. 589. FL Scot. /. 930. 
F. faftigiatus /3. Withering, vol. 3. p. 258. 
F. lumbricalis. Gmelin, p, 108. t. 6. f, 2. FL Ang, ed. 1. 

p. 471. 
Habitat in littoribus marinis ubique. 

Radix fibrofa furculos emittens e quibus frondes plurimae exori- 

untur — 

the Brit if j Fuel, with particular Defer iptiens of each Species. 205 

untur — From indi vidua 4 — 6uncialis, craflitie filj emporetici, teres, 
filiformis ; primum fimplcx, dcin ramofa, ramis dichotomis faftigiaf 
tis — In quibufdam plantis, ramorum apices breves, et in formam 
ovalem, hinc concavam, illinc convexam dilatata? — In aliis, Frons 
terminatur furcellis teretibus, incraffatis, uncialibus et fefquiuncia- 
libus, mucilagine feminifera rcpletis — Color recentis plants nigro- 
rubefcens, ficcatse nigerrimus. 

The plant now defcribed includes the two fpecies of ffigiatus 
and furcellatus of Hudfon and Lightfoot — and fa/J. ; giatus and /3 of 
Withering. But as the faftigi 'at us and furcellatus of Linnaeus are 
now known to be different plants from either, we have thought it 
proper to give the name cf lumbrkalis to this fpecies, after Gmelin 
and the firft edition of Flora Anglica. 

The late Mr. Lightfoot doubted whether his fafigiatus and furcel- 
latus were diftinct ; and we have pofitive proof that they are not to 
be confidered even as varieties, having in our poffeflion a fpecimen 
gathered from the beach at Yarmouth, in which both [are feen 
arifing from the fame root, and in which the dichotomy of one 
branch actually exhibits both forts. This difcovery has made it 
very difficult properly to defcribe this plant, the terminations be- 
ing fo very different under thefe varying circumftances. It feems. 
however probable, that what has been called fafigiatus has not 
really any fructification; for though thefe oval terminations have on 
their concave fide a mucilaginous appearance, no feeds are ever ob- 
ferved in them : but when the fwelling forks of the other are in a 
mucilaginous ftate, the feeds imbedded in the mucilage are very ap- 

This fpecies differs from radiatus'm its fibrous root, the very acute 
angles of the ramification, and in its fwelling pod-like extremities. 


2o6 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. WoodwardV Obfervaiions on 

It differs from faftigiatus /3 interceplus, in its higher growth and larger 
fize — in being ufuaily deftitute of geniculations — in its constantly 
regular dichotomous terminations — in having the extreme branches 
in the fructifying ft ate, in which, only it could be miftaken, much 
longer and thicker — and in colour, this being dark reddifh and fome- 
what pellucid whilfl: frefh, though turning black when dry; in 
which ftate alfo the fhort oval terminations of .the fajligiat us of the 
En glim authors contract and become fubulate and acute. The differ- 
ences between this, plant and trie fqftigiatus of Linnaeus are pointed 
out under that fpecies. 

It adheres to the rocks and Hones by ftrong fibres, throwing out 
fhort creepers, which produce other plants, all together frequently 
forming large maffes, and is found on : /.almoft every part of the 
Britiih coaft. 


F. fronde filiform! fub-gelatinofa tubulofa ramofifnma, ramis 
fparfis, ramulis fub-verticillatis fubulatis obtufiufculis. 

Habitat apud Weymouth. D. Stackhoufe — inter rejectamenta 
maris apud Yarmouth in Norfolcia legimus, necnon apud 
Exmouth in Devonia. 

Radix callus minimus craffus — Frons 4 — 6uncialis et ultra, fill- 
formis, fub-gelatinofa, tubulofa, modo craffitiem pennae corvinas 
fupt rat, modo paflerinae vix aequat — Statim a radice in ramos plu- 
rimos dividirur ; hi rami aliis vix minoribus nunc oppofitis nunc 
alternis, frequentius inoruUnatim pofitis ornati funt — Hamuli fupre- 
ini iubulati, obtufiuiculi, breves, fub-verticillati — Frudiificatio, tu- 
5 bercula 

_/,„,, ,'J ;,?>,.> TO. W /V. f S06. 

if ,J '/ 

*. /:«///,■/>/'/,, 

the Britljlj Fuci t with particular Dtfcriptions of each Species. 207 

bercula minuta fphserica, ex rubro nigrefecntia ad latcra ramo- 
rum ramulorumque fefulia — Color pallide rubefcit. 

This elegant fpecies approaches neareft to the verticiUatus of 
Ughtfoot, but appears to differ in fubftancc, in colour, and in 
the form and difpofition of the branches, as will be obferved by 
comparing the defcriptions together. 

The fubftance of this is tender and approaching to gelatinous. 
The branches which divide direclly from the root are filiform, tu- 
bular like thofe of verticillatus, but without any tendency to arti- 
culations as obfervable in the latter fpecies. They vary extremely 
in fize ; plants found by Mr. Stackhoufe on the coafl of Cornwall 
exceeding the thicknefs of a crow's quill, whilft fuch as have been 
found on the beach at Yarmouth fcarcely equal that of the fpar- 
row. Thefe branches have fometimes a waved or twirled mode of 
growth, but this appearance is not fufficiently cenftant to form a 
chara£teri{tic mark. The fecondary branches vary extremely in 
their manner of proceeding from the primary: fome are oppofite, 
others alternate, but much the larger part appear to grow without 
any order. The extreme ramuli, which are fliort, fubulate, and 
terminate rather obtufely, are very often verticillate, generally 3 or 
4 in a whorl, and, when not regularly fo, have always a vifible ten- 
dency to that difpofition. 

The fructification confifts of globular tubercles feffile on the fides 
of the frnaller branches, fo minute as fcarcely to be diftinguiihed 
by the naked eye, bright red, and when filled with feeds, nearly 
black. The colour of the fpecimens we have feen is a pale watery 
red ; but it is not improbable but it may be fometimes found mix- 
.ed with green, this change being obfervable in moft of the gelati- 
nous fuc'u In a very young ftate its finer branches are fometimes 


208 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. WoodwardV Qbfcrvaiions on 

fo attenuated at the bafe, as to appear to be leaves, not unlike thofc 

We have received fpecimens of this plant from a variety of cor- 
refpondents and friends, who one and all have fent it to us under 
the name of F. verticillatus of Mr. Lightfoot. It is a matter of 
great regret to us that we could not meet with his original fpecimen. 
If this be his plant, it is to be feared that his figure in the Fl. Sccti- 
ca is not accurately drawn, the lad: divifion of the branches being 
more capillary than we have ever obferved them to be — Or per- 
haps he had his figure taken from a plant more luxuriant in its 
form than our fouthern latitudes ever produce. 

Our worthy and accurate friend Mr. Davies fent us a fpecimen 
very much refembling Mr. Lightfoot's figure in every refpeel except 
the capillary branches. He met with it on the coaft of the Ifle of 
Anglefey. Neverthelefs it ihould be obferved, that Mr. Lightfoot 
dwells very much on the capillary branches, making them a part 
of his eiTential character. 


F. frone filiformi ramofa, ramis fub-diftichis fub-fimplicibus 
fetaceis; tuberculis lateralibus femi-globofis. Herb. Linn. 
Buddie, p. 16. n. 12. Petiver, p. 30. n. \, 

R. Syn. p. 51. n. 3. and p. 50. n. 50. Att.Gall. 17 12, p. 40. pi. 5./ 9. 

F. lon^iflimus. Gmelin, p. 134./. 13. FL Dan. t. 650. 

F. confervoides. Linn. Sp. PI. 1629. 

F. verrucofus. FL Ang. p. 588. Withering, vol. 3. p. 256. Stack- 
hoiife, Ner. Briit. p. 26. /. 8. 

F. flagelliformis. Fl. Scot. p. 928. 


the Briti/t) Fuci, with particular Defc> if lions cf each Species. 209 

Habitat in rupibus et faxls fub-marinis apu'd Cromer in 
Norfolciii— Haftings Sufiexia, ct in Infula Portlands 
Radix fibrofa— From cartilaginea, filiformis, teres, variat pro fitu 
dodrantalis, etiam bipcdalis ; nunc fill emporctici minoris, nunc 
ietse equinse craflltiem xquans — Statim a radice fit ramoia, ra- 
mis fetaceis, vel fimplicibus vel ramulis paucis fub-diftichis in- 
ftrudis — FruElificatio, tubercula femi-globola crebra, magnitudine 
feminis finapis ad latera ramorum ramulorumque fparfa — Color re- 
centis plantse purpurafcens, ficc.itas nigrefcens. 

This fpecies differs from albidus by being longer, by its branches 
being much fewer, and not attenuated towards the bale — by the 
difpofition of its ramuli being diftichous, and not on one fide only 
of the branches — by having much more numerous and fmaller 
tubercles, and thefe always femi-globofe — and by its purplifh co- 
lour. With the other fpecies in this divifion it cannot poflibly 
be confounded. 

It varies considerably in length and thicknefs. When unim- 
peded in its growth, it is (lender, long, and very little branched. 
Where it is more confined, it is thicker, ihorter, and throws out 
more branches ; which has occafloned it to be defcribed by Dillenius, 
Y&RaysSynopfiSy twice at leaft; his n. 53. /.51. being certainly this 
fpecies in its lengthened, and ?u$o. p. 50. the fame in its fhorter 
ft ate of growth. 

From comparing our fpecimens with thofe in the Linnsean Her- 
barium, it appears that both this plant, and our next, the albidus 
of Hudfon, were confidered by Linnxus as one and the fame plant, 
for they are both ftyled by him F. confervoides*. It is not therefore 
to be wondered at, that Linnaeus refers to verrucofus Gmel. for a 
figure of his confervoides , which figure of Gmelin, from his defcrip- 

Vol. III. E e tioa 

2IO Dr. Goodenough an J Air. Woodward** Obfcrvaiions on 

tion more certainly than from his representation^ is F. albidus of 

Hud Ton. 

That it is the longjjjimus of Gmelin cannot be doubted, and it 
appears from the note at p. 134, that he himfelf thought it to be 
confcrvoides Sp. PL though he did not venture to quote it as cer- 

The colour is almoft always dark purple, though fometimes it is 
mixed with green or dirty yellow. The tubercles are {"mall, nume- 
rous, and nearly black. It adheres to the rocks and ftones by fmall 
fibres, and is found on various parts of the Britifh coaft. 


F. fronde filiformi fubdichotoma ramofifTima, ramis fub-fe- 

cundis ; tuberculis lateralibus fub-rotundis deprefTis. 
F. verrucofus. Gmelin, p. 136. /. 14./^ 1. 
F. albidus. F\ Ang. p. 588. Withering^ voh 3.^.256. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis fub-marinis in Infula Portlandisc — 
apud Chriitchurch — Weymouth. 

Adhaeret rupibus et iaxis radice fibrosa — From fpithamxa, pedalis 
et ultra, cartilaginea, filiformis, teres, ramofifTima, craflitie fili era- 
poretici, fsepius autem fetacea — Rami primarii frequenter dichotomi, 
nonnunquam fparfi, ramulis crebris fub-fecundis, bail attenuatis 
inft rucYi ; hi autem aliis ramulis brevioribus et tenuioribus obfiti— 
Fru£lificatio, tubercula varias magnitudinis ad latera ramorum ramu- 
lorumque fparfa, adprimum femiglobofa, matura autem deprefTa 
et paululum umbilicata, fcutellis lichenum exinde fimillima 
— Color albefcens vel fufcefcens, rarius purpurafcens, plerumque 

s This 

the Briti/l: Fad, with particular "Dcfcrip lions of each Species, 


This fpecies is diftinguifhed from confewoides by its fhortcr 
growth — by being more branched, the branches ufually pointing one 
way, and the (mailer ones attenuated at their bafc — and by the larger 
frze and different fhape of the tubercles; which when mature are 
depreffed and umbilicated, exactly refembling the ihiclds of fome 
Lichens. From purpurafcens it differs fufficiently in having lateral 
tubercles, and, as before mentioned, its branches pointing one way. 
It is unnecelTary to point out any diftinclions from the reft of this 

The principal branches, which feparate almoft immediately from 
the root, and generally in a dichotomous form, are in this plant 
furniihed with very numerous fecondary branches, growing moftly 
from the upper fide, and thefe are again befet with fmaller : thefc 
branches are always fmaller towards the bafc ; arifing as it were 
from a point, and then fwclling; and are again tapered towards 
the fummit. The fructification has been fully defcribed. The 
colour is generally whitifh, but fomctimes with a tinge of brown or 


It is well defcribed by Gmeliu, p. 136 j but the figure is not equal ; 
the tubercles being reprefented too fmall, and the twilled appearance 
beino- probably the effect of drying. Mr. Hudfon has referred to 
albus Gm. p* 138, as well as to verrucofus ; but the former i-s defcribed 
as having the tubercles all axillary, and muft therefore be a dif- 
ferent fpecies. He alfo refers to R. Syn. 50. \ F. teres albus tenu- 
i/Jime divifusj which is clearly purpurafcens ; the fructification being 
defcribed as furrounding the branch, and not lateral, as in this 
fpecies. We cannot find any fpecies in Ray fuinciently certain to 

be quoted. 

It adheres by its ftrong cartilagineous fibres to the rocks at Wey- 
mouth and Chriftchurch, and elfewhere on the fouthern coaft ; 

E e 2 and 

212 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'; Observations on 

and we have found Jt amongft other rejectamenta on the beach at 
North Yarmouth. 

60. Fucus SUBFUSCUS. 

F. fronde fiiiformi ramofiffima, ramis fparfis, ramulis fubulatis 

fub-alternis; tuberculis racemofis fub-ocT:ofpermis. 
A3, Soc. Linn. 1. p. 131. /. 12. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 236. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis fub-marinis in littore Icenorum. 
Radix fibrofa — Frons filiformis, teres, ramofiffima, fubfufca, femi- 
pellucida, femipedalis, craffitie fili emporetici — Rami fimiles plurimi 
fparfi ; aliis paulo tenuioribus et apicemverfus confertis, iterum ra- 
mofi — Ramuli fubulati, fub-alterni, tenuiflimi ; in quorum aliS et 
ad latera, racemi breviflimi, tuberculis minutiflimis lanceolatis pal- 
lidis — In tuberculis fmgulis, femina fex vel octo fphasroidea fub- 
fufca, bino ordine difpofita. 

This fpecies is fufficiently diftinguifhed from all its affinities by 
its fin gular fructification ; and as an ample hiftory of it has been 
given in a former volume of thefe Tranfa&ions, little need be added 

It may neverthelefs be proper to obferve, that later and more 
particular obfervations have induced us to conclude that the pe- 
duncle more conflantly approaches the form of a raceme than that 
of a panicle, and that the extreme ramifications cannot with pro- 
priety be confidered as leaves, fmce they do not differ in fubftance 
or in fhape from the reft of the plant. Thefe circumftances have 
occafioned it to be neceffary, to make fome alteration in the fpecific 
icharafter as formerly given, and to place it in the divifion fronde 
tereti, inftead of fdiis unit is, as before propofed. 


the Britijh Fuel, with particular Defcriplions of each Species. 213 

It adheres, by fhort thick fibres, to the fub-marine rocks and 
{tones at Cromer, and in various other parts of the Britiih coaft. 


F. fronde filifonni pinnato-ramofa, ramis fetaceis fimplicibus 
fub-diftichis ; tuberculis oblongis pedunculatis fparfis. 
FL Ang. p. 587. Wither'nig, vol. 3. p. 256. 
Habitat in rupibus et faxis Infnlse Portlandise. FL Ang. — Inter re- 
jectamenta maris apud Yarmouth in Norfolcia. 

Radix From filiformis pinnato-ramofa, teres, tcnu- 

ifTima, fpithamsea, femipedalis, pedalis & ultra — Rami fimplicifTimi, 
fetacei, fub-diftichi, inferiores longiores, fuperiores breviores, fu- 
premi breviffimi; cuncti tuberculis parvis oblongis fparfis obflti — 
Tubercula feminibus repleta, pedunculis fibi acqualibus vel longio- 
ribus fuftentata — Color totius plantar ex olivaceo-flavefcens, pal- 

This very elegant fpecies is readily diftinguifhed from its fcveral 
affinities : from tenuijtmus, by being only (Imply branched, and by 
the form of its tubercles ; and from afparagoides alfo, by being fimply 
branched, by its colour, and by not having fetaceous ramuli alter- 
nating with the tubercles. 

The branches in this fpecies are entirely deftitute of any other or- 
nament than the feminiferous tubercles ; and its extremely delicate 
and flender make, as well as its general habit, fufficientiy prevents 
the poffibility of confounding it with any other in this dividon. 

It is a particular circumftance belonging to this fpecies, that 
we have rarely feen any fpecimens which were not infefted with a 
minute green conferva, growing on almoft all the tubercles, and 

q tcrmi- 

214 & r ' Goodenough and Mr, Woodward* j Obfervatiom on 

terminating the branches, rarely exceeding one line in length. The 
plant, when infefted with this parafite, has a fringed appearance, 
and fo extremely refembles the gartnera of Pallas, figured in his 
Mi/cell, ZooL p. 199 /. 14. f. 24. and again in Gmelin, p, 164. 
t. 19. that we are induced to believe they are the fame ; but not 
choofing to make any references, upon the authenticity of which 
We cannot abfolutcly rely, we have not ventured to refer pofitively 
to thofe figures. 

We have never ourfelves feen this plant in a growing ftate. Mr. 
Hudfon fays it is found on the fub-marine rocks and Hones on the 
Ifle of Portland : and we have in our poffeffida fpecimens which 
were gathered amongfl other rejectamenta on the beach at Yar- 
mouth in Norfolk, and which were probably wafhed from the 
rocks on fome part of the eaftern coaft. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofiffima ;^tuberculis globofis peduncul- 
itis, ramulis fubulato-fetaceis alternatim oppofitis. 
A£l* Sac. Linn. 2. p. 29. U 6. 
Habitat in faxis et lapillis marinis apud Cromer* 
Radix fibrofa — From filiformis, teres, craflitie fili emporetici mi- 
noris, femipedalis, ramis fub-alternis iterum* ramofis — Hi rami ra- 
mulis fubulato-fetaceis, fefquilineam circiter longis r pinnati funt — 
Fruflificatio, tubercula globofa, pedunculata, magnitudine femina 
papaveris vix aequantia, ramulis alternatim oppofita, et duplo bre- 
viora — Pedunculi longitudine tubercula aeqnant vel exfuperant — ■ 
Color totius plantae laete ruber. 

This beautiful fpecies cannot be confounded with any in the fame 

di virion > 

J//,,,,.. /;,,„., ril /„/<<?/,.; 

sn.*y. K. f /,A,> 

/'. /r/?uf/j/>s"/>J. 

the Brltlfi Fuel, with particular Defer Ipt Ions of each Species. 215 

divifion,unlefs tenwjjlmus and pcdunculatus. It is eafily diftinguifhed 
from the firft, by its pedunculated tubercles, from the branches 
having a fubalternate mode of growth, and by the colour. It 
differs from the fecond, by being very much branched, by the (hapc 
of the tubercles, which alternate with the fetaceous famuli, and by 
the colour. 

The whole plant is bright-red and pellucid. The tubercles, when 
filled with ripe feeds, are darker than the reft. The fetaceous ra- 
mult, which are twice and fometimes thrice as long as the tubercles 
with their peduncles, are fo delicate, that the terminations are 
fcarcely to be diftmguifhed by the naked eye. 

It adheres by fmall fibres to the ftones and pebbles at Cromer ; 
and has been found amongft other rejectamenta on the fandy fhore 
at North Yarmouth. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofiffima, ramis omnibus capillaribus 

alternis, ramulis acutis tuberculatis. 
Ulva capillaris. FL Ang. p. 571. IVithering, vol. 3. p. 233. 
Habitat in lapidibus et faxis fub-marinis in Ifthmo Portlandico — 
ne'enon in Fuels majoribus, prascipue F. veficulojo prope Wey- 
mouth, fub Specula Anglice The Look-out dicta. 

Radix fibrofa, furculofa, nude frondes plurimae fimul enafcuntur 
confertse — Sxpe etiam frons folitaria oritur — Fronsbrev'i pod ortum 
intervallo ramola fit, ramis capillaribus alternis — Hi rami iterum in 
alios plurimos paucofve pro re nata abeunt — Ramull extremi breves 
admodum, ban" et apice attenuati acuti — Omnes rami ramulique 
omnino aiterni funt — Altitudo 2-uncialis, fpithamalis, pedalis — Sub- 
stantia tenera gelatinofa — Color pallidns albidus — Fruftlficatio, tuber- 


2t6 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward^ Obfervaikns on 

cu!a conferta, ramulos omnes apicefque ramorum obveftientia — In 
unoquoque tubcrculo femen unicum minutum obovatum, hinc 
acutum pallidum, pod exliccationem rubicundum. Occurrit, led 
rarius, veficulis globoiis feflilibus, minutis. 

We have been well allured that this plant is the uha capillaris 
of Mr. Hudfon. The fructification, however, which we have re- 
peatedly examined in a recent ftate, under a very high magnifier, 
proves it beyond all doubt to be a Fucus. It has nothing in com- 
mon with the genus Ulva 9 but its tender gelatinous fob fiance. But 
this circumftance is no generic character. 

In its habit, form and manner, it approaches fomewhat to F. 
pedunculatus ; but it is fufficiently diftincl: by being very ramofe, and 
not {imply pinnated, by the lad divifions of its branches being linear 
and acute at each end, and not in the form of ovate-oblong pedun- 
culated capfules : then it is a much fmaller plant, and is parantical, 
growing very frequent on the coarfer Fuci, particularly on F. vefi* 
culofus. The colour in both thefe plants is alike pale. 

Left any one may imagine that there is any danger of confound- 
ing it with ajparago/des, it may be juft mentioned, that the colour is 
always pale, and never red ; and that it never has globofe peduncu- 
lated tubercles, or any oppofition to its branches. 

In a recent ftate the feeds are nearly of the colour of the branches; 
but, when dried, they feem to be of fomewhat a reddiih colour. 

It may be found adhering to the loofe (tones on the neck of the 
Ifle of Portland ; and under The Look-out at Weymouth we found 
it plentifully on the coarfer FucU a little way beyond the low- water 

Its fine pale capillary branches (always alternate) make a pretty 
appearance floating in the water ; and at once diftinguifh it from ail 


the BritiJJj Fvd $ with particular Defcriptions of each Species. i\y 

others. When growing on the loofe (tones in the Ifle of Portland 
it is frequently infefled with Conferva aruginofa. 

Little globular tranfparent proceffes, refembling bladders, fome- 
times are to be found on the fides of the finer branches, which we 
have defcribed as covered with minute tubercles — fometimes they 
adhere to the branches themfelves, and appear to contain minute 
feeds ; but this appearance is by no means conftant. It is incredible 
how the plant is difguifed when loaded, as it fometimes is, with 
thefe veficles. See Fig. 2. 

Thefe procefles rightly obferved might perhaps help to elucidate 
the mode of fructification in Fact. Perhaps the tubercles (which 
Reaumur afTerts are capfules) are fcattered in dufty clufters at firft 
along the branches in an embryo ftate, as is obfervable in Hypo- 
glojfon, alatus, kalformis, &c. &c. and at length one or more (the 
reft proving abortive) become fertile, and fwell into complete form. 

Thefe procefTes appeared to us too feldom to deferve admifrion 
into the eflential character. The finer ramuli ufually are to be ob- 
ferved furrounded with minute tubercles — each tubercle contains a 
feed obovate, and acute at one end. 


F. fronde membranacea filiformi-tubulofa concatenatim arti- 

culata ramofifTima, ramis uniformibus dichotomis verticilla- 

Herb. P ether, p. 25. n. 5. Buddie, p. 12. n. 2. Morifon, Hifl. 

Ox. 3. /. 15. /. 8. /. 4. Stackhoufe, Ner. Britt. p. 28. /. 8. 

a. b. Fl. Scot. p. 959. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 240. 
Ulva articulata. Fl. Ang. p. 569. 
Vol. III. Ff Habitat 

2i8 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward; Obfervafwm- on 

Habitat in faxis, rupibus, tignifque iub-marinis, necnon in Fucis 
grandioribus Devonian et Cornubiae. 

Radix callus minutus vix expanfus — From 3 — 4nncialis, craflitie 
fili emporetici, membranacea, tenera, filiformis, tubulofa, omnino 
concatenatim articulata, ramofifiima — Rami primarii faepius dicho- 
toiri, aliis conftanter verticillatis obfiti — Ramu 7 Vt aut oppofiti aut 
verticillati funt, fupremi frequentiiTiiTie dichotomi — Planta fru&ifi- 
cantc, ramuli unarticulati folia ovaiia mentientes verticillatim pofiti 
articulos fupremos circnmdant, feminibus minutis rubris repleti — 
Color pallide ruber vel purpurafcens, nonnuiiquam olivaceo-viridis. 

This plant has been arranged amongft the Ulvce by Mr.Hudfon, 
but was removed to the genus Fucus by Mr. Lightfoot, the fructi- 
fication according with that genus ; and this arrangement we choofe 
to follow, there being no certain limits to be drawn between the 
two genera of Fucus and Viva, but fuch as ariie from the nature 
and fituation of the fructification. 

The jointed ftructure gives this fpecies fome affinity with the 
Ccnferv^e^ but the fruclincation again clearly points out the impro- 
priety of placing it in that genus. 

The figure of Morifon. well exprefTes the habit of the plant. The 
principal branches are ufually dichotomous, and throw out, at in- 
tervals, whorls of fomewhat fmaller branches, ufually four or five 
in a whorl, which are again divided into fmaller, fometimes oppofite, 
fometimes verticillate ; the terminations are ufually dichotomous. 
When in fructification, there are generally whorls of fingie joints, 
refembling oval leaves, furrounding fome of the fmaller branches ; 
thefe perform the functions of tubercles, and contain numerous 
dark red feeds ; and the feme are alfo found in fome of the termi- 

the Britijh Fua\ with particular Defer iptions of each Species. 1 1 9 

nating joints. The colour is ufually pale red or purple, hut fome- 
times olive-green, and not un frequently all are found intermixed in 
the fame fpecimen. 

It is found on all parts of the fouth and weft coafts, growing on 
the rocks, and on the larger and coarfer Fuci. We have alfo ob- 
ferved it on the wooden piles on the fides of the pier at Weymouth, 
and elfewhere. 

The F. repens of Mr. Lightfoot is only a variety, or perhaps 
ought fcarcely to be called a variety, of this fpecics. The colour is 
of a darker or purplifh red, but the difpofition of the brandies is 
much the fame. As far as it has appeared to us, it may be deemed 
only the young or dwarf plant of arlicu/atus. 

65. Fucus Opuntia. 

I ; . fronde cartilaginea fub-comprefia folida, concatcnatim ar- 
ticulata, ramoia, ramis uniformibus dichotomis. 
Dill. 50. t. 10. / 9. A. B. G. D. 
Ulva articulata £ Hudf. 569. 
Habitat apud Tenby in Wallia Auftrali. D. Stackhoufe. 
Adhseret rupibus callo minimo furculos emittente, unde oriuntur 
crefpites denfi, rupes lichenum more obveftientes. From vix uncialis 
rubra vel purpurea, nonnunquam paululum virefcens, cartilaginea, 
articulata, fub-compreffa, folida, ramofa. Rami dichotomi uni- 
formes. Articuli ovales, quorum fupremi tuberculorum officio fun- 
guntur, et feminibus minutiffimis congeftis fa'ti funt. 

We have never had an opportunity of examining this little plant 
ourfelves on its native fhores ; but from the fpecimens which Mr. 
Stackhoufe has been fo obliging as to communicate, and to accom- 

F f 2 pany 

220 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. WoodwARD'j Obfervations on 

pany with very accurate obfervations, taken on the fpot, we do not 
hefitate to defcribe it as diftinet from articulatus. It differs in the 
texture, which is cartilaginous and folid ; in the form of the arti- 
culations, which are broader and fhorter, in proportion to the fize 
of the plant, and which are ufually compreiled, though fometimes 
they may be found filiform ; in the difpofition of the branches, 
which in this are always dichotomous ; and in colour, this being of 
a deep red or purple, whilft articulatus is always pale, though both 
Ipecies are fubjecl: to have the upper joints tinged with green. The 
place and mode of growth are very different, articulatus growing 
not only ou the rocks, but being very frequently parafitical on the 
larger and coarfer Fuci t which are ufually fubmerfed : opuntia, on the 
contrary, is always found on the naked, and often on the perpen- 
dicular rocks, between high and low water-mark* The frond ad- 
heres to thefe rocks by a fmall callous knob, from which ihoots 
arife, which, where they touch the rock, adhere, and throw out 
branches; thus forming large tufts, exactly in the manner of the 
Lichens. The branches are dichotomous, but never verticillated in 
the manner of articulatus ; and in thefe, we apprehend, as well as» 
the terminal ones, the feeds are to be found. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofimma, ramis fubimbricatis, ramulis 

breviflimis fafciculatis acutis. 
F. confervoides. Ft. Jtng. $91, 
Habitat inter rejectamenta maris apud Yarmouth in Norfolcia— 
apud Exmouth in Devon ia, fed rarius. 
Radix fibrofa furculos emittens, unde novas oriuntur planta?. 


the Britj/h Fuel, with particular Defer iptions of each Species. 221 

Frew femipedsliSy filiformis, ramofiflima: Rami nonnunquam altcrni, 
frequentius fparfi et fummitatem verfus imbricati : Ramuli breves, 
fafciculati capillares ; in plantis junioribus acuti, at mox longibres 
et obtufiufculi fiunt. Color junioris plants flavefcens, fenefcentis 
niger. Substantia in j union plant! fubcartilaginea, tenera, laevis ; 
in fenefcenti, rigida, fragilis, fcabra. 

This plant has been called by Mr. Hudfon confervoides ; but that 
appellation having been given by Linnaeus to the fpecies defcribed 
in the FL Ang. by the name of verrucofus, it has become neceflary to 
give a new. denomination to the prefent plant. We have adopted 
that of variabilis, as expreflive of the changes it undergoes in the 
different ftages of its growth, which are fuch, that were it not for 
one leading circumftance, which may be traced through all its 
changes, it would be almoft impoflible to recognize it in youth and 
age for the fame fpecies. 

This marking feature confifts in the fhort fafciculated acute ra- 
muli which readily diftinguifh it from all other fpecies, and which 
is confequently made the principal diftinction in the Specific cha- 
racter. Thefe ramuli, in the young plant, form fomewhat clofe 
fafciculi) are fine almoft as a hair, and acutely terminated. As the 
plant advances, they appear of rather a Stronger fubftance, and 
fomewhat more fpreading; and in age they become longer, though 
rarely exceeding two or three lines: they terminate obtufely, and 
appear fomewhat multifid, as defcribed in FL Anglica. 

The young plant is fubcartilaginous, but fmooth and tender : in 
age it becomes rigid, fragile, and peculiarly rough to the touch, 
from the remains of the broken branches and ramuli. From thefe 
circumflances Mr. Hudfon has defcribed it ^fronde fcabra,* and ' ra- 
**mulU denticulatisy taking part of his fpecific character very im- 

*22 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward*/ Obfervations on 

properly from appearances which are not at all warranted by the 
examination of the young and undamaged plants, and are folely 
owing; to the approach of age and decay. The young plants are of 
a yellowifh colour, and feme what tranfparent ; in age they become 
black and opake. 

We have not met with it in a growing Hate, but have found it, 
with all its varying appearances, amongft the rejectamenta on the 
lhore at North Yarmouth. 

We have not yet had an opportunity of feeing it in fructifica- 


F. fronde filiformi ramofimma, ramulis ar£te imbricatis fu- 

bulatis fub-fecundis apice incurvatis integris. 
Herb. Buddie y p. 18. n. 3. and /. 19. n. 4. R. Syn. p. 50. n. 46. 

Gmelin, p. 127. /. it. f. 1. 
F. incurvus. FL Ang. p. 590. Withering^ vol. 3. /. 259. 
HabHat in rupibus et fax is fub-marinis pafUm. 
Radix fibrofa — Frons filiformis, fublignofa, atro-rubefcens, do- 
drantalis vel femipedalis, craflitie pennse corvina?, ramofiffima — 
Rami ramulis denfiffime imbricatis, fubulatis, rectiufculis, incurvis et 
fub-fecundis veftiti — Frutlificatio, tubercula globofa magnitudine 
feminis rapi, in ramulorum alis et ad latera, pedunculata et feflilia. 

This fpecies, one of the leaft elegant of the whole genus, is 
eafily diftinguiihed from its affinities by its thicker and more 
woody ftem, and its clofely imbricated branches, which, towards 
the extremities, are thickened into a fcarcely diftinguifhable mafs. 

The whole flem, and the larger as well as the fmaller branches, 
1 are 

the Britifh Fuel, with particular Dcfcriptions of each Species, 223 

are covered with fubulate.rj/««// ; and though they furround every 
part, yet, as they all turn upwards, they have the appearance of 
growing from one fide only. — Thefe are of various lengths, from 
one line to half an inch, and have frequently, when examined by a 
flrong light, efpecially before they have been long expofed to the 
air, and are become mrivelled, the appearance of joints or pie* 
&\i\\axy fepta, proving this plant to be nearly allied to the Conferva. 
The fructification is notwithstanding certainly that oizFucus. — It is 
found only amongfr. the extreme branches, and conhfts of globular 
tubercles, about the fize of turnip-feed, moftly axillary, and fup- 
ported on peduncles about half a line in length, but fometimes la- 
teral; and, in this fituation, both feflile and pedunculated. The 
colour of the recent plant is dark red, but, when dry, it is entirely 

It adheres by its fibrous bafe to the rocks, and is found upon 
almoft every fhore. 


F. fronde filiformi fub-fimplici, ramis fubulatis fub-ramofis- 

undique imbricatis fquarrofis. 
Unn. Syft. Nat. 717. Retz. FL Scand. Prod, ed. 1, n, 169G. 
Conferva fquarrofa. Fl. Dan, t, 357. 
Inter rejectamenta maris apud Yarmouth in Norf. invenimus. 
Radix callus minutus vix expanfus — From 6-uncialis et ultra, fili- 
formis, craflitie pennae corvina?, modo fimplex, modo ramis perpaucis 
inftru&a, radicem verfus nuda, dein ufque ad apicem ramulis brevi- 
bus fubulatis 3 obtufiufculis fquarrofis fubramofis undique dense Im- 


224 & r ' CiOODenough and Air. Woodward' j Ohfervahons on 

\)X\z?X?i--SuhflanUa cartilaginea rigida — Color recentis plantas fufcef- 
cens, ficcatGE niger — Fructtficatio incognita. 

This fpecies, which was unknown to any of our Englifh authors 
as of Britifh growth, is one of thofe in which the limits of the ge- 
nera Fucus and Conferva too nearly approach each other; in confe- 
quence of which it has been confidered by the author of FI. Dan, 
as a Corferva, though placed by Linnaeus in the genus Fucus. 

The frond, of which three or four generally arife from the fame 
bafe, is about fix or eight inches high, either fimple, or throwing 
out a few fhort branches, which are rarely again divided. The 
lower part, for about the fpace of an inch, is always naked; but the 
whole of the remainder, to the fummit, is clofely imbricated with 
■fhort fubulate branches, either fimple or once divided, and termi- 
nating fomewhat obtufely. Thefe ramuli have frequently, but not 
conftantly, a fomewhat jointed appearance, which has occafioned 
its being confidered by'Oeder as belonging to the genus Conferva. 
As neverthelefs the Rem is perfectly free from this appearance, and 
the rough and fquarrofe habit of the plant accords better with the 
Fuel, and as it approaches confiderably in habit and character to 
the Fucus pinafroides, which has alfo fome of its extreme ramuli 
with a jointed appearance, we have thought it mofl proper to fol- 
low the authority of Linnaeus, and arrange it as a Fucus. 

The fructification has not yet been difcovered, but will probably 
be found analogous to that of Fucus pnajlroides, next in order to 
which we have placed it. 

It has been found amongft other rejectamenta on the beach at 
Yarmouth in Norfolk. 

69. Fucus 

the Bi itijb Fuel, tvhh particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 225 


F. frontle filiformi ramofiilima, ramulis fetaceis fparfis ; tubcr- 

culis fubrotundis innatis. 
Herb. Buddie. 

R. Syn. p. 50. n. 51. FL Aug. p. 589, Withering^ vol. 3. p. 259. 
F. tuberculatus. Ft. Scot. p. 926. 
Habitat in rupibus et Taxis fub-marinis ubique. 
Adhaeret faxis iibris aliquot crafliuiculis — From filiformis, teres, 
cartilaginea tenera, pedalis et ultra, craifitie pennae corvina?, conti- 
nua; ramis nunc oppofitis, nunc altcrnis, plerumque autem fparlis 
inftructa — Rami inferiores longiores, fupremi breviffimi ; ramulis 
numerofiffimis fparfis, nonnunquam etiam confertis tenuioribus 
veftiti — Ramulis per -intervalla innata funt tubercula fubrotunda 
feminifera a fe invicem diftantia — Color purpurafcens, aut ex pur- 
pureo et virefcenti-albefcens. 

This fpecies differs from all its affinities by its fructification, 
which confifts of roundiili, or fometimes oval fwellings, placed at 
fome diftance from each other on the fmallefl branches, and 
which, when the plant is mature, may be obferved to be filled with 
blackifh purple feeds. Thefe are never terminal, as defcribed by 
Gmelin ; for, when they appear to be fo, there may always be ob- 
ferved a fubulate procefs, which is, in fact, the extremity of the 
branch extended beyond the tubercle. 

The fructification of this plant is truly an innate tubercle, which 
occupies the central part of the branch, and, as it fwells, caufes 
that to dilate, and to form the gouty knot which is externally ob- 
fervable. The fubftance of the branch is no ways altered by this 

Vol. III. G g procefs, 

226 Dr . Go o d e n o u g h <W Afr. Wo odwardV Obfervatkns on 

procefs, as may be eafily feen in the gelatinous variety, which is 
ufually of a pale colour, and has a considerable degree of transpa- 

The fubftanee of the plant, though cartilagineous, is tender, 
and in fome fpecimens very much approaching to gelatinous. The 
principal ftera is continued throughout, and is generally naked for 
a fmall fpace at the bafe, after which it is thickly clothed with 
branches, of which thofe below the middle are longeft, and the' 
upper very fhort, giving a lanceolate outline to the whole frond. 
The primary branches are fometimes oppofite and fometimes alter- 
nate, but much more frequently grow without order — thefe are 
again once or twice branched, and the terminal ones are not unfre- 
quently crowded. The colour is fometimes wholly purple, but more 
frequently a mixture of dirty white, green, and purple ; and the 
more the plant approaches to being gelatinous, the lefs purple is 
to be obferved in it. 

That this is the fpecies defcribed in R. Syn, p. 50. n. 51. under 
the name of ' Fucus teres albus tenuiffime divijusj no one who reads 
the defcription there given can doubt, (' crebris fcepe nodulis donatur, 
' quce non ad iatus harent^fed ab ipjls cauliculis tranfadiguntur 1 ) though 
Mr. Hudfon has unaccountably referred this fynonym to his alb ■/- 
dus, the fructification of which he defcribes as lateral. Gmelin, 
following the firft edition of Flora Anglica^ has given this fynonym 
of Ray to his albus % in which he has fallen into a double error ; for 
not only the fynonym really belonged to his purpureus, the purpureus 
of Hudfon's firft edition, and purpurafcens of the fecond, but alfo the 
albus of FL Jlng. ed. 1. the albldus of the fecond edition, ought not 
to have been referred by Gmelin to his albus, but to his verrucofus, as 
Mr. Hudfon has rightly done in his fecond edition. There can be 
no doubt but the purpureus of Gmelin belongs to this fpecies, though 


the Briti/h Fuc?\ with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 227 

his defcription is not perfectly clear; and we have never obferved 
the blackilh fpots with which it is there faid the whole plant is 

Mr. Lightfoot defcribed his tuberculatus as being branched dire6tly 
from the root ; and we have in our poffefrion a Scottifh fpeci- 
men which agrees with that defcription, but have never obferved 
any Englifh ones anfwerable thereto. This may poflibly be Ray's 
■' Fucus teres rubens ramofiffimus^ though, for want of the fructifica- 
tion being defcribed, it is impoflible to afcertain whether that be 
confervoides or a variety of this fpecies. 

It is found adhering to the fub-marine rocks and ftones on almofr. 
eveiy part of the BritilTi coaft. — The van /2, defcribed by Mr. 
Lightfoot, we have never yet feen. 


F. fronde filiformi ramofiflima, ramis alternis j ramulis capilla- 

ribus, apice involutis tuberculatis. 
F. fcorpioides. Gm. p. 13;. R. Syn. p. 38. n. 4. /. 2. f. 6. 

Fl. Ang. p. 590. Withering^ vol. 3. p. 260. 
/3 Ramis crafliufculis, ere&iufculis. 
Habitat in rupibus, faxis fub-marinis, et ad radices plantarum ia 
foflis et palufrribus maritimis frequens. Hudfon. — Inter rejectamenta 
maris apud Yarmouth in Norfolcia. legimus — /3 prope Exmouth in 
com. Devon. 

Radix fibrofa — From gregaria cartilaginea, filiformis, teres, unci- 
alis vel fefquiuncialis, crafhtie fetas porcinae, ramis alternis patenti- 
bus — Ramuli capillares breviflimi alterni, patentes ; fupremi in- 
curvi, tuberculis mucilaginofis feminiferis involutis — C^rexfufco- 

G g 2 This 

10.8 Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'.*- Observations on 

This curious little plant is Sufficiently diitinguiihed from all in this 
ilivifion by its humble growth, and its peculiar fructification. 

The fpecimens which we have fcen of our firft variety have 
rarely exceeded an inch in height : the primary and fecondary 
branches are alternate, very much fpreading; the extreme branches 
absolutely capillary, generally alternate, but not unfrequently di- 
chotomous, and, in this cafe, forming very obtufe angles. The ex- 
tremities are rolled fpirally, and ufually include in their convolu- 
tions either fmgle or aggregate mucilaginous tubercles. 

The figure in R. Syn, very accurately reprefents this plant; but 
P/uk. Phyt. t. 47. /. 13, quoted by Gme/in, does not at all referable 
any fpecimens which have fallen under our obfervation. We have 
therefore omitted to refer to it, convinced that nothing tends more 
to confound the unpraclifed botanift, than references to erroneous 
or doubtful figures. 

Our fecond variety, whether from its adhering to larger fub- 
flances, or enjoying a more fertilizing fpot, or from the mere effect 
of age, is much larger, oftentimes above two inches high ; the 
main branches alfo are larger and coarfer, and the finer branches 
not fo capillary or divaricating. However, the efTential character, 
viz. the convolution of the tips of the finer fruit-bearing branches, 
is equally confpicuous in this as in our firft variety. 


F. fronde filiformi dichotoma ramofiffima aequali, ramulis 
fubfecundis; tuberculis lateralibus terminalibufque. 

Herb. Buddie , p. II. Petiver, p. 2 7. 1. 2. R. Syn. p. 45. n. 26. 

Pluh Phyt. t. 184./. 2. Gmelin, p. 142. t. 14./. 2. FL 

Dan. t. 408. FL Ang. p. 589. FL Scot. p. 929. Withering* 

vol. 3. p. 258. Siackhoufe, Ner. Brit. p. 23. t. 7. 

2 Habitat 

the Briti/h Fucr, with particular Defer ipt ions of each Species. 229 

Habitat in rupibus et faxis fub-marinis pafTnn. 

Radix From cartilaginea filiformis, teres, ramofilTima, 

purpurafcens vel flavefcens, dodrantalis, craflitie chordam muficam 
minorem asquans, a bafi uique ad apicem sequalis — Rami confertif- 
fimi, implicati, incurvi, fub-fecundi ; terminales conftanter dicho- 
tomi — Fruclificatio, tubercula rninutifTima ad Jatera et ad apices ra- 
morum atro-purpurea. 

This fpecies is fufficiently diftinguiuhed from all its affinities by 
its numerous and thickly matted branches, which do not vary in 
fize from the bafe to the extremities. The colour varies, purple 
and waxen ; and frequently both are mixed in the fame plant. 
The fubftance is cartilaginous and wiry, extremely brittle when 

The fructification, which was unknown to Gmelin, is defcribed 
by Lightfoot as confiding in minute tubercles, growing without 
order on the fides of the branches. We have, befides thefe, ob- 
ferved the extremities of the branches dilated into fimilar tu- 
bercles — both are fo fmall as fcarcely to be diftinguitliable with the 
naked eye. The whole plant is diaphanous, except the tubercles 
when filled with feeds. It is found on various parts of the Britilh 
coaft, but is rarely met with in fructification. 


Fronde fub-quadripinnata, ramis ramulifque omnibus alternis, 
primariis longiflimis, ultimis breviflimis fafciculatis tenuif- 
Habitat inter rejectamenta maris in Infula Sheppey, apud 
Haftings, Weymouth, Exmouth, et alibi — haud infrequens. 

Radix hbrofc — From tenera diaphana, filiformis, ramofiflima, fub- 


230 Dr. GOODENOUGH and Mr. Woodwahd'j Obfervations on 

qnadnpinnata, ramis ramulifque omnibus alternis — Rami primarii 
longiflimi tenues admodum, etiam capillares — Ramuli ultimas divi- 
fionis tenuiffimi brevimmi fafciculati — Frudlificatio, tuberculum mi- 
nutum ramulos nonnunquam terminans fxpius lateralc — Ad om- 
nem fere rami ramulive ortum geniculum eft, unde confervis ni- 
mium affmis — Color amccne ruber — Altitudo biuncialis — pedalis. 

It mud be allowed that this plant has all the habit and appear- 
ance of a Conferva. All the branches feem jointed. But two re- 
markable occurrences deferve notice — Firft, that thefe joints are 
obfervable only where there is a branch, or where one has iffued 
forth — and, fecondly, that a parenchymous dark line feems to run 
up the thicker branches, and that this joint often ends in the pa- 
renchymous line, and does not always pafs through the whole 
fubftance to the oppofite fide. This by no means accords with 
the nature of a Conferva, whofe joints are annular ftrictures, and 
equally vifible on all fides. As, therefore, the joints are not at re- 
gular diftances, nor always complete and perfect, there is certainly 
much room to doubt to which family it mod properly belongs. 
We muft beg leave to call upon thofe who have better opportuni- 
ties, to watch it in its different ftates, and determine upon furer 

When firft thrown up on the more, it is of a beautiful red co- 
lour, perfectly capillary. All its branches are alternate. The main 
flem or ftems (for fometimes there are more than one) run up 
to the length oftentimes of nearly a foot, fometimes not above two 
inches. The branches of the firft order are fomewhat long, thofe 
at the bafe longeft, gradually diminiihing in length towards the 
top. The branches of the fecond order are fhort, obferving the 
fame gradation, in point of length, as the former. Thofe of the 
5 other 

the Britifh Fuci, with particular Defer iptions of each Species. 23 1 

other orders are extremely (Tiort, ufually much crowded together in 
clutters. The whole frond is very tender and tranfparent. In dry- 
ing it often aflumes a dark or black red colour. 

It feems to be a parafitical plant, as its root appears ufually alto- 
gether entangled in a mafs of fome fine Conferva, matted like the 
C. bullofa* It is by no means an uncommon plant. 

It is very rarely to be met with in fructification. The fructifica- 
tion is very minute, fertile tubercles, containing feeds, fituated at 
the ends, and on the fides of the fmaller branches. We have feen 
fome Conferva? with fimilar appearances *. 

WE have thus endeavoured to make out as complete a catalogue 
of the Britifh fpecies as our prefent means and opportunities have 
enabled us to afcertain. We have had to wait year after year for the 
appearance of fructification in fome fpecies which rarely occur in 
that ftate. Some few have never yet appeared to us with any figti 
of flower or tubercle at ail. F. ligulatus and tomentofus, in particular, 
are extremely equivocal in this refpect. But from fome late com- 
munications from Mr. Stackhoufe, we have reafon to expect that 
the fructification of tomentofus will not long remain concealed. 

* In our Synoptic Table we have called this plant Fucus capillarhy upon a fuppofition 
that Mr. Hudfon haddefigned this plant under that denomination. But fince the print- 
ing of that part, Sir Thomas Frankland, Bart. F. R. S. has honoured us with fome very 
valuable communications. Among other things he has fent us fpecimens of Hudfon's 
real capi/taris y and has aflured us that this is Conferva Byffbides of Mr. Lightfoot's MSS. 
We have therefore adopted that trivial name. But we differ from Mr. Lightfoot, in af- 
fociating it with the genus Fucus^ for reafons above mentioned. It is too late now to 
avail ourfelves of Sir Thomas Frankland's remarks ; but thefe and other matters, which 
have come to our knowledge fince the conclufion of this tract, will be the fubject of a 
fupplementary paper. 


2^2 Dr. Goodenough and Mr, Woodward'; Obfervathns on 

This gentleman, fortunately fitnated near the Cornifh coaft, per- 
haps the moli prolific in Alga: of any part of the Britith fhore, is 
purfuing, with unremitting ardour, the invefligation of the phy- 
fiology of the marine plants ; and, from the difcoveries he has 
already made, expectations may be formed that fome very valuable 
ones reflecting this defideratum, may be obtained from his re- 
iearches. « 

While, therefore, we are prefenting our lift of fpecies, fo far from 
deeming it or wiihing it to be thought complete, we beg leave to 
profeis how conicious we are of imperfection, and how fearful \se 
are of many important omiflions. We have only to confole our- 
felves that we have fpared no pains in inveftigating, and faithfully 
defcribing every thing within our reach. Hence we flatter ourfelves 
that we have added fomewhat to the general ftock of knowledge 
upon this iubjeel:. We muft add, that we have received from 
Mr. Stackhoufe fpecimens of three or four undoubtedly new fpe- 
cies of Fucus : but as he is enc;an;ed in an excellent work on this 
fubjedt, part of which he has already published under the name of 
Nereis Britannica, we did not think ourfelves authorifed to antici- 
pate his publication by defcribing thofe fpecies. We (hall endea- 
vour hereafter to incorporate them into our fyftem. i 

One great fource of difficulty, in executing this treatife, took its 
rife from the very great miftakes which appear in authors of the 
firtt refpeciability. Thus Mr. Hudfon had arranged our Fucus ienu- 
ijjimu; amongft his fpecies of Ulva> and had called it Ulva capillarh* 
He had made F. infiatns, a plant of the divifion Alati, to be a variety 
of his Ceranoides, the Crifpus of Linnaeus, one of the divifion 
Fronde plana avenia. Thefe and numberlefs errors of the like 
kind we detected, partly by waiting for fpecimens in proper fruc- 
tification, partly by confulting the Linnasan Herbarium, now, 


the Britiflj Fuel, with particular Defer ipt'wns of each Species. 233 

fortunately for fcience, in the poffefTion of our worthy Prefident Dr. 
Smith ; and partly by having rccourfe to Sir Jofeph Banks's kind in- 
dulgence; without whofc favour, and free leave to confult his exten- 
five collection of books and fpecimens, how could this, or indeed 
how can any tract of labour and difficulty hope to boaft of tole- 
rable perfection r 

We want words alfo to exprefs our high fenfe of Her Majefty's 
mod gracious condefcenfion, in not only permitting Dr. Good- 
enough to confult Mr. Lightfoot's collection of plants, which flic 
purchafed upon his death ; but, with the mod attentive kindnefs, in 
directing every paper which could furniih him with any informa- 
tion to be fubmitted to his perufal ; and even perfonally aflifting 
and encouraging him. When fnch elevated rank deigns to add en- 
couragement to fcience, gratitude is not wanting, nor a due fenfibi- 
lityofthe goodnefs of the act; neither is it pofliblc that labour, 
however fevere, fhould fink into wearinefs — all is ardour, and hap- 
pinefs, and promptitude, and refpect, and duty. 

Much was gained by this confutation. It was found that Mr. 
Lightfoot's fpiralis was the true plant of Linnams ; his dijlichus the 
ceranaides of Linnaeus ; his ceranoides the crifpus of Linna?us ; his 
ceranoldes var. & lacerus (which is a variety of Mr. Hudfon's cana- 
liculatus. — How do the learned differ !) our mammiUofus ; his concatc- 
natus, the fame as Mr. Hudfon's plant of that name, the f&niculaceus 
of Linnaeus ; his efculentus comprehends both our fpecies fetragonus 
and teres ; his rubens our finuofus; his endiviafolius the crifpatus of 
Hudfon, our lacerattts var. crifpatus ; his tiereideus our corneus var. 
fJicinus, the filicinus of Mr. Hudfon j and his vermicularis perfectly 
diftinct from Mr, Hudfon's ovalis. Mr. Lightfoot's F. vertlcillatus 
unfortunately had been miflaid, fo that no opportunity offered of 
proving that fpecies from his original fpecimen. This defect has 

Vol. III. H h been 

23+ Dr. Goodenough and Mr. Woodward'* Obfervatwns on 

been fupplied by feveral of our friends and correspondents, particu~ 
Jarly by our worthy and accurate friend the Rev. Hugh Davies r 
F. L. S. of Aber near Bangor, by whole affillance we have been 
enabled to determine it to be our kali) ot mis. 

Mr. Hudfon was our chief guide in enumerating the fpecies. 
But we could not follow him altogether. His having added no 
descriptions to his equivocal plants, leaves us extremely in the dark 
concerning his real determination. Thefe doubts, in confequence 
of the lofs of his herbarium, cannot now be cleared up. Some 
fpecies we know are not exifting. His F. filiformis mult be fuf- 
pected to be our compreiTed variety of crifpus, only of a larger andh 
more robuft form. His fimbriates is our fringed variety oi membrani— 
f alius ; his filacers is merely fibrofus in a young flate, in which the 
leaves are perfectly letaceous; his volubilis is a twifted variety of 
vejiculofus - t the volubilis of Linnseus is not of Britifh growth : his 
fhinatifidus and multifidus are one and the fame plant, named only 
after the different forms it afTumes from the different accidents of 
its growth and {ration; his ccrneus, pinnatus, and filicin us, are alfo 
varieties only of one individual ; his cartilagineus appears, from his 
quoting Buddie, evidently to be our coronopifilius r not the cartilagi- 
neus of Linnaeus ; his furcellatus the lumbricalis of Gmelin, not the 
real Linnean plant ; his mufcoides a variety of aculeates, with the 
branches fomewhat round ; and his lanofus is the Conferva folymor- 
pha.. Thefe two laft we have accordingly ftruck out of our lift 

With all due deference to Major Velley and Dr. Withering, we 
have omitted their F. elminthoides and defradlus, the fructification 
appearing to us, from the few fpecimens which we have feen, to 
be that of the genus Ulva. It is with much diffidence that we 
diffent from them ; we Hatter ourfelves that we are all actuated 


the Briti/h Fuci\ with particular Defcriptiom of each Species. • 235 

by one common fpirit of refearch after truth, and purfue it with 
equal difintereftednefs. As we have endeavoured to fix a true ge- 
neric character for Fucus % U/va, and Conferva, we wiih to abide by 
our own rules. 

Whatever we have faid in this tract, we again beg may be 
brought to the teft of the clofefl examination. Particularly we 
wifli that gentlemen of fcience retailing to the fea-iide, and efpe- 
cially thofe who are refident on it, would omit no opportunity of 
examining the growth of marine plants, their various appearances, 
and the progrefs of the parts of fructification. We are confident 
of nothing, but that we have dated what we have actually feen. 
In afubject fo intricate as this, it would be highly advifablc that 
all prejudices, and all comparifons and ideas of analogy taken from 
plants growing on land, fhould be entirely laid afide. This firm- 
nefs of thinking led to a better illuftration of the natural orders of 
the genera, by the indefatigable Juflieu ; to a deeper investigation 
of the nature and properties of the feed, by the celebrated Gaert- 
ner ; and of the mofTes, by the illuftrious Hedwig. Why mould it 
be thought impofiible, that the fnbmarine plants, like the animals 
of that element, fhould have powers and properties new, original, 
and peculiar to themfeives ? The power of God is over all his 
works, and is feen, to the aftonimment of man, in the variety of 
his wonders. But what can equal the fatisfadtion which he muft 
feel, to whofe patient and unwearied obfervation the difcovery of 
t"his hitherto latent procefs (hall be made manifeft ? What labour 
would not be well repaid by the difcovery of another chain of rea- 
foning, leading us to a farther confirmation of the existence and 
operations of the eternal Godhead ? 

H h 2 XX. Defcrtfi- 

( 256 > 

XX. Defcrift'iQn ojUha pundlata. By John Slaclhoitfe, Efy, F.L. £ 

Read May 5, 1795. 


ULVA dichotoma, membranacea, diaphana ; fegmentis iatis^. 
uniformibus, apicc furcatis ; fru6lificatione globofa, feflili, 
in maculis oblongis per totam frondem glomeratim difpofita. 

Sp. nov. 

An inter Uhas vel Fucos annumeranda fit fpecies hsec, hand 
equidem, ut opinor, fatis liquido conftat. Altltudo fexuncialis ; 
latitudo fegmentorum vix uncialis : apices obtufi, furcati. Habitus 
dichotomus. Subflantia frondis tenuiflima, pellucida. Fruftificatio 
per totam frondem ordine bino, glomeratim difpofita : tubercula 
fmgula, rotunda, glabra, femlia, atro-rubentia. From enervis, e 
bafi tuberculata, fubtus plana, faxis adhaerenti exoritur. 

Hab. ad oppidum Weymouth in arena juxta portum. 

Dotted Viva, — Frond dichotomous, membranaceous, tranfparent; 
the divifions wide, uniform, bluntly forked. Fructification in 
patches; tubercles crowded, round, fmooth, without footftalks,, 
dark-red colour* 


Mr, Stackhouse'j Defcripticn of Ulva punftata. 237 


The fubftance of this rare plant is as thin as goldbeaters' fkin, 
or the membrane of Ulva umbilkalis* It arifes from a little knobby- 
root, flat at bottom ; and grows in a crowded mafs. It is perfectly 
dicbotomous, the fegments broad, of an equal fize, forked obtufely. 
Its colour is brown, and pellucid as a bladder. The fructification 
covers the whole frond, in two rows of oblong patches, ftudded 
thick with imall, round, dark-red granules. This plant has, I 
believe, never been noticed ; it is, probably, a native of deep wa- 
ters, and, from the delicacy of its texture, feldom thrown on ihore 
perfect:. Mr. Woodward, who has feen the fpecimen, thinks the 
fructification too regular, as to fit nation on the frond, for the genus 
Ulva ; otherwife it would fall under his divifion of Fruit-bearing 

Hah Thrown on fhore on the fands at Weymouth, near the. 
pier, at low-water mark, September 1792. 


( 238 ) 

XXI. Gbfervations on the Genus of Pore/la, and! the Phafcum caulefcem 
of Linnaus. By Mr. James Dick/on , F. L. & 

Read May 5, 1795. 

THE genns of Porella, firft eftablifhed by Dillenius, and from 
him copied by Linnaeus, who never faw the plant, had long 
appeared to me to be very doubtful : I had, however, an oppor- 
tunity, fome time ago, of fatisfying myfelf on this fubject. I 
happened to receive fome mofTes as package to plants from Ame- 
rica; and, upon examining them, found a Jungermannia and a 
Splacknum in fructification. I fufpected the Jungermannia to be the 
fame with the Porella of Dillenius ; but this could not be afcertained 
without actually comparing the two fpecimens, which I had an 
opportunity of doing by the indulgence of Dr. Sibthorp, of Oxford, 
who permitted me to compare my mofTes with Dillenius's original 
collection; and, upon the raoft careful 'examination, I found my 
Jungermannia to agree exactly with his Porella, but could find no 
fructification upon his fpecimen. 

As I have no doubt that my Jungermannia and his Porella are one 
and the fame plant, I fhall next endeavour to trace how Dillenius 
has fallen into this error ; for the plant has exactly the habit of 
a Jungermannia, — This was, probably, by receiving an imperfect 
fpecimen ; as the vagina, when damaged either by the weather or 
by infects, after the tender flower had fallen off, would very much 
refemble the capfule which he has figured. 

His figure of the plant is too much crowded with leaves ; but in 
his original drawings in the pofTefTion of Sir Jofeph Banks, the 

• 6 leaves, 

_ ^umm i?T— iiitir tW 


Mr. DicksonV Obfervatkm en the Genus of Porella y 6fo 210 

leaves, fa far as they are reprefented, are placed in the fame manner 
as in the annexed figure. 

I ihall now fubjoin a fhort defcription of it under the name of 

Jungermannia/0;?//<7. Tab. 20. Fig. 1. 

J.furculis pinnatis ramofis medio floriferis, fioribus fubfcflilibus, 
vaq;mis obovatis inflatis. 
Habitat in Pennfylvania. 

Descr. Surculi decumbentes ramon. Folia alterna, obovata, 
perforata, pellucida, fubtus auriculata. Vagina fubpedunculata in- 
flata, exiguis aliquot ad bafin fquamis cincta. Seta breviflima. 

The Splachnum which I received at the fame time with the above, 
when compared with Dillenius's fpecimen, proved to be the Sphag- 
num figured in Tab, 85. f. 15*5 — the figure is remarkably fliff. 
This is made a Phafcum by Linnaeus ; but with equal impropriety, 
it being a true Splachnum. 

Splachnum caulefcens. Tab. 20. Fig. 2. 

Spl. caulefcens, foliis linearibus apice fetaceis. 
Habitat in Pennfylvania. 

Descr. Caules filiformes erecti ; folia alterna, inflexa, reticulata,, 
pellucida ; capfula erecta cylindrica. 

Explanation of Tab. 20. 

FV. 1.. A Jungermannia porella j natural fize. 

B capfule magnified. 

q part of the plant magnified. 

lig. 2. A Splachnum caulefcens; natural (ize. 

B ■ magnified. 

C — a leaf magnified. 

XXII. Be- 

( *40 ) 

XXII. Defcription of the T&ibes fpicaium. By Mr. Edward 

Robfo?i, A. L. S. 

Read July 7, 1 795. 

Ribes spicatum. Tab. 21. 

RIBES inerme, fpicis ere&is, petalis oblongis, bra&eis florc 
Habitat in fylvis. Near Richmond in Yorkshire, and between 
Pierlbridge and Gainford, in the county of Durham, h . v. 


Frutex erectus, 4 feu 5 pedalis. 

Caulis inermis, ramofifiimus. 

Rami alterni erecti. 

Cortex fufco-cinereus. 

Folia alterna, ereflo-patentia, petiolata, fubcordata, triloba quin- 
quelobaque, rugofa, inaequaliter ferrata ; ferraturis lobifque 
acutis : fupra fubglabra, fubtus tomentofa, juniora tomen- 
tofiora, inodora. 

Petio/i fubteretes, foliorum longitudine. 

Spka folitarise, laterales numerofae, erecta?, bracl:eat2e> 1 — ii pol- 

licem longae. 


__^*»»t . <i/A***t* TH t&mJUiAi 

^r^v\\V4 '■■■ 



Mr. RobsonV Tkfcripthn ef the Rlbes fplcatum* * 241 

Fiores numerofi, fefliles, patcntes, 2—3 lineas lati, ai fummum 
fpicse conferti. 

Braftea fubter florem, germine brevior, ovata,concava, apicercflexa. 

Calyx, Perianthlum monophyllum, iemiquinqueiidum, laciniis cune- 
ato-fubrotundis, eretlo-patentibus, rubido-fufcis prater mar- 
gines fubvirides. 

Corolla. Petda quinque, cuneato-oblonga, ereclo-patentia, minuta ; 
calyci inter fmgulas divifuras inferta. 

Stamina, Fihimenta quinque ere&a, corolla* longitudine, calyci in- 
ferta, et ejus laciniis oppofita, Anthera: triloculares. 

Pjjlillum. Germen fubrotundum, inferum, glabrum. 
Stylus bifidus, ftaminumlongitudine. 
Stigmata obtufa. 

Pericarplum. Bacca globofa, laciniis calycis coronata, unilocularis ; 
colore et guftu R. rubra fimilis. 

Semina fubrotunda (5^-10) fibris bacca: affixa. 


Non attente fpectantibus, fplcatum et rubrum, dum nondum fe 
pandunt, magnam inter fe fimilitudinem habere videntur; Cm 
autem oculis intentis fcrutentur, patefactum fit, plus illud foliorum 
prono tomentofum, ac ferraturis lobifque acutum, quam hoc, efTe 
— Cum vero florefcunt, fplcatum a rubro, quod illius rubido-fufci, 
hujus funt fiores luteolo-vi rides, at etiam ejufdem generis adhuc 
repertis, quod illud fpicis erectis ornatum eft, differt. 


Vol. III. 1 « XXIII. Ob. 

( 242 ) 

XXIII. Obfervations on the Infers that infejted the Corn in the Tear 1795 
In a Letter to the Rev, Samuel Goodenough, LL. D, F. R, S, Tr, L. S. 
By Thomas Mar/Jjam, Efq, Sec, L, S. 

Read May 3, 1796. 

Dear Sir, 

TOWARDS the end of July lad, a friend of mine [Mr. Long) 
who had the management of a farm in Hertfordfhire, was 
telling me that an infect had made its appearance among the 
wheat, which threatened to do much mifchief; that it was found* 
in many inftances, to have attacked one, two, or more grains in an 
ear; and that it was difcoverable by thofe grains appearing yellow, 
or as it were ripe, while all the remaining grains in the fame ear 
were perfectly green.— I defired that gentleman to bring me up 
fome of the difeafed ears, which he did ; and I found them exactly 
as he had defcribed them. — On opening thofe grains that feemed 
difeafed, I found in many of them an orange-coloured powder, and 
in feveral, one or two very minute larva, differing in colour, from a 
yellowifh white to a deep yellow. They were too minute for exa- 
mination by the naked eye ; but by applying a deep magnifier I 
perceived them to be the larvae of a fmall mufca, and to refemble very 
much thofe aphidivorous larva: that produce one particular family 
of the mufc<z. They were thick at one end, and gradually dimi 
nifhed to a point at the other, where the head was fituate. They 
extended and contracted themfelves at pleafure ; to which was 


Mr, MarshAm'j Ohfervallom en the Infecls, &V. ' 24 \ 

added a leaping motion, frequently jumping full half an inch from 
the paper on which I examined them. The grain where their 
infects had poiTeffion appeared a little ilirunk. Befides thefe la*V* % 
I frequently met with the T'hrips phyfapm running about between 
the hulks, and alio feveral very fmall Ichncwmns^ one of which 
fettled upon a larva while under my glafs; and I faw it repeatedly 
wound the little maggot with its tube* and I have no doubt it de- 
pofited its eggs. This was feen alio by Mr. M'Leay, F.L.S. who 
Xyas examining them with me. — I placed this wheat in water, and 
.Air. Long continued to fupply me with frelh ears every week ; and 
alfo, at my requeft, tied fpmc gauze round feveral of the difeafed ears, 
while growing in the field, which flood until the corn was ripe ; 
but I was not able, with all my care, to difcover the fly produced 
from the before- mentioned larva. Anxious, however, to determine, 
if poflible, the hiftory and progrefs of this little animal, which now 
feemed to create univerfal alarm ; and knowing that my various 
avocations would prevent my quitting London ; I had written, on 
the firfl hearing of the infect, to feveral of my friends who refide 
in the country, and to you among the reft, requeuing their parti- 
cular attention to this fubject, and the refult of that application I 
now give you. — From the obfervations you were enabled to make, 
vou will remember that you had obferved only the T'hrlps ph\faf>us y 
which you concluded to have been the infect, if it was an infect 
which did the mifchief, although you could not difcover any ma- 
terial injury that had occurred. — From our truly valuable friends 
Wm. Mark wick, Efq. of Catsfield, near Battle, and the Rev. Wm. 
Kirby, of Barham, of whofe accuracy and attention to this fubjeft 
we have both received very convincing proofs, I received the fol- 
lowing accounts. 

Mr. Markwick, in his letter of the 9th of Auguft, fays: u I re- 
" paired immediately to my wheat fields on receiving your letter, 

Wz " and 

2^4 Afc Marsham'j Obfervations on the Infects 

" and gathered fuch as I thought appeared to anfwer bed to your 
" defcription of difeafed ears, and brought them home for invef- 
" tigation. From your account of the deftructive properties of this 
" little infect, I expected to find it buried in the very heart of the 
" grain, after having eaten its way thither ; but, to my great fatif- 
" faction, no fuch thing has yet occurred ; and, from what I have 
*' hitherto obferved, I have great doubt with refpect to its deflruclive 
^properties. This opinion may perhaps furprife you ; and my own 
*' future obfervations, as well as thofe of your more fkilful and 
** learned friends, may poffibly prove me in an error; but my rea- 
*' fons for thinking fo at prefent are, that when in the field the crop 
" appeared to be very fine, and I had great difficulty in finding any 
" ears that I fuppofed to be difeafed. In fome few ears I found the 
" infect lodged between the hulks or outward fcales of the calyx ; 
" nay, even in thofe where I found the infect, the grain itfelf did 
44 not appear to have received any injury, only the hufk feemed 
** rather difcoloured. I think I have difcovered this little infect: 
" both in the larva and chryfalis date; but it is fo minute, that I 
" will not be pofitive whether what I took for the chryfalis was not 
" a dead infect. I have placed all that I have yet found in an open 
" box, along with fome ears of wheat, and covered it with fine 
" gauze, to prevent the fly, or perfect: infect, from efcaping, when it 
" comes forth. If I mould be fo fortunate as to fucceed in this^ 
H or can make any further obfervations towards investigating the 
M natural hiftory of this little animal, you may depend on hearing 
** from me again. It is with great pleafure that I can, I believe 
" with truth, inform you, that our wheat in general is very fine 
** this year, the grain large and full, and a profpect of its yielding 
** well when it comes to be threfhed." 

In a letter dated Oct. i, 1795, tne ^ ime gentleman adds, " I was 

" in hopes that I fhould have been able to trace the minute infect: 

7 ** which 

that infejled the Corn in the Tear 1795. 245 

li which was lately found in the ears of wheat, through all its 
" changes ; but am forry to fay that my relearches have not been 
" attended with that fuccei's I could wiih. 1 have never met with 
"it in the ftate of a fmall 'white larva, as you defcribe it to be at 
" firft. But whenever I have (een it, its firlr. ftate was a very fmall 
" caterpillar or larva, of a bright yellow colour, which had neither 
" legs, antenna?, nor wings (See tab. 22, fig. I and 2), and which 
" changes into an egg-fhaped chryfalis of the fame colour (See tab. 
ei 22, fig. 3 and 4.). 

% In my former letter to you, I fpeak of this larva as being found 
*' only between the outer hulks or fcales of the calyx. But this is 
" not always the cafe; for I have fince found it between the corolla 
*' and the grain, and even on the grain itfelf; but amongfl the vaft 
" number of grains which I have examined, I could never clearly 
" difcover that this infetl had eaten into any of them. I have fre- 
" quently found it fitting on fine full grain, which did not appear 
" to be injured in the leaft. Sometimes indeed I found it on grain 
'* that was blighted, or fhrivelled j hut even then I could not dif- 
" cover that it was eaten by the infect. In thofe ears where I 
" found thefe infects (to the number, perhaps, of two or three, 
*' feldom more, in one ear), the grains were in general full, and not 
" eaten at all. In one ear, containing 33 grains, I found four of 
u thefe infeds, three of them on one fmgle grain j yet neither that, 
" nor any of the other grains in the lame ear, was eaten in the 
" leaft. In ihort, from all that I have been able to oblerve, I am 
*' perfuaded that the wheat has received no damage from thefe very 
4 ' minute infects ; for, being fo minute, they muff abound in im- 
" menfe numbers to do any material mifchief, even fuppoiing them 
44 to feed on the grain - r neither of which is, I believe, the cafe 1 
" for their numbers were, comparatively fpeaking, fmall ; in mod 

" of 

246 Mr. Marsham'j Obfervations on the Infers 

" of the cars which I examined, none at all. And when I did find 
" them, there were but few, and thefe few had not, that I could 
" difcover, fed on or injured the grain. Since the harveit has been 
" got in, I have found the fame infect in the hulks of the wild 
" bearded oats (ave?ia fatua), but have not yet feen it in its fly or 
" perfect ftate. Should that happen from the chryfalides in my 
" poffefTion, you (hall hear from me again. — Amongfrthe ears of 
" wheat I found feveral frnall black flies (as they appeared to me), 
" and imagined that they were produced from the above-mentioned 
" fmall yellow cbryfulides j but on confulting our very accurate 
4i friend Dr. Goodenough. he convinced me that this fmall black 
44 fly was the Thrips phyjapus of Linnaeus ; and that a fmall yel- 
" lowilh tranfparent infect, with 6 legs and 2 antennas (found 
" alio amongft the wheat), was its larva (See tab. 22, fig. 5, 6, 
- 7, 8)." 

Mr. Kirby's communication to me on this fubject was in a 
letter dated Auguft 27, 1795, wherein he fays — " You afk me 
f to make enquiries concerning the infect which has infefted 
" the wheat this fummer : what follows is the refult of thofe 
" enquiries, which I hope will give you fatisfaclion. Before I 
H had received your letter I had paid fome flight attention to the 
" fubject, being informed of the circumftance by fome intelligent 
" neighbours ; but your requeft added a ftimulus to my endeavours, 
" and I flatter myfelf that the refult of my refearches will prove 
" clear and fatis factory. I had from the firft fufpected the infects 
" to be the Thrips phyfapus^ a fpecies very common every fummet, 
" and, after the clofeft inveftigation, my fufpicions are turned into 
" conviction. I examined a great number of ears, and in them 
" found this infect in all its ftates, between the interior valve of the 

" corolla 

that hifejledthe Corn m the Tear 1795. 2 tf 

n corolla and the grain. It takes its flation in the longitudinal fur- 
" row of the feed, in the bottom of which it feems to fix its roftrum; 
" probably fucks the milky juice which f wells the grain, and thus 
" by depriving it of part, and in fome cafes perhaps the whole, of its 
" moifture, occafions it to fhrink up, and become what the farmers 
" in this part of the world call pungled, \i your correipondent in 
'* Hertfordfhire means the fame infect, he is miftaken in afierting 
" that only a fmgle grain in an ear is injured by it. I have myfdf 
" feen ears in which a fourth part of the grain was deitroyed, or 
" materially hurt. — I have frequently fcen two of the infects upon 
*' a fingle grain, and am told that fometimes more are obferved. 
44 What is fingular, when I met with them on the grain in the 
44 imago Mate, they were often in pairs, one of which was apterous. 
44 Thefe I take to be the fexes. I once found a large fpecics am 
44 acukalo (Thrips aculaata Muf. Kirby) in which the fame diftinc- 
* 4 tion takes place. The larva of Thrips phyfapus is yellow, has fix 
44 legs, which, with the antenna? and head, are black and white. 
%i Sometimes it is all yellow. It is very nimble in its motions, and 
" although brought away in the grain, foon makes its efcape. — 
44 The pupa is whitifh, with black eyes, and wings apparent. It is 
" very flow and lluggifh in its motions. The imagoit is needlefs to 
" defcribe; it is fo like itfelf in every ftate, that it is impofiiblc to 
" miftake it. There was an orange-coloured powder in every grain 
" in which the infect was found, which I imagine is its excrement. 
" All the fanners that I confulted reflecting- it agreed in faying 
44 that it did mo ft m if chief to the late fown wheats, and that fuch 
44 as were fown early received little or no injury. This I think vary. 
44 probable; for when the grain is arrived at a certain degree of 
44 hardnefs and confiftency (which perhaps was the cafe with the 
<* early fown wheats, before the infect made any material attack), 

44 I fuppofe 

2 45 Mr. Marsh a M V Ohfer nations on the Infers 

M I luppoie it is not liable to be hurt. Linnaeus fays of this infect, 
44 ' Spicai fccaies inanity but nobody feems to have apprehended the 
* : injury it is capable of doing to wheat. An intelligent farmer, 
" who fir (I pointed it out to me, allured me that he was firmly 
44 perfuaded that it was this infect which occafioned what was called 
" the blight lad year, which was the caufe of fo defective a crop. 
44 The part of one field that I examined, and which was particu- 
" larly injured, was to the north of a high edge ; but the above- 
••' mentioned farmer informed me that he had found them plentiful 
" in a very open country. To me they appeared more injurious in 
44 the heavy than in the light lands. Lad year the bearded wheat 
44 (called by our farmers clog-wheat) efcaped with the leaft injurv ; 
" but this year, as far as my information and obfervation went, 
*' it was the moff. injured. I obferved in one or two infiances 
44 the Fojjicula auricularia upon the ear; and upon examining the 
44 grain, each time, to which it had applied itfelf, I found upon it 
44 the Tbrips. Query : — Does it not devour them ? Gmelin has a 
44 fpecies of rfhrips under the name of Thrips rufa (GmeL Syji. torn. i. 
44 pi. 4. Thrips 10.) from a German writer (Gleicben, Neuejfes im Reich: 
44 der Pfianzjj which I fufpect to be the larva I have been defcribing, 
44 or perhaps the pupa, which he fays * habitat in tritici fpicis* and 
44 adds, with a query, * Anforfan larva minutiffima*' The only me- 
44 thod which can be ferviceable to prevent the ravages of this 
44 infecl; is, to fow the wheat early. It is probable that it does con- 
44 fiderable damage every year, as it is a very common infect. Nor 
" do I imagine it has been more injurious than ufual in the prefent 
" year, only the fcarcity has excited people's attention to every 
44 thing that might hurt the grain. J found three other diftinct 
44 infects, in the larva Hate, upon the wheat, but in no quantity ; two 
44 of which efcaped me, but one I had an opportunity of defcribing. 

44 Larva 

that infejlcd the Corn in the Tear 1 795. 249 

** Larva citron-coloured, without feet, head acute, tail truncated, 
" margined with a plicato-papillofe margin; length three- fourths of 
" a line. This fpecies I found between the corolla and the grain. — 
** Of the other two, the one was lodged in the kernel, and the other, 
" which was a long (about five lines) hexapod, very fwilt, devoured 
" it with extreme voracioufnefs. This is all I have been able to 
*? collect upon this fubject ; and I wifh it may prove fatisfa&ory to 
** you and the Linnean Society, and ferviceable to the public. We 
" cannot help reflecting, on this occafion, what feemingly fmall and 
" infignificant creatures may, in the hand of Divine Providence, 
" become the caufes of the moil alarming vifitations ; and, if allowed 
" to increafe to a certain pitch, almoft of the deftruction of the hu- 
u man race.'' 

From the obfervations and accurate inveftigation of my friends 
above mentioned, it {hould appear, that very little damage to the 
wheat is to be dreaded from the havock of the infects they have 
defcribed. It is, indeed, rather unfortunate that none of us could 
fucceed in breeding the fly, which the fmall larva, remarked by us 
all, is deftined to produce. — From Mr. Kirby's letter, and the re- 
marks of the farmer, the Thrips phyfapus is the infect that is fup- 
pofed to do the mifchief ; and this feems confirmed by the great 
Linna3us, and alfo by Gleichen (in a French work on the micro- 
fcope) quoted by Gmelin, and to fuch authorities it is with the 
utmoft diffidence I hazard a contrary opinion. I cannot, however, 
help Hating that opinion, being perfuaded that the attachment of 
this minute infect to the grain arifes from the grain being fir ft in a 
difeafed ftate, of which the orange-coloured powder, called by many 
farmers the red gum, feems a proof. For this powder, you in- 
formed me, was not the excrement of an infect (as I had fuppofed), 
but the farina or feed of a fmall Lycoperdon of Linnxus, or ALcidium 

Vol. III. Kk of 

250 Mr, Mar. sham' J Obfer-vations on the Infect 

of later authors, which attaches itfelf to decayed leaves, &c. The 
Lycoperdon itfelf is very minute, and before its burfting has the ap- 
pearance of a flattilh, fmooth, irregular, yellow exudation, or gum*. 
The firft ftep towards putrefaction, either in plants or animals, is a 
well-known invitation to numerous kinds of infects ; and therefore 
the fhrinking of the grain, or the abortion, alluded to by Linnasus 
when he fays Thrips phyfapus ^ f pic as fee ales inanit" may have arifen 
from fome other caufe than the depredation of infecls. — Gleichen, 
who was in fearch of microfcopic objects, and confequently turned 
his attention to the fmgular and elegant ftructure of the various- 
parts of minute infects, does not mention that the i mailed injury 
was done to the grain by the Tbrips, which, he fays, " habitat in triticl 
fpicis" and he figures feveral other fpecies found on different flowers. 
That wheat is not the only plant on which the thrips phyfapus is to 
be met with, mu ft be evident to every entomologift; for it is fcarcely 
poiTible to gather any flower during the whole fummer, and even 
in the fpring, without finding it in numbers ; particularly the 
compound flowers of the Syngencfia clafs, fuch as the Leontodon Ta- 
raxacum, on which I have always found them in the greatefr. num- 
bers in their three dates. Befides, I am not quite fatisfied that this 
infect, notwithstanding its very minute fize, is not carnivorous, as 
mod; if not all the Cimices and other hemipterous infects are. The 
minute larva of the Mufca has alio that appearance; and, I am in- 

* This opinion feems confirmed in a fenfible, well-written letter, in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for Augtrft 1795, page 627, figned A. O. O. which I have but very lately feen. 
The writer's fentiments feem entirely to coincide with mine on this fubje£t. — In the 
fame Magazine and page, another writer, under the fignature C. takes notice of the 
larva of the Mufca, and the fmall Ichneumon fly, of the former of which he has added a 
tolerable figure : but although the body of the fly conveys fome idea of the animal, yet 
the antennre and legs bear no refemblance to any infect.. This fly, which he miftakes 
for the parent of the larva, is mod afiurediy its enemy, as I have mentioned in the firfb 
part of my obfcrvations. 


_ U >Mt , . "/ Xar/j. III. fn/i 22.h,. .?,>' 

"""SCJS; oca 



thai infefled the Corn in the Tear 1 795. 2 J 1 

clined to think, feeds even on the 'Thrifts, which has been one prin- 
cipal reafon why we could not breed it.— Mr. Kirby, indeed, men- 
tions that one of two infects which he faw, befide thofc particu- 
larly defcribed, was devoured voracioufly by the other, which was a 
hexapod, and therefore very probably a Thrifts, or at lead an hemip- 
terous in feci. The Forficula auricularia, which Mr. Kirby alio met 
with on the wheat, I prefume, from many obfervations I had an 
opportunity of making about two years fince, is not carnivorous, 
having feen it devour various fpecies of culinary plants with great 
avidity. Its time of feeding is about midnight. 

Having communicated to Sir Jofeph Banks my thoughts on the 
fubjecl of thefe infects, he fhewed me, and kindly permitted me to 
make ufe of an elegant drawing (See tab. 22. fig. 9 — 12) which he 
had directed to be made from fome wheat lent him from Yorkihire. 
This drawing feems to open a new field in the entomological fcience. 

Fig. 9 represents a fpicula of the Triticum hybernum of its natural 

Fig. 10 is a flower expanded, and highly magnified. 

A. A clufter of the little larva? before defcribed, much 

magnified, that had taken up their refidence in 
v ; the corolla. 

B. The ftamina of their ufual fize, 

C. The ftyles, ditto. 

D. The germen fcarce at all fwelled. 

Fig. 11. The germen nearly complete, as it appeared in the 

other flowers of the fame ear. 
Fig. 12. The larva magnified. 

It is curious to obferve that the parts of fructification remained 

unhurt much beyond the ufual time, although the fruit was not 


K k 2 XXIV. De~ 

( <»5« ) 

XXIV. Defcriptlons of Actinia crajficornis and fame Brilijh Shells, 
By John Adams, Efq. F.L.S+ 

Read June 7, 1796. 

IN addition to the former paper on minute fhells, which the Lin- 
nean Society did me the honour of receiving, I beg leave to lay 
before them the refult of fome obfervations made fince the writing 
of thofe remarks. 


crajficornis. A. rubra, cirris conico-elongatis. Syfi. Nat. Gmeh'tu 

3132. Dicquem, Ph. Ti: vol, lxiii. /. 16. f. 10. and 

t. 17. f. 11. Bajler opufc.fubf. 
A. fenilis. Syjl. Nat. ed. 12. /. 1088. 

Mil ford Haven. 

Obf. All the fpecimens I have feen have been of a 
pale colour, marked with fpots of a deep red 


maculata. T. tefta fubovata crafliufcula, decuflatim ftriata, ma- 
culis irregularibus — Species nova. 


Obf. It is remarkable in this fpecies, that although 
the figure of the fpots in different fpecimens is 

4 quite 

Mr. Adams'j Defer iptions of Actinia crafficcrnis^ &c. 


quite diflimilar, yet in both the upper and under 
fhell they are perfectly fimilar. 


pallida* V. tefta integra oblongo-ovata, fpira elevata, colu- 
mella quadruplicata. Syft. Nat. Gmel. p. 3444. 
Bulla cylindracea. Da Co/la, Briu £onch. page 31;, 
£ 2. 1. 7. 7. 


Mr. Da Cofta is certainly miftaken in considering the 
£hell figured by him as the Bulla cylindracea of 
Mr. Pennant's Br. Zool. vol. iv. p. 70. /. 85. The 
figures above quoted are not indeed accurately 
finiihed, but are, neverthelefs, fufficiently diftinft 
to fhew, that it is the fame fhell with the figures 
referred to by Linnaeus for his Valuta pallida^ viz. 
Adanf. Sen. t. 5. f. 2. falier^ and particularly f. 3. 
Jtmer/f which accords very accurately with my 
fpecimen. His defcription is, however, very s;ood y 
and enables me to ailert, that it is the true F. pal- 
lida of Linnaeus. 

From the Bulla cylindracea it differs in the following 
particulars : 1. In having an evident fpire. 2. In 
its plicated columella. 3. In having a beautiful 
polifti, which the true B, cylindracea is entirely de- 
void of. 


canaliculus. T. quinque anfractibus longitudinaliter canaliculars, 

apertura fubrotunda. 

Minute. Sea-fand. Linny Bay. 

Obf Pel- 

2 54 ^ r ' Adams'* Defer if tion of Aftinia crafficovnh, l$c. 


Obf Pellucid, whitifo, the fpires fluted, and feparated 
by an elevated line. 

T. quatuor anfraclibus, bevibus et firiatis ; apertura 

Minute. Sea-fand. Linny. 

Obf, Colour white, pellucid, each fpire divided into 
two parts. The upper one fmooth, the lower one 
fpirally filiated. 

He; IX 
tomentofus. H. tefla umbilicata, tribus anfraclibus fetofis. 

Boggy ground. 

Obf. Colour of horn, pellucid, befet with fhort bridles 
which give the appearance of downinefs. Aper- 
ture roundifh. 




H. tribus anfraclibus apertura, marginata rotunda. 
Minute. Sea-fand. Linny. 

Obf. Variegated with white and bronze, pellucid, 
within perlaceous. 

S. duobus anfraclibus, profunde fpiraliter fulcatis. 
On the roots of the Fucus digitatus. 

Obf. Colour greenifh. 

i , 

XXV. Bg- 

( 255 ) 

XXV. Botanical Char afters of Jomc Plants of the Natural Order of 
Myrti. By James Edward Smith, AID. F.R.S. P.LS. 

Read O&obtr 4, 1 796. 

* I ^HE natural order of Myrti, Jujf. Gen. 322, is compofed of a 
■*■ number of very elegant ihrubs and trees, the genera of which 
have not been, clearly defined ; nor, indeed, do the limits of this 
family feem well under flood by the bed writer on natural orders, 
M. de Jufheu. 

Thefe plants agree in having an arborefcent ftem, the wood of 
which is generally hard, and of flow growth. Their leaves arc 
fimple, for the moft part entire, and evergreen ; often dotted with 
clear refinous fpots, and almoft always more or lefs aromatic, fome- 
times aftringent. Calyx monophyllous, urceolate, or tubular, with 
feveral, generally five, teeth, the body of the calyx being perma- 
nent, and inverting the fruit (in fome inftances pulpy), though the 
teeth are very frequently deciduous. Petals equal in number to the 
teeth of the calyx, alternate with them, and inferted into the rim 
juft within them. Stamina inferted into the fame rim within 
the petals, numerous, rarely only equal to the petals in number, 
or about twice as many ; for the raoft part very long, but, in 
fome inftances, fhorter than the corolla. Gennen in the bottom of 
the calyx, fimple. Style one. Stigma undivided. Fruit either a 


256 Dr. Smith V .Botanical Characters of feme Plants 

berry or capfule, formed of the body of the calyx, or inverted with 
it, confiding of one or more cells, each cell containing one or more 
feeds. White is the prevailing colour of the flowers. I know no 
inftance of an inclination to blue. 

Such is the general idea of the order : there are, however, fome 
exceptions. Eucalyptus of L/Heritier, and Calyptranthes of Swartz, 
have no proper petals, but in their ftead a fimple operculum, or cover. 
Philadelpbus has a deeply divided ftyle, as well as dentated, deci- 
duous leaves ; in Decumaria, and Efcalloma alfo, the leaves are not 
entire. This Iaft, and two other genera (Backea and Memecylon) 
with which M. de Juflieu was not practically acquainted, he has 
placed in his preceding order of Onagri, becaufe they have 
ftamina definite in number, that is, as many, or, at moft, twice as 
many, as the teeth of the calyx. But I am perfuaded, if he had 
feen all thefe, he would have defined his order of Myrti fo as to 
admit them, which is ventured upon in the chara&er given above. 

It is not my prefent intention to treat of every genus in this fa- 
mily, nor even to enumerate them all. The difficulty of arranging 
fome beautiful kinds from New South Wales firft led me to ftudy 
the order, and to thefe I fliail principally confine my remarks. 
They belong to the following 9 genera. 

I. Imbricaria. Jungla of Gcertner. 
1. Basckea of Linnaeus. 

3. Leptofpermum of Forfer. 

4. Fabricia of Gartner. 

5. Metro fideros of Banks and Gartner, 

6. Melaleuca of Llnnaus. 

7. Myrtus of all authors. 

8. Eugenia of Michel/, Limitzus, and Juffiett. 

9. Eucalyptus of V Her i tier. 


of the 'Natural Order of Myrfr. 257 

The order in which I have now enumerated them accords, as 
nearly as can be, with their natural affinity to each other ; but 
they belong to various daffies in the artificial iyftem of Linn^us, 
according to which I iliall now give their generic characters . 


Jungia. G<zrtn. Sem. v. I. 175. /. 35./. 5. 

Pentandria Monogynta^ next to EfcallonJa. 

Char. Gen. Petala 5. Stigma capitatum. Capfula calyce tecta, 
bilocularis, polyfperma. 

Gartner fufpected this might not be a diftindt genus from the 
Efcailonia of Linn. SuppL which he had never feen. But it differs 
efTentially in having a capfule inftead of a berry, not to mention 
many other particulars. See Plant. Ic. ex Herbaria Linna?ano 9 tab* 30 

In the unripe germen Gartner found 2 cells, but of thefe one is 
often abortive. This is an infrance, among many others, of the 
propriety of confidering the fruit in an early ftate, when we form 
generic characters, as the natural number of the parts is often mod: 
certainly to be learned in that ftate. By this rule, the Linociera of 
Schreber will, if I miftake not, be found not diftinct from Chionanthm. 

Gaertner mentions two fpecies of his Jungia, of which I have 
received one from New South Wales — that reprefented in his plate. 
In my fpecimens, the upper leaves, calyx, and petals, are crenate, 
which he has not exprefTed, but which is an additional mark of its 
affinity to Efcatfonia, the leaves of which are more or lefs ferrated ; 

Vol. III. L 1 an 

258 Dr» SmithV Botanical Characters of feme Plants 

an unufual circumftance in this natural order. I have alfo another 
not mentioned by him. 

With refpecl: to the name, there being already a plant of a very 
diftin& genus infcribed to Jungius in the Supplementum Plantarum 
of Linnaeus, it becomes neceflary to give this of Gcertner another 
denomination. ProfefTor Gmelin has, indeed, called it Mollia; but, 
as I am ignorant of the derivation of that name, I purpofely change 
It. However eftimable this writer may be in other branches of 
fcience, he can claim no rank as a botaniit. The miftakes pointed 
out by Mr. Dryander in the fecond volume of our Transactions, 
and by M. Lamarck in thofe of the Natural Hiftory Society at 
Paris, are but a fmall part of his innumerable errors. Perhaps no 
book in any fcience contains fo many. The zoological part of 
his Syflema is far lefs faulty. In that department he may be con- 
fidered as authority, till fome original author appears ; but good- 
nature would wifti to forget his attempts in Botany. I cannot 
help upon this occafion recommending, that only original authors 
in Natural Hiftory fhould have any authority to give permanent 
names. By original authors I mean thofe who have feen and 
examined every object which they profefs to defcribe or enumerate, 
in contradiftinction to compilers of the obfervations or nomencla- 
ture of others. 

In preference therefore to Mollia, this genus is named Imbrlcaria^ 
in allufion to its imbricated foliage, A farther reafon for my choice 
of this name is to aboliih the Imbrlcaria of Gmelin, taken up by 
him from JufTieu, which I know from original fpecimens to be the 
identical Mimufops Kauki of Linnaeus, of which Jufheu, after Com- 
merfon's manufcripts, made a diftincl: genus on account of its fruit 
having eight cells, and as many feeds ; but Commerfon obferved, 
that four or more of thefe were often abortive; and, on the other 


of the Natural Order of Myrii. %g* 

liand, Rumphius tells us the Mmiufips has often as many as three 
or four perfeft feeds. It is probable, therefore, that the germen has 
eight cells and eight feeds, mod of which are generally abortive ; 
another in (lance of the neceflity of ftudying that part in all its pro- 
grefTive ftates. 

The fpecies of Imbrlcaria are : 

1. Imbricaria crenulata^ foliis obovato-cuneiformibus apicem 

verfus crenulatis, petalis calycibufque denticulatis. 
Jungia imbricata. Gcertn. loc. cit, 

2. I. clliata^ foliis triquetro-linearibus calycibufque ciliatis, ger- 

mine pentagono. 

To thefe might be added the tenella of Gaertncr, which not hav- 
ing fufficiently examined, I for the prefent omit. All are natives of 
New Holland, or New South Wales. 

2. B.^CKEA Untu—Juff. Gen. 321. 

Octandria Monogynia, near Fuchfia and Xlmenia. 

Char. Gen. Petala 5. Calyx 5-fidus. Capfula tri- vel quadri- 
locularis, polyfperma, calyce tecta. 

JufTieu firft formed any tolerably juft conjectures concerning the 
natural family of this genus, to which the defcriptions of Linnaeus 
and Ofbeck by no means lead ; nor, indeed, could it have eafiiy 
been referred to the myrtle tribe, without the increafed knowledge 
of that order which we have derived from the plants of New 
Holland. There is no doubt, however, that Bceckea belongs to the 
Myrti, and not to the Onagri of JufTieu, having the clofefl 

L, 1 2 affinity 

260 Dr. Smith' j Botanical Characters of fame Plants 

affinity in character, habit, and aromatic qualities, to Leptofper- 
mum; from which it differs only in having but eight ftamina, inftead 
of a large indefinite number, which in this order is a fufficient 
generic diftin&ion ; efpecially as the number is very conftant in 
all the flowers I have examined of the Chinefe, as well as the New 
Holland, fpecies, though I have not often found two of the ftamina 
(asLinnasus defcribes them) fhorter than the reft. 

i. B^ecke a frutefccns, foliis oppofitis muticis, dentibus calycinis 
membranaceis coloratis. 
B. frutefcens. Linn. Sp. PL 514. O/b. Re/a, 231* t. 1. Voyage, 

v. 2. 373. U I. 
B. chinenfis. Gtertn. Sem. 157. /. 31. 

Difcovered in China by Ofbeck. 

2. B. denjifolia, foliis quadrifariam imbricatis obtufls mucronulo 
reflexo, dentibus calycinis foliaceis. 

Sent from Port Jackfon, New South Wales, by Mr. White. 

3. LEPTOSPERMUM Forji. Gen. 36. /. 36. Jig,/-—/. Jug. Gen. 323. 

Gatrtn. Sem. t. 35. 

Icosandria Monogynia, after Philadelphia. 

Char. Gen. Calyx 5-fidus, femifuperus, Petala 5, unguicu- 
lata, ftaminibus longiora. Stigma capitatum. Capfula 4- vel 
5-locularis. Semina angulofa. 

To this genus naturally belong many fhrubs which were re- 
ferred by Dr. Solander to Philadelphus, and appeared under that 

2 genus 

of the Natural Order of Myrti. 261 

genus in the Hortus Kewenfis. Forfter confounded with them, 
under the name of Leptofpcnnnm, another naoft diirinct genus, the 
Metrofideros of Banks and Solander. Gartner firft feparated all 
thefe, and really underftood the genus of which we are now Uoat- 
ing, though he did not. find out its genuine eacntial chaiactcr, the 
capitate ftigma, which (as well as the ihortnefs of the ftamina) 
clearly diitinguiihes it from Metrofideros. With Philadeiphus it has 
no refembiance in habit, nor fcarcely any botanical characters in 
common. The excellent Dr. Solander would certainly never have 
referred thefe plants to that genus, had he examined the common 
Philadelphus itfelf, which is clearly and ftrikingly diftinguifhed by 
its more or lefs deeply quadrifid llyle and fifnple ftigmas, without 
adverting to the broad bafe of the petals, or the differences pointed 
out by Gaertner in the fruit. Even Tournefort's figures fhew the 
characters above mentioned, though the ftyle is commonly more' 
deeply divided than he reprefents it, infomuch that the flowers have 
often actually four flyles. Duhamel delcribes them fo, giving a 
very incorrect reprefentation of thefe Ityles, with capitate ftigmas 
(which ought to be frmple), by the fide of his copy of Tournefort's 
figure, to which his has as little refembiance as can well be. 

The younger Linnaeus and Profeflbr Schreber have confounded 
JLeptofpermum, as well as Metrofideros, with Melaleuca, with which the 
latter of the two only has any great natural affinity. Dr. George 
Forfter has fallen into the fame error in his Prodromus published in 

The fpecies of JLeptofpermum are much lefs eafy to define than its 
generic character. Many of them are to be ken in the Englifh 
gardens, and feveral have often flowered. The following attempt 
to characterife fuch as are diftinctiy known to me, may ferve till 
we have more light upon the fubject; there being feveral more fpe- 

262 Dr. SmithV Botanical Characters offome Plants 

cies in the gardens, which I have not yet feen in fufncient perfec- 
tion to discriminate them. 

1. Leptospermum fcoparium, foliis ovatis mucronatis obfolete 
trinerviis, calycibas glabris; dentibus membranaceis co- 
L. fcoparium. Forji. Gen. N. 6. 
L. fquarrofum. Gar in. Sem. 174. t. 35. 
Melaleuca fcoparia. Linn. Suppl. 343. G. Forjl. Prod. 37. 
Philadelphia fcoparius. Aiu Hort. Kew. v. 2. 156. 

This is the moft commonly cultivated fpecies, and flowers conti- 
nually. I have received it from the garden of Meflrs. Lee and 
Kennedy, by the name of Philadelphus \flonbundus 9 along with three 
other fpecimens, which I fufpect to be varieties of this. They were 
called P. rubricaulisy P. rubriflorus, and the " original P. aromaticus" 

The variety g of Hort. Kew. is, according to Sir J. Banks's Herba- 
rium, a very flight one, with fhorter and broader leaves. This is, 
however, the identical Lept. fquarrofum of Gasrtner. 

What P. aromaticus of Hort. Kew. is I have not determined, and 
mult therefore omit it for the prefent. 

a. L. Jlavefcensy foliis lineari-lanceolatis obtufis enerviis, caly- 
cibus glabris : dentibus membranaceis coloratis nudis. 

The flowers appear to be of a fine yellow in the dried fpecimens. 
I have not feen this fpecies living. 

3. L. attenuatum^ foliis lanceolato-linearibus acutis trinerviis, 
calycibus fericeo-villofis : dentibus membranaceis coloratis 


if the Natural Order of Myrti. 263 

Neither have I feen this living. The flowers feem to be white, 
and generally grow two together on ihort flower-ftalks, which are 
filky like the calyx. 

4. L. hm'tgerum, foliis obovato-lanceolatis trinerviis, calycibus 

fericeo-villofis : dentibus foliaceis perfiftentibus. 
L. trinerve. White s Voyage, 229. tab. 
Philadelphus laniger. Ait. Hart. Kew. v. 2. 156. 
Myrtus Amboinenfis montana. Rumph. Amb. v. 2. /. 18. ? 

This fpecies varies with fmooth and downy leaves, and the calyx 
is fometimes merely filky, fometimes clothed with long and thick 
projecting down. Some of its varieties are in the gardens, eipe- 
cially what I take to be the /3 of Hart. Kew. which has fmall 
downy twitted leaves, with a little recurved point, and is commonly 
called Philadelphus pubefcens. It may be a diftincr. fpecies. 

5. L. parvifolium, foliis obovatis enerviis, ramulis calycibufque 

pilofis: dentibus membranaceis coloratis. 

Of this I have only one fpecimen, nor have I feen it alive ; but 
it is very diftincl:. 

6. L. arachnotdeum^ foliis fubulatis pungentibus, ramulis hirtis, 

calycibus dentibufque viliofis. 
L. arachnoides. Gartn. v. I. 175. t. 35. 

I have but a fmgle fpecimen of this fpecies, which agrees well 
with Gartner's figure and original fpecimen at Sir Jofeph Banks's. 

7. L. junlperlnum^ foliis lineari-lanceolatis pungentibus, ramu- 

lis fericeis,, calycibus glabris ; dentibus membranaceis colo- 
ratis nudis. 


264 & r * Smith' j Botanical Characters of fome Plants 

This is in the gardens, if I miftake not; but I have not ken the 
flowers frein. Mr. Fairbairn gave it me by the name of Phil, diof- 

8. L. baccatum % foliis lineari-lanceolatis pungentibus, ramulis 

hirtis, calycibus glabris : dentibus membranaceis coloratis 
pubefcentibus, capfula baccata. 

This is a low deprefled fhrub. The flowers feem to be yellow, 
and, by the appearance of the dried fruit, it muft be very pulpy. I 
have received from Meflrs. Lee and Kennedy a fpecimen which, 
for want of the fructification, I fcarcely know whether to refer to 
this or to L. arachnoideum, but it rather appears to be that fpecies. 

9. L. ambiguum, foliis linearibus apice recurvis, calycibus gla- 

briufculis : dentibus foliaceis lanceolatis nudis, ftaminibus 
corolla longioribus. 

Of all the fpecies I have examined this is the only one that has 
the ftamina longer than the corolla, which is a character of Metro- 
fideros\ but as it differs from that genus, and agrees with Lepto- 
fpermum, in the much more important character of the capitate 
ftigma, as well as in habit, I do not hefitate to which to refer it. 
This fpecies flowered magnificently in the garden of George Hib- 
berr, Efq. F.L.S. this fummer. The flowers are white. 

AH thefe 9 fpecies I have received from New South Wales. 
Perhaps L. virgatum of Forfter, (Melaleuca virgata of Linn, 
Suppl) ought to be added to the lift of known fpecies ; but the two 
fpecimens in the Linnsean Herbarium, which are all I have feen, 
are fcarcely fufficient to fatisfy my doubts. The fr.amina, as far as 
I can difcover, are regularly ten. If the fruit therefore be unilocular 
or bilocular, it may be an Imbrkaria, with a double number of 


of the Natural Order of Myth. 265 

(lamina to the other fpecics. If the capfules thould be found to 
have 3 or 4 cells, I fhould incline to reckon it a decandrous fccrJor, 
with which genus its oppofite leaves, as well as the fize and ap- 
pearance of the flowers, agree ; whereas every Leptofpermum that J 
know of, has alternate leaves. It mull be left for future con fi- 
de ration. 

4. FABRICIA. Gartn. Sent. /. 35. 
Icosandria Monogytiia, after Leptofpermum. 

Char. Gen. Calyx 5-fidus, femifuperus. Vetala 5, feflilia. 
Stigma capitatum. CapfuJa multilocularis. Senilna alata. 


Goertner enumerates two fpecies of Fabricia, of which I have re- 
ceived only one, his laevigata, from New South Wales, which is 
alfo plentiful in the gardens about London, but has never yet 
flowered. Neither have my fpecimens any flowers, though they 
abound with fertile axillary capfules, fome of which have the ftyfe 
upon them. The petals being feffile (without ungues J is the only 
part of the generic character which I have borrowed fromGsertner. 
The numerous cells of the fruit, from 8 to 10, and efpecially the 
winged feeds, fufficiently diftinguiih this genus from Leptofpermum^ 
to which it is next akin. 

The leaves of F. laevigata are alternate, obovate, fmooth, very 
obfeureiy 3 or 5 -nerved, of a light glaucous green. The teeth of 
the calyx are of a triangular figure, whereas in F. myrlifoha they 
are nearly orbicular. This 1 aft-mentioned fpecies is alio twice as 

large as the other in all its parts. 


Vol. IIL M m 5* ME ' 

2s66 Dr. Smith *j Botanical Characters offome Plants 

$. METROSIDEROS. Banks. Mfs. Garin. Sent. t. 34./. 2. 

Leptofpermum. For/?. Gr». 36. t. 36./. a — e & m — t. 

Icosandria Monogynla, after Fabrfc/'a. 

Char. Gen. C?/y.v 5-fidus, femifuperus. Petala 5. Stamina 
longiffima, exferta. Stigma fimplex. Capfula 3 vel 4-locularis. 

That this is a mod diftincl; natural genus from Leptofpermum, as 
above defined, there can be no doubt, though Come great botanifts 
have united them. Sir Jofeph Banks, however, and Dr. Solander, 
were well aware of their difference, and characterized Meirofideros 
by its very long ftamina. The fligma being fimple and fmall, not 
capitate nor deprefTed, fcarcely dilated, I beg leave to propofe as a 
very certain and con flan t mark of distinction. The habit, more- 
over, is totally different from Leptofpermum, and agrees with that of 
Melaleuca ; at lead this is the cafe with fuch fpecies as have alter- 
nate leaves, and thofe with oppofite ones have no refemblance to 

The petals are concave, nearly fefllle, deciduous, generally lefs 
coloured than the ftamina. The capfule has moil generally three 
valves, and as many cells, rarely four. I believe it might fafely be 
defined trlhcularh abfolutely, but I have mentioned the number four 
in deference to Gasrtner, till I can determine and examine all his 
fpecies, which are very obfcure. His gummlfera is an Eucalyptus, 
and fome of his others are very doubtful. The fpecies of this 
genus, defcribed as Melaleuca by the younger Linnaeus and Dr. G. 
Forfter, are alio very much confuted, theie authors having mu- 
tually mifunder flood each other fo often, and formed their defini- 
tions fo looiely, that, with mod of their original named fpecimens 


of the Natural Order of Myrti. 267 

before me, I can hardly clear up every doubt; nor can I, at prefent, 
determine how many of Forfter's fpecies are among Gartner's. The 
following thirteen are certainly diftincl, and all in my herbarium. 

* Foliis oppojitis, 

T. Metrosideros hifpida, foliis oppofitis bafz cordatis amplexi- 
caulibus, ramulis pedunculis calycibufquc hifpidis. 

This is a very magnificent fpecies, eafily diflinguiihed by its broad 
feflile oppofite leaves, and hiipid branches. The flowers are yel- 
low, with wide-fpreading (lamina, and grow in umbels, many of 
which unite to form a large terminal corymhu^ rough with red- 
brown hairs, like thofe of the Roblnla hifpida. Young plants of this 
Metrojideros are to be feen in moil collections about London, but 
none has yet flowered, 

2. M. fioribunda, foliis oppofitis petiolatis ovato-lanceolatis, pa- 
nicula brachiata, pedicellis umbellatis. 

The flowers are fmaller than thofe of the Jaffc, and appear to be 
white. The panicles are formed of feveral branches crofling each 
other, and terminating in little umbels. Sometimes the flower-tfalks 
are hiipid, fometimes fmooth. 

3. M. cojlata, foliis oppofitis petiolatis lineari-lanceclatis acumi- 

natis obliquis, panicula brachiato-decompofita, pedicellis 


M. coftata. Gcertn. Sem. v. 1. 171. /. 34,/ 2, 

This may be known from the preceding by its narrower, longer, 

more rigid and ihining, oblique or falcated leaves. The panicle is 

more irregularly and repeatedly branched ; its utmofl ramifications 

Mma hut 

C.6S Dr. Smith' j Botanical Characters rffome Plants 

but imperfectly umbellate. The flowers are much larger, yel- 
lowifh white. Both kinds are ftrangers to our gardens. 

Thcfc three ipecies were found at Port Jackfon, New South 
Wales, by Mr. White. 

4. M. dijfufa, foliis oppofitis ovatis venofis utrinque glabris, 
panictilis axillaribus terminalibufve, pedicellis^ oppofitis. 
Melaleuca diffufa. Forft. Prod, 37* ex defer. 
lucid a. Linn. SuppL 342. 

Gathered in New Zealand by MefTrs. Forfler. Of this I have 
feen only one fpecimen, which was given to Linnzeus by Dr. Sparr- 
man for the Lepiofpermum collinum of Forfter. It is, however, to- 
tally different from other fpecimens in the Linnaean Herbarium 
from Forfter himfelf, marked collinum^ and which perfectly anfwer 
to the defcription. This can be no other than the Melaleuca diffufa 
of Forfter' s Prodromus. 

M. vzllofa, foliis oppofitis ovatis venofis fubtus pubefcen- 
tibus, thyrfis axillaribus terminalibufve oppofitis villous, 
floribus feullibus confertis. 

Melaleuca villofa. Linn, SuppL 342. 

aeftuofa. Forjl, Prod, 38. 

Leptofpermum collinum. For/2. Gen. N. 1. 

Metrofideros fpectabilis. Gartn. Sent. v. 1. 172. t. 34.^ 9. ? 

A native of O-Taheiii. We have it not in the gardens. 

The item is much branched. Young branches and backs of the 
younger leaves downy ; the flower-ftalks, bracteae, and calyx, very 
much fo. Flowers red, very ornamental, flanding at the end of 
each branch in a pair of fmall denfe panicles or thyr/i, which are 


cf the Natural Order of Myrli. 269 

truly axillary and oppofite, though the branch, terminating 
abruptly, is not protruded beyond them. 

6. M. far/da, foliis oppofitis obovato-oblongis venofis glabris, 

thyrfo terminali, caJycibus turbinates nudis. 
Melaleuca florida. Forji. Prod. 37. 
Leptofpermum fcandens. ForJI. Gen. N. T. 

A native of New Zealand, not yet introduced into our gardens. 

The branches are long, each terminated by a thyrfus of large 
yellowifh flowers, whofe calyx is remarkably lengthened out, almolt 
as in the clove. The leaves are fmooth. The flower-ftalks and 
calyx fcarcely perceptibly filky, with clofe-prefTed hairs. 

7. M. g/omu/ifera, foliis oppofitis ovatis reticulato-venofis ftib- 

tus pubefcentibus, capitulis lateralibus pedunculatis brac- 
teifque tomentofis. 

Gathered near Port Jackfqn by Mr. David Burton. It is a tree, 
with round oppofite branches. Leaves oppofite, on fhortifh downy 
footftalks, ovate, entire, a little waved, reticulated with numerous 
veins, clothed with fhort foft down on the under fide. Flowers 
greenifh yellow, cluttered in little globular heads, which (land 011 
fimple downy foot-ftalks about an inch long, growing laterally, 
(moftly oppofite to each other) juft above the infertion of the 
uppermoft leaf-ftalks and contrary to them. Each head of flowers 
is accompanied by a pair of oblong downy bractese, and the calyx 
is alfo downy. 

This fpecies is but flightly aromatic. It is faid to be very 

2 8. M. an- 

cjo Jjr, SmiTiCs Botanical Characters of fame Plants 

8. M. anguftifolia, foliis oppofitis Jineari-lanceolatis nudis, pe- 
dunculis axillaribus umbellatis, bracleis lanceolatis gla- 
bris deciduis. 
Myrtus anguftifolia. Linn, Mant. I. 74. 

A native of the Cape of Good Hope. The original fpecimen 
in the Linnaean Herbarium was fent by Profeflbr Schreber, and, 
having no fruit, might eafily be miflaken for a Myrtus. Linnseus 
afterwards received another fpecimen from Profeflbr Thunberg, 
laden with ripe capfules in the lower part of the branches, and 
budding flowers above. This he did not perceive to be his Myrtus 
^tngiiflifolia^ but, on examination of the capfules, determined it a 
ILept offer mum (which it is, as that genus (lands in its firft author 
Forfter), and wrote that name on the back of the paper not long 
before his death, as appears by the hand-writing. His fon and 
fucceflbr, lefs cautious, placed this fame fpecimen in the herbarium, 
writing upon it Myrtus anguftifolia, without any remark. I find it 
upon examination a true Metrcftderos. The (lamina are diflincr, 
thrice as long as the petals, and twice as long as the ftyle, which 
has a perfectly fimple fligma. Calyx- teeth deciduous. 

The ripe capfules precifely refemble thofe in Gartner's figure of 
Melaleuca fuaveolens, but that is, in other refpects, a very different 

Burman's fynonym (Flo. Afr. 237. /. 83. f 2.), quoted by Lin- 
nocus, can hardly belong to this plant, unlefs his deicription be very 
bad ; for he calls the fruit a black berry, with one cell and a Tingle 

The dried leaves of this fpecics are tinged with the fame metallic 
green that is obfervabie in thofe of MetroftJeros hifpida, and fome 
other New Holland plants of this order. 

** Foliis 

of the Natural Order of My rtK a 7,1 

* • Foliis alterms. 

9. M. ciliata, foliis fparfis fub-oppofitis cllipticis obtufis coria- 

ceis bad fubciliatis,.corymbis terminalibus pilous. 
Melaleuca ciliata. For/1. Prod. 38. 
Leptofmermum ciliatum. Forjl* Gen. N. 3. 

Gathered by MefTrs. Forfter in New South Wales ? (Nova Cak- 
doma). Not yet introduced into the Engliih gardens. 

The leaves are remarkably rigid, thick, and concave, their mar- 
gin refiexed, like thole of Ceiafirus lucldus, but lefs mining ; whitilh, 
and reticulated with tranfverfe veins beneath, and marked with a 
ftraight central nerve. It is extraordinary that Dr. Forfter cha- 
racterizes them as without nerve or veins. Thole parts may per- 
haps be lefs vifible in recent fpecitnens. The bafe of mod of the 
leaves is ciliated with long, fpreading hairs, like thofe on the young 
branches, flower-ftalks, calyx, and even petals. The flowers are 
large, handfome, deep-red, but few together, in a terminal corymbus 
or umbel. Fruit large, deprelled, projecting in three lobes much 
above the rim of the calyx. 

10. M. linearis^ foliis fparfis linearibus canaliculars acutis ri- 

gentibus, floribus lateralibus confertis ferTilibus. 
Melaleuca linearis. Schrader Sert. Hannover an. 19. /. 11. 

This is not uncommon in the Englifh collections, but has not 
yet flowered here, though it has at Hanover. The leaves are very 
long, narrow, fomewhat pungent, rigid, and harm. There is a 
variety with femicylindrical leaves, more rough on the back than 
the more common kind. The flowers furround the branches in a 


27 2 Dr. Smith % Botanical Characters of feme Plants 

lone; cylindrical feflile clufter. Their petals are green, often (lightly 
downy; ftamina very long, crimfon. Capfules round, deprefled, 
when old crowding each other into an angular form. 

it. M. lanceolata % foliis alternis lanceolatis rnucronatis, fioribus 
lateralibus confertis feffilibus pubefcentibus. 
M. citrina. Curt. Mag, t. 260. 

A beautiful fhrub, now very common in evervgreenhoufe, which 
firft flowered feveral years ago at the March ionefs of Rocking- 
ham's, but not in perfection ; neither does Mr. Curtis' s figure give 
a good idea of the natural fituation of its bloflbms, which veiy 
nearly referable thofe of the preceding. 

It is totally unaccountable to me how this plant came by the 
name of citrina, there being nothing about it approaching to a 
lemon-colour, except the pollen, which would hardly have occa- 
fioned fuch a denomination. Sometimes I have imagined it might 
allude to a refemblance in the appearance or fmell of the leaves to 
a lemon tree, which however does not exift ; and if it did, the name 
ought to have been citrea. I would never change a name that has 
been generally in ufe, whether publifhed or not ; but this is too pre- 
pofterorrs to be retained. 

12. M. faligna, foliis alternis lanceolatis utrinque attenuates 
mucronatis, fioribus lateralibus confertis ferlilibus glabris. 

This is diftinguifhed from the preceding by its tapering left rigid 
leaves, fmaller yellowilh flowers, the calyx and petals of which are 
quite fmooth in all their parts, neither downy nor fringed. It is 
not in the gardens. I had a fufpicion this might be the M. vimi- 
mlis of Gartner .; but the original Specimens of that fpecies at Sir 


of the Natural Order of Myrli. 27 ^ 

Jofeph Banks's are very different, having linear-lanceolate lcve.-, 
not tapering at the ends, and downy flowers. 

Rumphius's tab. 17. f. 2. vpf, 2, has fome rcfemblance to this 
plant, bat he defcribes his as very aromatic, which ours is not at all. 

13. M, capitata, foliis fparfis obovatis mucronulatis, capitutis 
terminalibus, calycibus ramulifque pilofis. 

This differs widely ill appearance from all the other fpecies. 

The leaves are fcarcely one- third of an inch in length, very flight- 
\y veined, obfolctely crenate, or rather rough in the margin with 
minute points. Flowers on fhort flower- (talks, in little terminal 
heads. Calyx tubular, very hairy, with foliaceous permanent teeth- 
Petals fmall, purple. Stamina of the lame colour, and about thrice 
as long as the corolla. Germen very fmall, in the bottom of the 
calyx. Style equal to the (lamina; the (ligma a little enlarged, 
but not capitate. 

I have not feen the fruit in any degree of maturity, but there can 
be no doubt of its being that of a Metrcfideros^ as I have detected 
the rudiments of three fmall valves. The form of the flower is 
much like the Lythrum tribe. The leaves are punctate, though 
fcarcely aromatic. 

This is not, to my knowledge, in the gardens. I am indebted to 
Mr. White for fpecimens of it, and the three preceding, from New 
South Wales. 

6. MELALEUCA L'mn.—Gccrtn. Sem. t. 35. Ju£. Gen. 323. 

Polyadelphia Polyandria. 

Char. Gen. Calyx 5-fidus, femifuperus. Pciala 5. Filamenta 
Vol. III. N n multa, 

274 R r * Smith'j Botamail Characters of ' fome Plants 

multa, longirlima, connata ill 5 corpora. Stylus 1. Capfula 

Perhaps this genus is not naturally ditfinct from the laft, the 
union of the filaments being all that diftinguifhes Melaleuca; for in 
the reft of the fructification, as well as in habit, they agree. Ac- 
cordingly the younger Linnaeus, the two Forftcrs, and Schrebcr 
unite them into one, and Juflieu feems inclined to do fo. Unfor- 
tunately thefe great authorities fall to the ground, and their opi- 
nion can by no means be confidered as of any weight in this cafe, 
as we find them confounding with the above the true genus of 
Leptofpermitm, than which nothing can be more diftinct, in every 
circumftance that characterizes a natural or artificial genus. Gart- 
ner, fo little attentive in general to any thing but the fruit, pre- 
ferves all the three feparate ; though feveral of his fpecies of Metro- 
jideros^ which he knew only in fruit, prove to be Melaleuca, 

The following eleven very diftinct: fpecies of Melaleuca I have 
examined in flower, and am therefore certain of their genus. 

* Fohis altcrnls, 

p Melaleuca JLcucadtndron, foliis alternis lanceolatis acu- 
minatis falcato-obliquis quinquenerviis, ramulis petio- 
lifque glabris. 

M. Leucadendron. Linn. Mant. 1. 105. Supph 342 a. 

Arbor alba. Rumph. Anib. v. 2. 72. /. 16. 

This tree is a native of fome parts of the Eaft Indies, and from 
it is diftilied the green aromatic oil called Cajeput, from Caju Puti, a 
white tree, the Malay name of the plant ; hence Linnaeus gave 
the name of heucadrendon to this fpecies. 

2. M. vir'i- 

of the Natural filer of lUrtt. ' 375 

2. M. 'viridtflora^ foliis alternis elliptico-1 anccolatis coriaceis 

quinquenerviis, ramulis petiolifque pubefcentibus. 
M. viridiflora. Gterin. Sew. v. 1. 173. /. $$. 
M. Leucadendron ; ?. Linn. Suppl. 342. 

Unquestionably a very diltinct fpecies from the preceding, with 
which the younger Linnreus confounded it. The leaves are much 
more thick and rigid, flraight, not falcated, nor fo much pointed, 
of a lighter colour, with generally five, but fometimes feven nerves. 
The footiralks and younger branches are downy, which is not the 
cafe in M. Leucadendron. 

This grows in New South Wales. The flowers are pale yel- 
lowiih green* 

3. M. laurlna, foliis alternis obovato-lanceolatis uninerviis, 

pedunculis axillaribus dichotomis pubefcentibus. 

Specimens of this were brought to Sir Jofeph Banks from New 
South Wales by Governor Philip. It is nearly allied to Melaleuca 
fuaveole?is of Gxrtner, tab. $$<, with which its inflorefcence and fructi- 
fication almoft entirely agree, but the leaves of that are much broader 
and elliptical. Thofe of M« laurina have a great refemblance«to the 
Daphne laureola. Neither is this fpecies at ail aromatic, which the 
other fhould feem by its name to be. M. fuaveolens comes from the 
hotter parts of New Holland, near Endeavour river. 

4. M. Jlyphehidcs, foliis alternis ovatis mucronato-pungentibns 

multinerviis, floribus lateralibus, dentibus calycinis ftriatis 

< vathcred near Port Jackfon by Mr. David Burton. It has alto- 

N n 2 gether 

z~(y D>\ Smith'j Botanical Char aMers rf fame Plants 

gether the habit of a Jlypbefia. The leaves are thick-fet, twifted, 
haiih, pungent and ftriated, exactly as in feveral of that genus, 
and very uightly aromatic, fo that it could hardly be taken for one 
of the Myrt't, except by the fructification. — The flowers are white, 
iurrounding the lower part of the youngeft branches in very fhort 
clufters. Calyx downy, with erect, rigid, fpinous, ftriated, perma- 
nent teeth. Petals fmooth, membranous. Stamina twice as long 
as the calyx. 

5. M. ericifolia, foliis fparfis oppofitiive' linearibus enerviis fur*. 

recurvis muticis, floribus lateralibus apicem verfus ramu- 
lorum confertis. 

The dried leaves of this fpecies taftc ftrongly of coriander feeds. I 
have not feen it growing. Its flowers are white, growing in fhort 
duffers round the branches, as in the following, but not quite fo 
near the top. Its leaves differ widely from that fpecies, being much 
fmaller, not pungent nor rigid, but a little recurved. The young 
bark is of a (livery white. I have not feen the fruit. 

6. M. nodefa, foliis fparfis linearibus mucronato-pungentibus 

reel is, floribus apicem verfus ramulorum glomeratis. 
Metro fideros nodofa. Gccrtn. Sem. v. 1. 172. /. 34.^ 6. 

The leaves are numerous, fcarcely an inch long, very narrow, 
though broader than thofe of M. ericifolia, ftiflf, and fharp pointed. 
Flowers frnall, wbitifh, cluttered round the tops of the youngeft 
branches, fo as to appear like little capitula ; but after flowering the 
branch is protruded beyond them, and the ripening capfules remain 
inverting it in an annular manner. The figure of Gaertner repre- 
sents them in their molt advanced ftate, apparently bleached by 


of the Natural Ordir of ' Myrti 277 

cxpofurc to the air. I have confulted his fpecimens, and find no 
realbn to doubt their being the fame as mine. 

7. M« annularis, foliis fparfis linearibus mucronatis apice re- 

curvis, floribus lateralibus, filamentis longifhmis linearibus 
apice radiato-multifidis. 
Metrofideros armilJaris. Gcertn. San. v. 1. 171./. 34- f. 5. 

This has much the habit of a Diofma, in the leaves efpecialIy T 
which, in a garden fpecimen with which I was favoured from Mr. 
Robertfon's at Stockwell, are very diilinclly marked with a row of 
refinous fpots on each fide the mid-rib at the back, but thele are 
lefs vifible in the wild plant. The flowers are white, cluttered 
about the lower part of the branches, in the form of a long fpikc. 
The footftalk or claw of the united filaments is very long before it 
branches off, even thrice the length of the petals. 

8. M. gehiftrfoPa, foliis fparfis lanceolatis mucronatis trinerviis 

multipunclatis, ramulis floriferis terminalibus Iaxis, fila- 
mentis apice radiato-multifidis. 

Sent from Port Jackfon by Mr. David Burton. It is in fome 
refpe&i like M. mdoja, but the leaves are lanceolate rather than 
linear, not above half fo long as in that fpecies, nor fo rigid and 
pungent. The branches terminate in loofe {pikes, from the top of 
which the branch is at length continued, as in the other fpecies. 
The flowers are ieflile, in alternate pairs, white. Claw of the 
(lamina twice as long as the petals before the filaments branch off. 

* * 


27 8 Dr. Smith' j- Botanical Characters offome Plana 

* * 

Foliis oppojiiis. 

9. M. linari'ifoila, foliis oppofitis lineari-lanceolatis trinerviis 

fubtus multipunct-atis, ramulis floriferis terminalibus 
laxis, filamentis pj tip at is. 

This, we are told by Mr. White, is a large tree, the bark of which 
is very thick and fpongy, ferving the pnrpofe of tinder. The 
branches are clothed with tapering glaucous leaves, thrice as long- 
as in the laft fpecies, and from the fummits fpring feverai young 
branches, let with a ieries of oppofite feflile folitaiy white flowers, 
(not, as in that, in pairs ranged alternately), beyond which the 
branch is foon protruded. The moft efTential character however 
of this- fpecies confiits in the filaments, which are very long, being 
pinnated, or ranged with ft am in a en each fide, more or lefs regu- 
larly? from near the bale to the fummit. The leaves have a nut- 
meg-like flavour. 

10. M. thjmifolia, foliis oppofitis elliptico-lanceolatis enerviis, 

ramulis floriferis lateralibus breviilimis paucifloris, fila- 
mentis medium ufque ramofis. 

Mr. Fairbairn has prefented flowering fpecimens of this fpecies 
to the Linnsean Society from Cheifea garden. The flowers are 
purple, ranged along the branches of a year or two old, in little 
ihort oppofite lpikes ; which however foon prove to be real 
branches by the leaves ihooting out at their ends, this lateral mode 
of inflorelcence being common to almoft the whole genus, M. Uui- 
rlna arid fuavedletfs only having axillary branching flower-ftalks, nor 
have 1 yet fcen a Melaleuca with terminal flowers. 


of the Natural Order cf Myrti. 279 

The teeth of the calyx in M. thymifolia are permanent, and the 
whole of that part, as well as the back of the leaves, abounds with 
a fragrant elTential oil, lodged in pellucid prominent dots. 

II. M. hypericifolia, foliis oppofitis elliptico-oblongis uniner- 
viis, fioribus confertis, filamentis longilfimis lincaribns 
apice radiato-multifidis. 

The mod beautiful of the genus. It grows in fwampy ground, 
and is found like all I have now defcribed, except the nrft fpecies, 
in New South Wales. M. hyper icifolia is plentiful in the Engiiili 
gardens, and was generally taken for an Hypericum, till it lately pro- 
duced, in feveral collections near London, its elegant flowers. Theft 
grow in a cylindrical form round the branches, and have fome re- 
femblance to thofe of my Metrofideros lanceolata (commonly called 
citrina)t occafioned by the radiated crimfon filaments projecting in 
every direction. The claws of thofe filaments are very long, linear, 
and of a dull yellowifh hue like the petals. 

7. MYRTUS Linn. — Gartn. Sem. t. 38. Jujf. Gen. 324. 

Icosandria Monogynia* 

Char. Gen. Calyx 5-fidus, fuperus. Petala 5. Bacca bi- 
vel tri-iocularis. Sem'ma plurima, gibba. 

Few genera are more confufed in the works of Linnaeus than 
Myrtus. The above characters will ferve to define all that pro- 
perly belong to this genus, of which I have received from New 
South Wales the following two fpecies only. 

1 I. Myrtus 

2 So Dr. SMITH*/ Botanical Char afters of fame Plants 

i. Myrtus ieiurifrfia, pedunculis axillaribus folitariis unifloris, 
foliis linear ibus mucronulatis. 

An elegant little fhrub which has not yet appeared in the gar- 
dens. The leaves are oppofite, fomewhat more than an inch in 
length, and about a line in breadth, llightly revolutc, downy be- 
neath. FIowe*r-ftalks filky, fhorter than the leaves, each bearing a 
fmall white flower, often tinged externally with red, and not un- 
like the common myrtle bloffom, though fcarcely half fo large. 
The germen is very idky. Calyx nearly fmooth. Petals downy. 
The ripe fruit I have not feen, but from an examination of the 
germen, and every part of the flower, I think there can be no doubt 
of the genus. 

2. M. trinervia, pedunculis axillaribus trifloris, foliis ovatis acu- 
minatis trinerviis fubtus tomentofis. 

This is alio a ftranger to our gardens. The leaves are large and 
handfomc, oppofite, ovate pointed, downy beneath, with three 
flrong nerves, as in thofe of ' BLiha. Flowers fmall, generally three 
together, on ihort, hairy, forked, axillary flower- (talks. Although 
the teeth of the calyx, and the petals alio, are generally but four, 
it is a true Myrtus, and not an Eugenia, the fruit being a berry with 
many Chining gibbous curved feeds. It has but one cell when 
ripe, but the germen appears to be divided into two or three cells. 

3. EUGENIA Unn.—Juff. Gen. 324. 

Syzygium. Gartn. vol. 1. 166. /. 33. f. 1. 

Char. Gen. Calyx 4-fidus, fuperus. Pctala 4. Bacca uni- 
loculars, monofperma. 

1. Eugenia 

of the Natural Order cf Myrti. 2 8 1 

1. Eugenia elliptica, foliis cllipticis acuminatis,' floribus pani- 
culatis, calyce repando, bacca globofa. 

A tree or fhrub of New South Wales, with round dichotomous 
leafy branches. The leaves are oppofite, on iliort foot-ftalks, ellip- 
tical, pointed at both ends, entire, a little revolute, fmooth, with one 
rib and many parallel fide veins. Panicles about the fummits of the 
branches, axillary and terminal, erecl:, con fitting of ^numerous, 
oppofite, fmooth, branched and forked (talks, without braclea\ 
Flowers fmall. Calyx clavate, its margin waved, but not toothed. 
Petals four, white, very minute and fugacious. Stamina nume- 
rous. Style fhort, with a fimple ftigma. Berry the fize of a large 
pea, globular, white, crowned with the calyx, and confiding of a 
thick pulpy coat, inverting a folitary feed. The leaves are full of 
refinous fpots, and the calyx abounds with a fragrant efTential oil. 

No plant in the order has given me fo much trouble, to deter- 
mine its genus, as this. It undoubtedly belongs to the Syzygium 
of Gsertner, tab. 35, which is to be diftinguiihed from Eugenia only 
by having a bacca with a fingle feed, inftead of a drupa. Gartner 
indeed has not told us exactly what he underftood by Eugenia, nor 
has he figured any thing under that name ; but I prefume he rrieant 
either the original Eugenia uniflora of Micheli, or the E. lambos. I 
have examined ripe fruits of both thefe, and the young germen of 
the former of them, which has two cells, with the rudiments of a 
feed in each. When the fruit is ripe, it in both fpeciesxonfifls of 
one large feed, clothed with a very thin (hell or ikin, without any 
fiffure or feam, and the whole enveloped in a firm flefhy pulp. In 
my Eugenia elliptic a juft defcribed, the pulp is immediately attached 
to the feed itfelf, as Gaertner defcribes his Syzygium. I think how- 
ever with Juflleu, that the two genera may be fafely united ; for wc 

Vol. 111. 60 " find 

ft$2 Dr. Smith's Botanical Characters of fame Plants 

find another circumftance, mentioned by Gsertner as difcriminating 
them, the two cells in the germen of Syzvgium, does not hold good, 
being alio to be found in Eugenia. I beg leave here to confider as 
the true Eugenia that which Micheli firft called fo, and which ftands 
in the latter editions of Linnaeus in three different places, being his 
Eugenia unifiora, Myrius brafiUana, and Plmia pedunculiia, and there 
is no doubt of its according exactly in generic characters with 
Eugenia Iambos, What really conftitutes the genus of Plmia is 
very doubtful, Plumier's figures, and the defcriptions of other 
authors taken from them, being a mafs of inextricable confufion ; 
but if thefe figures mean any thing, they cannot accord with our 
Eugenia, nor indeed do they refemble it, except in the pulpy fruit 
being furrowed, fomewhat (but not exactly) like that of Eugenia: 
tiniflora. I am aware however that the opinion of Linnaeus in the- 
Euppkmentum Planiarum is here againft me, as well as that of my 
accurate friend Mr. Dryander in the Hortus Kewenfis. If Plumier's 
original fpeeies of Plinia fhould ever be found, it will remove the 
doubt. In the mean time, one of the few points of which we are 
certain is, that if the common Eugenia uniflora be not a Plinia^ it 
muft conflitute the real genus of Eugenia, whatever the other 
plants may be that are now arranged under that name; and if it 
be a Plinia^ Eugenia lambos is one likewife. 

9. EUCALYPTUS. VHeritier Serf. Angl. t. 20. Ait. Horu Kew> 
v. 1. 157. Bot. of New Holl. u 13. 

Char. Gen. Calyx fuperus, perfiftens, truncatus, ante an- 
thefm tectus operculo integerrimo, deciduo. Corolla nulla, 
Capfula quadrilocularis, apice dehifcens, polyfperma. 


of the- Natural Order of Mjrti. 283 

There is not a more natural genus in the whole Linnosan fyftem 
than this. It is clearly characterized at firfl fight by the Angular 
operculum which clofes the calyx, and covers up the (lamina and 
flyle till they arrive at maturity. In this refpecT: it agrees with the 
Calyptranthes of Dr. Swartz, but differs from that genus in having 
a capfule, not a berry. 

All the fpecies of Eucalyptus hitherto difcovered come from New 
Holland. Gaertner being unacquainted with the peculiar flruclure 
of their flower, confounded fome of them with Metrofideros. They 
agree fo much with one another in habit and leaves, as to be im- 
poflible to discriminate, except by their inflorefcence, and the form 
of their opcrcula. I have already characterized fome of them in the 
Botany of New Holland, p. 39 to 44; but having fince become ac- 
quainted with many more, it is necefTary to revife the whole, and 
contrail: their fpecific characters. 

The leaves of all are entire, lanceolate, rarely ovate, more or lefs 
oblique or unequal at the bafe 5 flowers either in umbels or caphula ; 
the former of which are either folitary or panicled, lateral or ter- 
minal ; the latter always folitary and lateral. The genus is conve- 
niently divided into two feclions, in one of which the cover of the 
flower is conical, in the other hemifpherical. 


Operculo conico. 

I. Eucalyptus robujla, operculo conico medio conftrifto 
calyce latiori, umbellis lateralibus terminalibufque, foliis 
E. robufta. BoU of New Holland, 40. /. 13. 

This is called the brown gum tree, or New Holland Mahogany, 
its wood being red, hard and heavy, in fome degree anfwering the 

O o 2 purpofes 

284 Dr. Smith' s Botanical Characters offome Plants 

purpofes of the Weft Indian mahogany. Its leaves are broader 
than in any other fpecies that has come to my knowledge, and the 
flowers larger, except only thole of E. corymbofa. 

2. E. pilularis, operculo conico medio conftridto longitudine 

calycis, umbellis lateralibus, fructu globofo, foliis lineari- 

The leaves are much narrower than in the preceding, and the 
flowers not half fo large ; neither is their cover, as in that, more 
in diameter than the calyx. The fruit is globoie. I fufpecl: that 
of E. robujla to be turbinate with a reflexed margin, but 1 have 
feen it only half ripe. 

3. E. tereticornisy operculo conico tereti laeviffimo membranacea 

calyce latiori triploque longiore, umbellis lateralibus fo- 
E. tereticornis. Bot. of New Holland, 41. 

Remarkable for its long, very fmooth, membranous operculum, 
which burfls juft above the bafe, leaving the lower part like a ring 
flicking for fome time to the calyx. The leaves are lanceolate and 

4. E. refinifera, operculo conico tereti coriaceo calyce duplo 

longiori, umbellis lateralibus folitariis. 
E. refinifera. White 'j Voyage, 231. tab. 
Metrofideros gummifera. Gartn. Sem. v. 1. 170. /. 34. f. 1. 

At fir ft fight this nearly refembles the laft; but on accurate exa- 
mination the operculum is found only twice the length of the calyx, 


of the Nfltural Order of MyrtU sflj 

and barely of the fame diameter with it, not broader. It is more- 
over not fo fmooth, nor of the membranous texture of the tereti- 
cornis, but thick and leathery as in the other fpecies, feparating 
entirely from the bafe. 

Fig* g in Mr. White's plate we now know to be a difeafed flower, 
not an impregnated one* 

5. E. caphellata, operculo conico obtufiufculo calyceque angu- 

lofo fubancipiti, capitulis lateraiibus fohtaiiis, fructu glo- 
bofo, foliis ovato-Ianceolatis. 
E. capitellata. Bot. of New Holland, 42. 

Fruit, White s Voy % 226. tab. fg. a. 


This efientially differs from all the preceding, in bearing its 

flowers in capiiula, or little heads, (that is, without partial flower- 
ftalks; inftead of umbels. The cover is not more than equal to the 
calyx in length, angular like that part, and compreiTed at the fum- 
mit. The leaves ovato-lanceolate, rigid, oblique. 

6. E. faligna, operculo conico acuto calyceque angulofo fub- 

ancipiti, capitulis lateraiibus folitariis, fru&u turbinato, 
foliis lineari-lanceolatis. 

The leaves are narrower and lefs coriaceous than in mod of the 
fpecies. The little heads of flowers grow on thortifh flower- ftalks*. 
one from the bofom of each leaf. The flowers are fmaller than in 
any of the others. Their covers acute, the length of the calyx. 
Fruit turbinate with a (lightly recurved margin, and crowned with, 
the pyramidal permanent bafe of the ftyle. 

« fc 


286 Dr. Smith* j Botanical Characters offime Plants 

* * Operculo hemifphaerico. 

7. E. botryoiiks, operculo hemifphserico fubmutico, capitulis 
lateralibus folitariis, pedunculis cuneatis compreflis, 
fructu turbinate 

This, like the two preceding, bears its flowers in folitary capitula 9 
but is diftinguifhed from them by its broad hemifphericai opercula y 
with fcarcely any point at their fummit, which, from the clutter- 
ing together of the flowers, look like bunches of fome kind of 
berries. The common flower-ftalks are flat, and very broad, efpe- 
cially at the top. The leaves lanceolate, oblique. 

S. E. hamqftoma, operculo hemifphaerico deprefTo mucronulato, 
umbellis lateralibus terminalibufque ; pedunculis com- 
preflis, ram u lis angulatis, fructu fubglobofo. 

The leaves are coriaceous, lanceolate, terminating in a long linear 
point. Flowers in umbels, not capitula y their covers deprefled at 
the top, but fuddenly terminating in a little point. Fruit globofe, 
cut off at the fummit, its orifice furrounded by a broad deep-red 
border. This fpecies has a great affinity with the Leptofpermum 
umbellatum of Gsertner, but I dare not afTert it to be the fame. 

9. E. piperita, operculo hemifphaerico mucronulato, umbellis 
lateralibus fubpaniculatis folitariifve ; pedunculis com- 
preflis, ramulis angulatis. 
E. piperita. White s Voyage^ 22.6. tab, leaves only. Bat. 
of New Holland. 42. 

Very diftinft and different in appearance from the laft, though 


of the Natural Order of Myrti, i 8 7 

their fpecrfic chara&ers are very fimilar. The leaves of E. piperita 
are nearly ovate, though oblique. Flowers fmaller than thofe of 
the preceding, and fituated all in great numbers about the lower 
part of the branches, not near the ton, a few of the umbels only 
being iolitary, the reft uniting to form feveral panicles or corymbi. 

10. E. ob/iqua, operculo hemifphserico mucronulato, umbellis 

lateralibus iolitariis ; pedunculis ramulifque teretibus. 
E. obliqua. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. 157. VHerit. Serf. 
/. 20. Bot. of New Holland, 43. 

A native of the warmer parts of New Holland. It is the only 
fpecies here defcribed which we have not received from Port Jack- 
fon» The round branches and flower- f talks diftinguilh it from the 
laft, to which it is moft nearly allied. 

11. E. corymb fa, operculo hemifphserico mucronulato, calycc 

tereti, umbellis corymbolo-paniculatis terminalibus. 
E. corymbofa. Bot. of New HoJand, 43. 

The flowers are large and handfome, forming magnificent ter- 
minal panicled clufters of umbels, by which this fpecies is readily 
diftinguiihed. Leaves lanceolate, coriaceous. Fruit turbinate, the 
permanent calyx forming a very high urceolate border, the ftyle 
remaining in the centre of the cavity. 

A fine plant of this kind is in the collection of Meflrs. Lee and 
Kennedy, but has not yet flowered* 

12. E. paniculata, operculo hemifphaerico fubmutico, calyce 

angulolo, umbellis fubpaniculatis terminalibus. 

This differs from the laft in its angular calyx and lefs pointed 
5 operculum* 

sS8 Dr. Smith'j Botanical Characters offome Plants ', &c. 

operculum, as well as in being fmaller in all its parts. The umbels 
do not form fo confiderable a compound clufter or corymbus, but are 
collected about the tops of the branches into a fmall panicle, the 
lowermoft of them being axillary. 

My fpecimens were gathered at Port Jackfon by Mr. David Bur- 
ton, and I received them from Sir Jofeph Banks's herbarium. 

Of all thefe twelve fpecies of Eucalyptus^ I am not certain of any 
more being in the gardens than the corymbqfa, obliqua, and piperita. 
The latter is very common, and may be known by itsirnell, refem- 
bling that of peppermint. — There are however feveral New Holland 
fhrubs in the collections about London, which I fufpect to belong 
to the fame genus ; but having never feen their fructification, I 
cannot afcertain them. 

XXVI. Ob- 

( i$9 ) 

XXVI. Obfervations on the Genus Oestrus. By Mr. Br acy Clark, 
Veterinary Surgeon, and F.L.S. 

Read November 1, 1796- 

THE following account of the Oejiri was collected from obfer- 
vations, which were made during a few months refidence in 
a country particularly favourable for remarks of this nature ; and 
though a fmall part of their hiftoiy ftill remains unknown, thefe 
obfervations may perhaps be acceptable to the Linnean Society, 
from the additional information they contain concerning this 
genus, and from the correction of fome material errors which are, 
at prefent, generally admitted as truths by naturalifts. 

The pain the Oeftri inflict on the animals that are fubje£t to them 
particularly entitles them to our notice, and more efpecially as thofe 
are unfortunately the ufeful and the domefticated. By their con- 
tinual attacks, thefe fmall yet formidable enemies interrupt the 
few moments of repofe and enjoyment allowed to thefe ufeful 
(laves during the fummer months. Nor does the punimment end 
here: the larva, by remaining with them, are frequently fuppofed 
the caufe of their difeafe, and even death. Thefe circumftances 
render the investigation of their natural hiftoiy an object: of fome 
importance; and the extraordinary means they purfue in depofiting 
their eggs, the fituations the larva inhabit, and the very high tem- 
perature to which they are expofed, render their hiftory interefling 
from its fingularity. 

Vol. III. V p K 

290 Mr, Clark^ Obfervattom on the Genus Oejlrus* 

If the prefent investigation fhould prove acceptable to the fcien- 
tific naturalift, from the fpecies being exhibited with greater per-- 
fpicuity than they have hitherto been ; it is alfo hoped the de- 
scription of their economy and manners will render it not lefs fo 
to the enlightened veterinarian, as tending to point out the mod 
effectual means of removing them when they become the fource of 

The obfcure fituation of the OeJIri in their larva date has been 
a principal caufe of their hiftory being lefs undcrftood than that of 
other infects ; and in fome inftances the defective parts have been 
fupplied from imperfect obfervation, or mere conjecture ; as the 
(E. hocmorrhoidalis is faid to depofit its eggs " mire per anum intransj' 
which, though perfectly fabulous, has by frequent repetition on 
fuch high authority*, obtained the appearance of ai± eftablifhed 
truth ; and from the filence of authors on the Subject, it appears 
that the mode in which the other fpecies depofit their ova has not 
been at all underftood. 

Since the time of Linnaeus the errors of this genus, far from being 
expunged, have confiderably accumulated by the confufion of the 
Species with one another ; which in part may be attributed to in- 
attention, but chiefly perhaps to the difficulty of procuring Spe- 
cimens for examination. The inacceflible Situations of the larva, and 
the impoflibility of Successfully imitating by artificial means their 
mode of life when removed, have rendered them fcarce ; and in their 
fly Hate they are not often feen, or eafily taken. This difficulty 
will be in a confiderable degree removed, when their hiftory and 
the mod proper time of obtaining them is pointed out. 

The errors will be beft corrected by means of a plate, reprefenting 

* Linnai S^/Itma Natura, p. 969. This error appears to have originated with Reau- 
*nur, who received it from a Dr, Gafpari, See note on GE. hamcrrhoidalis. 


Mr. Clark' j Objhvatlons on the Genus Oe/l/us. 29 r 

pll the fpecies in one view in their various Hates, taken from the 
fubjects themfelves; and this will be the more ufeful and necef- 
fary, as hardly any of the larvce, or perfect infects, have ever ye! 
been intelligibly figured. 

The obfcure and lingular habitations of the Bi itiili Oeflri are the 
ftomach and interlines of the horfe, the frontal and maxillary 
■finufes of the lheep, and beneath the (kin of the backs of horned 
cattle. In other parts of the world they inhabit various other 
animals ; but our prefent enquiry is neceilarily limited to thole of 
our own country, which includes all thofe about which any dif- 
ficulty or obfcurity has arifen. 

Of the Oestrus Bovis. 

This rare fpecies has been entirely omitted by Linnxus, and 
appears to have been unknown to nearly all the later writers on 
Natural Hiftory, who, inftead of the true CE. Bovis, have defcribcd 
a fpecies peculiar to the horle under that name. Linnaeus imagined 
alfo that it was the fame fpecies which inhabited both the ftomachs 
of horfes and the backs of oxen*, which certainly never happens. 

The larva, tab. 23, fig. I, taken from the back of the cow, is fo 
unlike the other larvae of this genus, that I did not imagine, till I 
procured the fly from it, that it was the larva of an Ocjlrus. It 
does not pofTefs the aculei, the marginal fiUe % or the lips, which arc 
the prominent characters of the larvae of the CE. Equi and hamor- 

It lives beneath the ikin, being fttuated between it and the cel- 
lular membrane, in a proper fack or abfeefs, which is rather larger 
than the infect, and by narrowing upwards opens externally to the 
air by a fmall aperture. 

* Habitat in ventriculo equorum, in boum doifo. Linn, Syft, Nat. 2. p. 969. ed. du<id<:c;m>s. 

P p 2 When 

2Q2 Mr, Clark' j Obfervations en the Genus Oejlrus. 

When young the larva is fmooth, white, and tranfparent : as it 
enlarges it becomes browner, and about the time it is full grown it 
is totally of a deep-brown colour, having numerous dots on its 
fur face, difpofed in tranfverfe interrupted lines, palling round the 
fegments. Two diftinct and different kinds of lines are feen on 
each fegment: the uppermoft of them is narrower, and confifts of 
lamer dots. Underneath this is a broader line, and the dots con- 
fiderably fi mailer. The firft are eafily feen, by ufing the lens, to be 
hooks bent upwards, or towards the tail of the infect. See fig. i, a. 

On examining the broader line of fmall dots (fig. i, b) with a 
tolerably powerful magnifier, they are alfo found to be hooks, but 
turned in an oppofite direction, that is, downwards in the abfeefs, 
and towards the head of the infect. 

Thefe hooks, it is probable, are occafionally erected by the mufcles 
of the fkin, and according to the feries of them ufed by the larva, it 
is raifed or depreffed in the abfeefs ; and by this motion, and the 
confequent irritation, a more or lefs copious fecretion of pus is oc- 
cafioned for the fuftenance of the larva. 

This lingular arrangement of hooks round the body of the 
larva, in this inflance ferves the fame purpofe as the legs in other 
larva:, enabling it to move about in the abfeefs, and to crawl out of 
it when ripe, and renders the ufe of the tentacula obfervable in the 
other fpecies not neceffary in this. 

Befide thefe on the fur face of the fkin, there are a number of 
rounded unarmed prominent points, which have a minute depref- 
fion in the centre, and appear to be the fpiracula?, being the external 
opening of the extreme branches of the air tubes. 

In what manner the pus is received by the larva for nourifhment 
is not immediately difcoverable. In the upper part of the larva, or 
that end which is applied to the external opening in the fkin, may 


Mr. CLARK*i Obfirvatlons on the Genus Oejlrus. 293 

be obferved two fmall horny plates, which arc found on diffection 
to clofe the extremities of the trunks of fome large air veflels. 
Near to thefe plates, and fomewhat above them, a minute puncture 
is difcernible by the afliftance of a microfcope, which was firft. de- 
tected by placing the larva recently removed from the beaft in warm 
water, when a confiderable column of yellow pus was obferved to 
rife from this aperture, which rendered it fufficiently vifiblc. At 
other times, when clofed, it was difcernible with the utmoft diffi- 
culty. At fig. 20, is reprefented this aperture (a), together with the 
two horny plates, which clofe up the air veffels, being a view, very 
confiderably magnified, of the upper extremity of the larva fig. 1. 

From a firft view, this part would appear to be the head of the 
larva ; but as it is found to produce the extremity of the abdomen 
in the future infect, it muft be confidered as the tail; and the above- 
mentioned minute aperture is undoubtedly the anus, and is found 
to be in conformity to the fame fituation of the anus in others of 
this genus. 

At the lower end of the larva, fig. 1, a fmall indentation may,, 
with attention, be obferved, which is the mouth of the larva. It is 
a fimple aperture, and altogether unprovided with any of the appa- 
ratus belonging to the mouths of larva in general ; and near the 
mouth are feen two black points of horn, which appear to be per- 
forated in the centre, and are found by difiecYiou to be the termi- 
nation of two confiderable branches of the air tubes,.and correfpond 
to the two nipples on the laft fegment of the larva of the CE. Equi r 
feen at fig. 22, a. An enlarged view of the mouth and inferior 
part of the larva of the CE. Bovis is feen in fig. 21. Round the orifice 
of the mouth are placed fome projecting mantilla, which are im- 
perforate, and perhaps ferve the purpofe of feelers. 

The inteftinal canal in this larva is a fimple membranous tube, 
2 which 

294 Mr. Clark'/ Obfervations on the Genus Oeflrus. 

which extends from one extremity to the other, and ferves the 
double purpofe of ftomach and interline. The inteflinal canal ot 
the larva of the CE. Equi is feen reprefented at fig. 26. 

The apparatus of air tubes in this larva is very lingular, and is 
reprefented fomewhat magnified at fig. 25. In this fpecies there 
are only two principal trunks of thefe air vefTels, which are con- 
nected near their origin by a lateral trunk. From thefe, branches 
are feen pafling off in every direction through the fubftance of the 
in feci:, fome of them to the interline, others to the ikin, and a greater 
number appear to terminate by anaftomofing with each other. As 
thefe air vefTels form a much greater part of the flructure of the 
larva of the (E. Equi, it will be more proper to fufpend our obfer- 
vations on them till we come to the defcription of that fpecies. 

The larva having arrived at its full growth, effects its efcape from 
the abfcefs, by preffmg againfl the external opening, which occafions 
its enlargement by the points prefTed upon being gradually ab- 
sorbed. When the opening has thus obtained the fize of a fmall 
pea, the larva writhes itfelf through, and falls from the back of the 
.animal to the ground,, and^feeking a convenient retreat, becomes a 

With confiderable difficulty I obtained three chryjalides of this 
infect ; one of which is reprefented at fig. 3. 

Theie larva never change or throw off their fkin, the fame 
ferving them through their whole growth ; and it at length alfo 
ferves to form the {"hell of the chryfalis. After leaving the abfcefs, 
and previous to their becoming a chry falls, they contract themfelves 
into much lefs fpace, and affume a different figure. See fig. 2. The 
fack which enclofes the larva beneath the (kin, is formed of a tough, 
thick membrane, and rough on the in fide; and the pus fecreted 
by it, is moftly of a yellow colour. After the exit of the cater- 
1 pillar, 

Mr. Clark'/ Obfervations on the Genus Gtjirus, 295 

pillar, the wound in the ikin is moftly clofed up, and healed within 
a few days. 

The chryfalides continued in that ft ate from about the latter end 
of June until about the middle of Auguft, when the fly appeared. 
I have, notwithstanding, obferved full-grown larva- in the backs of 
the cows as late as September, which muft have produced their 
flies as late as November or December, or, perhaps, in the enfuing 

This larva, in making its exit, is expofed to imminent danger, if 
on land, of being trod on by the cattle, or picked up by birds. If 
in the water, where the cattle ftand during great part of the day at 
this feafon of the year, it periihes, or becomes the food of fillies. 

The perfect infect, on leaving the chrjfa/is, forces open a very 
remarkable, margin ated, triangular lid, or operculum (fee fig. 4), 
which may be traced in the Ikin of the larva y and is fituatcd on one 
fide of the fmall end. 

The Oeftrus Bovis, in its perfect ftate (fig. 5 and 6), is the largefb 
of the European fpecies of this genus, and is very beautiful. For 
its defcription fee the conclufion of this paper. 

Although its effects on the cattle have been fo often remarked, yet 
the fly itfelf is rarely feen or taken, as the attempt would be 
attended with confiderable danger. The pain it inflicts in depo- 
fiting its egg is much more fevere than in any of the other fpecies. 
When one of the cattle is attacked by this fly, it is eafily known by 
the extreme terror and agitation of the wliQle herd : the unfortunate 
object of the attack runs bellowing from among them to fome dis- 
tant part of the heath, or the nearer! water, while the tail, from 
the feverity of the pain, is held with a tremulous motion ftraight 
from the body, in the direction of the fpine, and the head and 
neck are alfo ftretched out to the utmoft. The reft, from fear, 


zgG Mr. Clark'j Obfervatkns on the Genus Oejlrus. 

generally follow to the water, or difperfe to different parts of the 

And fuch is the dread and apprehenfion in the cattle of this fly, 
that I have feen one of them meet the herd when almoft driven 
home, and turn them back, regardlefs of the (tones, flicks, and 
noife of their drivers ; nor could they be flopped till they reached 
their accuftomed retreat, in the water. 

When the oxen are yoked to the plough, the attack of this fly is 
attended with real danger, as they become perfectly uncontroul- 
able, and will often run with the plough directly forwards, through 
the hedges, or whatever obftru&s their way. There is provided, 
on this account, to many ploughs, a contrivance immediately to fet 
them at liberty on fuch an occafion. 

The fingular fcene attending the attack of this fly on the herd, 
has often been the fubject of poetical defcription ; but no one has 
more naturally or elegantly delineated it than the bard of Mantua : 

Eft lucos Sllari circa, ilicibufque virentem 
Plurimus Alburnum volitans, cui nomen Afilo 
Romanum eft, Oeflron Graii vertere vocantes : 
Afpcr, acerba fonans : quo tota cxterrita fylvis 
Diffugiunt armenta ; furit mugitibus aether 
Concuflus, fylvjeque et fieri ripa Tanagri. 

Georg. lib. iii. ver. 146 — 15 t. 

The heifers, fteers, and younger cattle, are the moll: frequently 
attacked by this fly, and nave in general a greater number of botts 
than others : — the ftrongeft and healthieft beads feem conftantly 
to be preferred by it, and this is a criterion of goodnefs in much 
efteem with the dealers in cattle*. 

* The choice of a found healthy fubjeft for the <!cpofition of the eggs, is probably 
caufed by the folicitude of the parent for the fafetv of its offspring. 


Mr. Clark'j Ohfervatkm an the Gtttus Oefirus. 297 

And the tanners alio obferve, that their bell and ftrongeft hides 
have the greateft number of bot-holes in them: for although the 
ikin heals up on the exit of the larva, it is not with the fame 
matter as the original ikin; which has been remarked by late 
phyfiologifts, and which this curious fact fufficiently confirms. 
In the leather, when dry, thofe holes which were made in the ikin 
the year preceding the death of the bead, cannot be diftinguifhed 
from the others which were made at any former period, not being 
in any perceptible degree lefs filled up. In the dried hide it does 
not appear a round hole as in the living ikin, but as a crack only. 
This arifes from the fpongy fubftance which had filled the aperture, 
contracting in drying, and burfting, and all® from the artificial mode 
of hammering and preparing the hide. 

The female fly is very quick in performing the operation of de- 
porting its egg : (he does not appear to remain on the back of the 
animal more than a few feconds ; and I have not obferved that the 
cow ever attempts to lafh this infect off with her tail, which {he 
performs fo dexterouily when attacked by other flies *. 

The whole of this genus of infects appear to have a ftrong dif- 
like to moifture, fince the animals find a fecure refuge when they 
get into a pond or brook, where the Tabani, Conopes, and other flies, 
follow without herniation, but the Oejlri rarely or never; and during 
cold, rainy, or windy weather they are not to be feen. 

The larva of this infect are moftly known among the country 
people by the name of ivornuls, tvorwuls, or warbles, or more pro- 
perly bots. 

* It has been doubted by Linnseus, and fome other writers (I know not why), whe- 
ther it fettles in depofiting its egg. The evident fuffering of the animal fufficiently 
evinces this : perhaps the remark was intended for the OE. Kqui. 

Vol. III. Q^q Of 

298 Mr. Clark*; Ohfcrvatlom on the Genus Oejirtts. 

Of the Oestrus Equl. 

The larva of this fly is that which is very commonly found in 
the ftomach of horfes, and is reprefentcd in fig. 7. 

Thefe larva; attach themfelves to every part of the ftomach, but 
are generally moil numerous about the pylorus - and are fometimes, 
though much lefs frequently, found in the interlines. 

Their numbers in the ftomach are very various, often not more 
than half a dozen, at other times more than a hundred, and, if fome 
accounts might be relied on, even a much greater number than this. 
They hang mod commonly in duffers, being fixed by the fmall 
end to the inner membrane of the ftomach, which they adhere to 
by means of two fmall hooks, or tentacula. Of thefe a reprefen- 
tation considerably enlarged is feen in fig. 22. 

When they are removed from the ftomach they will attach them- 
felves to any loofe membrane, and even to the fkin of the hand. 
For this purpofe they fheath or draw back the hooks almoft en- 
tirely within the fkin, till the two points come clofe to each other ; 
they then prefent them to the membrane ; and keeping them pa- 
rallel till it is pierced through, they expand them in a lateral 
direction, and afterwards, by bringing the points downwards to- 
wards themfelves, they include a fufficient piece of the membrane, 
and remain firmly fixed for any length of time, without requiring 
any farther exertion. 

Thefe hooks, the better to adapt them to this purpofe, appear 
to have a joint near their bafe. The larva of CE. bamorrh&i- 
dalls and avis, and probably all thofe which feed on the mucous 
membranes lining the internal canals of the body, are alfo fur- 
niihed with thefe tentacula; whilft thofe larva which inhabit be- 

Mr. Clark'j- Okjlrvations on tljs Octtut Oejlrus* 299 

ncath the fkins of various animals will be found univerfally with- 
out them *. 

The body of the larva is compofed of eleven fegments, all of 
which, except the two laft, are furrounded with a double row of 
horny bridles directed towards the truncated end, and are of a 
reddifh colour, except the points, which are black. Thefe larva 
evidently receive their food at the fmall end by a longitudinal 
aperture, which is (ituated between the two hooks or tentacuhi. 
See fig. 22, a. The lips of this aperture appear fomewhat hard, 
horny, and irregular. 

Their food is probably the chyle, which, being nearly pure ali- 
ment, may go wholly to the compofition of their bodies without 
any excrementitious refidue, though on diffection the inteflinc is 
found to contain a yellow or greeniih. matter, which is derived from 
the colour of the food, and (hews that the chyle, as they receive it, 
is not perfectly pure. 

* They are wanting in the CE. Tarandi, whofe larva I have feen ; and alfo in a new 
and fmgular fpecies, which inhabits beneath the fkin of the rabbits and hares of Georgia 
in America. This fpecies having never been defcribed by any writer I am acquainted 
with, I take this opportunity of introducing a defcription of it, from a fpecimen in the 
excellent cabinet of Mr. Fvancillon. 

CE. cuniculi. Niger, alis fufcis, thorace ad medium nigro, poftice, abdominifque bafi 
pilis flavefcentibus. 

Habitat in Georgia Americana. 

Defer, CE. bovino noftro bis major, caput nigrum, oculis fufcis, fronte veficulari 
porre£la. Thorax antice nigricans, angulo obtufo ad medium ; poftice, lateribus, 
fcutelloque flavis. Abdomen nigrum bafi et lateribus fegraentorum flavis. AU 
glaucefcentes feu fufcaj. Cerpus fubtus nigrum. Pedes nigri. 

Larva fufca undique muricata aculeis minutillimis, fub cute leporum et aflinium 

From the extraordinary fize of this OeJlrus y I fhould be led to imagine it was origin- 
ally deftined to infefl fome much larger animal, which perhaps may be extinct. 

Qj} 2 The 

200 Mr. Clark s Obfervatlons eh the Genus Oeftrus, 

The flownefs of their growth and the purity of their food ftitift 
occafion what they receive in a given time to be proportionately 
final! ; from whence probably arifes the extreme difficulty there is 
found in deftroying them by any medicine or poifoii thrown into 
the ftomach. After opium had been adminiftered to a horfe labour- 
ing under a cafe of locked jaw for a week, in doles of one ounce 
every day, on the death of the animal I have found the bots in the 
ftomach perfectly alive. Tobacco has been employed in much 
larger quantities in the fame complaint, and has been alfo longer 
continued without deftroying them. They are alfo but rarely af- 
fected by the draftic purgatives which bring away in abundance the 
'Tenia? and Afcaridcs. 

I do not apprehend they are {o very injurious to the horfes as is 

generally conceived. When removed from the ftomach a deep im- 

preflion remains where they adhered ; but whether they ever irritate 

it fo as to bring on a fatal fpafm of the ftomach itfelf, or of the 

pyioruSy or, by collecting round this paffage, prevent the food from 

entering the inteftine, has, I believe, never been investigated with 

furfkient accuracy. The ignorant furprife of farriers on opening 

the flomach after death, and being prefented with fo fingular an 

appearance as the bots, has, without doubt, very often occafioned the 

death to be attributed to thefe, though it is certain but few horfes on 

our commons can efcape them. At the extremity of the truncated 

end are feen two protuberant kind of lips, applied to each other. See 

fig. 7, a. When thefe unfold, or are removed with the knife,, a plate 

of horny or cartilaginous confidence is feen, having fix femicircular 

lines, with their points oppofed to each other. See fig. 23. Thefe 

lines are rough, and made up of alternate deprefled and elevated 

fpots of black and white. 

Through this plate the air is admitted to fill the air tubes; and in 


Mr, Clark'j Obfervations on the Gemts Ocflrus. 301 

mod of the larva of this clafs there arc two diflmcl: plates for this 
purpofe, one on each fide. 

That the air is admitted by thefe means, is proved by immerfing 
one of the larva of this clafs of infects in a veflbl of water; 
when a Lubble may be extricated by preflurc, and may be distinctly 
fern forming in the water, and on removing the preiTure the bubble 
will be again entirely re-abforbed. 

In the larvtz of the Mufca tcnax and pendula^ in (lead of a horny 
plate of this kind, there is provided a (lender tail of considerable 
length, with a perforated cartilaginous tube palling through it; and 
the extremity of this tube is elevated above the furface of the putrid 
water in which they live, and conveys air to the larva beneath. 

On opening the body of the bot, and removing the gelatinous 
matter, the air tubes are feen of a fplendid filvcry colour, as though 
injected with the pureft mercury. They remain diftended by their 
own inherent elafticity, and are filled with air to their minutcft ra- 
mifications. Their appearance is fmgularly beautiful, efpecially 
if the bot be alive, or recently dead. This glittering appearance 
arifes from the air being feen through the femitranfparent, refra&ing 
coats of the ve-fleL 

In this fpecies the principal trunks of the air veflfels are no lefs 
than ten in number, which by diiledion are found to open with 
the large ends (fee fig. 26, a) into one common refervoir beneath the 
cartilaginous plate : this being removed with a knife, exhibits the 
mouths of the tubes as they are arranged at fig. 24. The branches 
proceeding from thefe veffels terminate on the vifcera and ikin, in a 
fimilar manner to the air veflels of the former fpecies. 

Two confiderable trunks or tubes could be traced till they termi- 
nated in the two fmall prominent points on the edge of the firft 

fegment. See fig. 22, a. 


302 Mr. Clark'* Obfervaiions on the Genus OeJIrus, 

The lips at the obtufc end of the bot feem defigned to prevent 
the gaftrick and other fecrctions of the ftomach, aiTilte.d by its heat 
and action, from injuring the cartilaginous plate ; for we do not 
difcovcr any apparatus of this nature to cover thefe plates in the 
CE. Ov/'s or Bo vi j, which, though allied in all other refpects, are not 
expofed to thefe circumftances. 

Thefe lips are found, on opening them, to be mere membranous 
bags, filled with a watery fluid ; a convincing proof they do not form 
any part in the future infect, and are merely for the convenience of 
the larva. 

Refpiration appears to be the office of thefe air canals, which are 
the lungs of the larva ; and, confidered in this point of view, they 
are much larger than the refpiratory organs of any other animal : 
which is the more extraordinary, if the purpofe of refpiration in 
animals be the production of animal heat, as the later chemifts 
fuppofe, this being altogether unneceffary to larva that are fupplied 
fo abundantly with it from the high temperature of their refidence 
in the living ftomach, and have a greater fhare of it than is pro- 
bably pleafant to them; nor can thefe organs be formed for the 
purpofes of the future infect, fmce they cannot be detected in either 
the chryfalh or fly. 

I have fince found that air veffels of a fimilar ftructure may be 
detected in the larva of moft infects, as well in thofe that are not 
expofed to any extraordinary temperature as thole that are; they are 
therefore not conit.ruct.ed with any view to thefe Angular fituations. 

From the fuperior magnitude of the refpiratory organs in moft 
of the larva of infects, one fhould be almoft led to imagine that the 
refpiration in all animals was more intimately connected with the 
reception of food, and the converting it into living matter, than any 
other defign. 4 


Mr. Clark' j Qbfervatiens en the Genus Ocjlrus, 303 

In corroboration of this we may obferve, that while the refpi- 
ratory organs are fo large in the larva, they are remarkably I'm all 
in the perfect infect, which alio,' in general, has occafion for very 
little food. 

Perhaps the fuperior fize of the air vcffcls of the hot, compared 
with the larva of other infects, arifes from the greater rarefaction 
and impurity of the air it is expo fed to in the ftomach, which may 
render a larger portion of it ncccflary. The remaining undecom- 
pofed air in the air tubes appears to pais out by means of the fp'ira- 
cuhi principally, and alio perhaps by the two horny points oblerv- 
ablc on the fir ft fegment. See fig. 22, a. 

Upon this fubject it may not be improper to notice the air veiTels 
of the larva of the Mufca pendula, which arc conftructcd in a very 
different way from any others I have feen. The two principal trunks 
in this larva are made up of femicircular cartilaginous rings or 
fibres, which are difpofed in a fpiral direction, lo as to form the 
tube. It is evident by this ftructure, that the area of the tube 
may be entirely obliterated, and the fides be brought into contact. 

The convenience attending this ftructure, to a larva living in 
putrid fluids of confiderable depth, appears to be, that befide its ufe 
in refpiration, it may fervc the fame office as the air bladder in 
fillies, regulating by its contraction, or expanfion, the denfity or 
rarity of the included air, and confequently the defcent or afcent of 
the larva in thofe fluids. 

The larva: of the CE. Equl attain their full growth about the 
latter end of May, and are coming from the horfe from this time 
to the latter end of June, or fometimes later. On dropping to the 
ground they find out fome convenient retreat, and change to the 
chryfalh; and in about fix or feven weeks the fly appears. 

Though this is by far the moil common fpecies of the genus, I 


304 Mr. Clark'j Qb/ervaiwns on the Genus Qeflrm* 

have not beert able to obtain a chryfalis of it for delineation ; but it 
nearly rciembles that of G£. hcvmorrhoidalh y except in fize. 

There is a confiderablc difference between the male and female 
fly : a delineation of each is given, fig. 8 and 9; and to prevent unne- 
cdlary repetition, they are defcribed, together with the other fpecies, 
at the conchifion of the paper. 

Perhaps it will be hardly neceffary to apologize to the Society for 
the alteration of the Linnaean name Bovis to that of Equi, as the 
former, if retained, would continue to convey a very erroneous idea; 
and it would, without doubt, have been changed by Linnasus him- 
ielf, had he been in pofTefTion of theie facts, who confidered trivial 
names not as fetters to the fcience, but as temporary conveniences, 
to be altered or retained as time and further difcovery might prove 
them to be juft. On the other hand, wanton and un neceffary al- 
teration, on flight pretences, certainly cannot be too much repro- 

The mode purfued by the parent fly to obtain for its young a 
frtuation in the ftomach of the horfe is truly lingular, and is 
effected in the following manner: — When the female has been im- 
pregnated, and the eggs are fufficiently matured, the feeks among 
the horfes a fubject for her purpofe, and approaching it on the 
wing, ihe holds her body nearly upright in the air, and her tail, 
which is lengthened for the purpofe, curved inwards and upwards : 
in this way ihe approaches the part where ihe defigns to depofit 
the egg; and fufpending herfelf for a few feconds before it, fuddenly 
darts upon it, and leaves the egg adhering to the hair : ihe hardly 
appears to fettle, but merely touches the hair with the egg held 
out on the projected point of the abdomen. The egg is made to 
adhere by means of a glutinous liquor fecreted with it. She then 
leaves the horfe at a fmall diftance, and prepares a fecond egg, and, 


Air, Clark s Obfervatiom on the Genus Oefirus. 305 

poifing herfclf before the part, depofits it in the fame way. Ti. e 
liquor dries, and the egg becomes firmly glued to the hair: this 
is repeated by various flies till 4 or 500 eggs are fometimes plactd 
on one horfe. 

The horfes, when they become ufed to this fly, and find it d 
them no injury, as the Tabani and Conopes, by fucking their blood, 
hardly regard it, and do not appear at all aware of its in Odious 

The (kin of the horfe is always thrown into a tremulous motion 
on the touch of this infect, which merely arifes from the very e;reut 
irritability of the lkin and cutaneous mulcles at this feafon of the 
year, occafioned by the continual teafing of the flies, till at length 
thefe mufcles act involuntarily on the flighted touch of any body 

The infide of the knee is the part on which thefe flies are mod 
fond of depofiting their eggs, and next to this on the fide and back 
part of the lhoulder, and lefs frequently on the extreme ends of the 
hairs of the mane. But it is a fact worthy of attention, that the 
fly does not place them promifcuoufly about the body, but con- 
stantly on thofe parts which are mod liable to be licked with the 
tongue; and the ova therefore are always fcrupuloufly placed 
within its reach. Whether this be an act of rcafon or of inftinct, 
it is certainly a very remarkable one. I fhould fufpect, with Dr. 
Darwin *, it cannot be the latter, as that ought to direct the per- 
formance of any act in one way only. 

Whichever of thefe it may be, it is, without doubt, one of 
the ftrongeft examples of pure inftinct, or of the molt circuitous 
reafoning any infect is capable of. The eggs thus depofited 

* Zoonomia. Vtd. Chapter on Inftinct. 

Vol. III. Rr I at 

3C6 Mr. Cl a rkV Ohfervations on the Genus Oejlrus* 

I at firft fuppofed were loofened from the hairs by the moifture of 
the tongue, aided by its roughnefs, and were conveyed to the fto- 
mach, where they were hatched ; but on more minute fearch I do not 
find this to be the cafe, or at lead only by accident ; for when they 
have remained on the hairs four or five days they become ripe, after 
which time the flightefl application of warmth and moiflure is 
fumcient to bring forth in an inftant the latent larva. At this time, 
if the tongue of the horfe touches the egg, its operculum is thrown 
open, and a fmall active worm is produced, which readily adheres- 
to the moift furface of the tongue, and is from thence conveyed 
with the food to the ftomach. If the egg itfelf be taken up by 
accident, it may pafs on to the inteftinal canal before it hatches; in 
which cafe its exiftence to the full growth is more precarious, and 
certainly not fo agreeable, as it is expofed to the bitternefs of the 

I have often, with a pair of fciflars, clipped off fome hairs with 
the eggs on them from the horfe, and on placing them in the hand* 
moiflened with faliva, they have hatched in a few feconds. At 
other times, when not perfectly ripe, the larva would not appear, 
though held in the hand under the fame circumftances for feveral 
hours ; a fumcient proof that the eggs themfelves are not conveyed 
to the ftomach. 

It is fortunate for the animals infefted by thefe infects that their 
numbers are limited by the hazards they are expofed to* I fhould 
fufpect near a hundred are loft for one that arrives at the perfect 
fiate of a fly. The eggs, in the firft place, when ripe, often hatch 
of themfelves, and the larva, without a nidus, crawls about till it 
dies ; others are waihed off by the water, or are hatched by the fun 
and moifture, thus applied together. 

When in the mouth of the animal they have the dreadful ordeal 
2 of 

Mr. Clarkj Observations on the Genus Oeftrus. 30 


of the teeth and maftication to pafs through. On their arrival at 
the ftomach, they may pafs, mixed with the mafs of food, into the 
interlines ; and, when full grown, on dropping from the amis to the 
ground, a dirty road or water may receive them. — If on the com- 
mons, they are in danger of being cruihed to death, or of being pick- 
ed up by the birds who fo conftantly for food attend the footfte^ of 
the cattle. Such are the contingencies by which Nature has wifely 
prevented the too great increafe of their numbers, and the total de- 
firuction of the animals they feed on. 

I have once feen the larva of this Ocjlrus in the ftomach of an 
afs : indeed there is little reafon to doubt their exiflence in the 
ftomachs of all this tribe of animals. 

The perfect fly but ill fuftains the changes of weather ; and cold 
and moifture, in any confiderable degree, would probably be fatal 
to it. Thefe flies never purfue the horfe into the water. TJiis aver- 
sion I imagine arifes from the chilnefs of that element, which is 
probably felt more exquifitely by them, from the high temperature 
they had beenexpofed to during their larva ftate. The heat of the 
ftomach of the horfe is much greater than that of the warmed 
climate, being about 102 degrees of Fahrenheit, and in their fly 
ftate they are only expofed to 60, and from that to about So de- 
grees. This change, if fuddenly applied, would, in all probability, 
be fatal to them ; but they are prepared for it, by fuffering its fir ft 
effecls in the quiefcent and lefs fenfible date of & thry falls, I have 
often feen this fly during the night-time, and in cold weather, fold 
itfelf up, with the head and tail nearly in contad, and lying appa- 
rently in a torpid ftate, though in the middle of fummer. 

It is worthy of remark, that the greater part of the ova depofitcd 
by this fly, are taken up in confequence of the irritations of other 
flies, as the Conopes, Tatam, and Mufc^ who, by fettling on the flrin, 

R 1 2 ocean" on 


o8 Mr. Clark'j Obfervatiom on the Genus Oe/rrus, 

occafion the horfe to lick himfelf in thofe parts, and thus receive 
the larva on the tongue and lips ; and a horfe that has had no ova 
depofited on him, may yet have the bots by performing the friendly 
office of licking another horfe that has. The eggs on the fhoulder 
are particularly well difpofed for being received in this way. 

Whether theie larva; can exift in the ftomach of a carnivorous 
animal I am not certain. I gave upwards of a hundred eggs (proved 
by trials to be ripe, and containing a living caterpillar) to a cat in 
milk, at various times; and on deftroying her at the end of two 
months after the firft portion had been given, no traces of them 
in the ftomach or inteflines could be difcovered. 

The fmall end of the chry[alis, in all the fpecies of this genus, 
contains the head of the fly 5 the contrary being the cafe with almoft 
all other infects. 

Of the Oestrus hamorrhoidalis: 

The larva of this infect, needs not to be particularly defcribed, as 
it refembles in almoft every refpect that of the CE, EquL Its habits 
are the fame, being feen in the ftomach of the horfe occupying the 
fame fituation as thofe of the CE. JLqui, from which they can only be 
diftinguifhed by their fmaller fize and greater whitenefs. See fig. 10. 

On difleclion it is found to poflefs fimilar air tubes and alimen- 
tary canal. When it is ripe, and has pafTed through the inteftines, 
its fkin becomes of a greemih-red hue. It generally afTumes the 
chry falls ftate in about two days after leaving the reBlum^ and is then 
of a deep-red colour. See fig. n. 

The larva of this and the preceding fpecies may be obtained from 

the horfe from the beginning of June to the middle of July, being 

found hanging to the extremity of the return. None of thefe larva 

i ever 

Mr. Clark'* Obferuations on the Genus Oejlrus. 309 

ever appear to chnnge their fkin. If they did, it is probable they 
would lofe their hold, as the hooks are principally connected with 
the ikin, and ieparate with it by maceration, leaving only an in- 
dentation where they were lodged. 

Thefe larva', being forcibly lqueezed, contract themfelves into a 
fmaller lpace, and become very hard. If is probable they in this 
way refill the violent preffure they mud occafionally fuftain, from 
the weight of the food and the actions of the ftomacb, and in 
paQmg through the interlines and th.tfphi?i£ler am. 

After remaining in the chryjalh ftate about two months, the fly 
appears. See fig. 12 and 13, — the male and female, — and their de- 
fcription in the fequel of the paper. 

This fpecies may Hill retain the name of hemorrhoidal, without 
any impropriety, not from the fuppofed hiftory of its entering the 
anus, but from the termination of the abdomen being red, Linnaeus 
having generally chofen to diftinguifh the infe&s fo marked by 
that name; alfo from their refembling the hemorrhoids or piles, while 
hanging to the extremity of the reSium *. 

It feems hitherto to have been generally believed among natu- 
ralifts, that the female fly enters the anus of the horfe in a very ex- 
traordinary manner, to depofit its eggs f. 

* The idea entertained by the Romans o£ this appearance is truly lingular : Hujnf- 
niodi pafllonis lignum eft (morbus coriaginofus) cum invenitur humor in ano fabae coctae 
fimilis : eft namque fanies ex illis vulneribus quae beftiolae intrinfecus fecerunt. Flavius 
Vegetius de Arte Veterhiaria, ed. Manheim. p. 63. 

■f Reaumur, torn. iv. p. 543, relates this circumftance on the authority of Dr. Gafpari. 
From the account of its getting beneath the tail, I mould fufpecl: the fly he faw was the 
H'ippobofca equina, which frequently does this. Its getting within the reclum appears to 
have been additional. That a fly might depofit its eggs on the verge of the anus is not 
impoflible, though we know no inftance of it. 


310 Mr, Clark's Obfervattons on the Genus Oe/trus. 

The obje&ions to this idea are — that the anus is rather clofed than 
opened by any irritation externally applied. — The fly would be 
crufhed in attempting to pafs the fphintler of a horfe's reclum; and 
-having no means of holding while depofiting its eggs, it would be 
quickly evacuated with the dung. — The whole of the ova, to the 
amount of 2 or 300, muit be depofited in one horfe, as it is impof- 
fible, if the fly furvived, that it could undergo this punifhment a 
fecond time, for the heat and moifture of the reclum would at leafl 
deflroy its winrs. 

I mention thefe objections, not as merely relating to this fpecies, 
but that it may not be credited of the GE. nafalis, or indeed of any 
'of them, that they really enter the body of the animal to obtain for 
their young a fituation there. 

I have not feen any writer who has defcribed the mode in which 
this fly depofits its ova; which having had repeated opportunities of 
feeing, I can fpeak of with certainty. 

The part chofen by this infe£l for this purpofe is the lips of the 
horfe, which is very diftrefling to the animal from the exceflive 
titillation it occafion>; for he immediately after rubs his mouth 
againfl the ground, his fore-legs, or fometimes againfl a tree ; or 
if two are (landing together they often rub themfelves againfl each 
other. At the fight of this fly the horfe appears much agitated, and 
-moves his head backwards and forwards in the air, to baulk its 
touch, and prevent its darting on the lips ; but the fly, watching 
for a favourable opportunity, continues to repeat the operation 
from time to time; till at length rinding this mode of defence in- 
fufBcient, the enraged animal endeavours to avoid it by galloping 
away to a diftant part of the field. If it ilill continues to follow 
and teafe him, his lad refource is in the water, where the Oejirin 
never is obferved to follow him. 


Mr. Clark' j Obferva lions on the Genus Oeftrus* jn 

The teafing of other flies will fometimes occafion a motion of the 
head fimilar to this ; but it ihould not be miftaken for it, as it is 
never in any degree fo violent as during the attack of the Oeftrus. 

At other times this Oeftrus gets between the fore-legs of the horfe 
whilft he is grazing, and thus makes its attack on the lower lip ; 
the titillation occafions the horfe to ftamp violently with his fore- 
foot againft the ground, and often ftrike with his foot as though 
aiming a blow at the fly. They alfo fometimes hide themiclves in 
the grafs ; and as the horfe ftoops to graze they dart on the mouth 
or lips, and are always obferved to poife themiclves during a few 
ieconds in the air, while the egg is preparing on the point of the 

When feveral of thefe flies are confined in a clofe place, they 
have a particularly ftrong fufty fmell ; and I have obferved both 
fheep and horfes, when teafed by them, to look into the grafs and 
fmell to it very anxioufly ; and if they by thefe means difcover the 
fly, they immediately turn afide and haften to a diftant part of the 

The eggs of this fpecies appear of a darker colour than the for- 
mer, and the circumftances attending their paiTage to the flomach 
I am unacquainted with. 

The larva of the CE. hamorrholdalis) as well as the former fpecies, 
appears to have been termed among the Romans, CoJJus*, which 
feems to have been a general expreflion for any kind of foft imper- 
fect animal, and to have been very analogous, and as extenfwely 
applied as the word grub is at prefent in the Englilh language. 

The learned Charlton (Onomafikon Zolcon, p. 56), and afterwards 
Dr\ Johnfon (fee Dictionary), have confidered afcarides as the fyno- 

* Vide Flavlus Vegetius Rtnatm dt JrU VtUrinaria y p. 6a, 64, 69, ed. Manh. 


312 Mr. Clark' j Obfervations on the Genus Oejlms, 

nymousterm among the ancients for the bots: that term has always 
been applied to the thin fmooth worms of the inteftines, but, I 
apprehend, never to thefe. 

i Our anceftors imagined that poverty, or improper food, engen- 
dered thefe animals, or that they were the offspring of putrefac- 
tion. In Shakfpeare's Henry the Fourth, Part I, the oftler at 
Rochefter fays : " Peafe and beans are as dank here as a dog, and 
" that is the next way to give poor jades the bots ;" and one of 
the misfortunes of the miferable nag of Petruchio is, that " he is 
" fo begnawn with the bots." 

When the animal is kept from food the bots are alfo, and are 
then, without doubt, the mod troublefome; whence it was 
very naturally fuppofed that poverty or bad food was the parent of 

They alfo appear to have gone formerly in this country by the 
name of truncheons. In Blundeville, who wrote on farriery dur- 
ing the reign of Queen Elizabeth, we have the following pafTage : — 
" The fecond fort of worms have great heads and fmall long tails, 
■** like a needle, and be called bots: the third be lhort and thick, 
" like the end of a man's little finger, and be called truncheons." 

Of the Oestrus veterinus . 

This fpecies feems to have been only well defcribed by Linnaeus, 
who called it ?tafalis> from an idea of its entering the noftrils of the 
horfe to depofit the eggs*, which it could not well do without de- 
ftroying the wings, and is therefore probably as much a fable as the 
" mire per anum intrans" of the CE. haemorrhoidaiis, I have feen four 

* Habitat in equorum fauce per nares intrans. Linn, S^/J, Nat. 2- p- 969. 


Mr. ClaRk'j Olfervations on tbt Genus Oeflrus, 3X3 

chry [alleles of this fly, which I uniformly found under the dung of 
horfes. They produced the flies, male and female, reprcfented at fig* 
18 and 19; but not having at that time any idea of writing on this 
fubject, I unfoitunately threw away the chryfalides. The larva I am 
at prefent unacquainted with ; but if it inhabited the fauces of the 
horfe, it would produce fuch troublefome fymptoms as could not 
eafily efcape the notice of thofe whofe bufinefs it is to attend to the 
difeafes of cattle. Such a difeafe has, however, never been defcribed 
by any writer on this fcience; nor, after an extenfive opportunity both 
in the dead and living fubiect of obferving them,have I ever feen a bot 
in the fauces. Perhaps the bots of the ftomach having crawled to 
the fauces in fearch of food might have given rife to this idea, or they 
may even have accidentally bred there; for there is little doubt thele 
animals can live in any part whatever of the alimentary canal. 

I am induced to fufpect they inhabit the ftomach, as well as the 
two former fpecies; but of this we muft at prefent remain in un- 
certainty, as well as of the manner in which this fpecies depofits 
its eggs. 

I have given it the name of veter'mus, becaufe beafts of burden are 
particularly fubjeel: to it, in preference to the erroneous one of nafal/s. 

Of the Oestrus Ovis. 

I procured about the middle of June fome full-grown larva' of 
the CE. Owj, from the infide of the cavities of the bone which 
fupports the horns of the fheep. See fig. 14. 

They are nearly as large as thofe of the (JL.Equi, of a delicate white 
colour, flat on the under fide, and convex on the upper; having no 
fpines at the divifions of the fegments, though they are provided 
with tentacula at the fmall end. The other end is truncated with a 

Vol. III. Ss prominent 

314 ^ r - Clark'j Obfervations on the Genus Oeftrus.. 

prominent ring or margin, which ferves the fame purpofe in an in- 
ferior degree as the lips of the CE. Equi and hcemorrboidalis, by occa- 
fionally clofing over, and cleaning the horny plate. When this 
margin opens after clofing over the plate, it occafions frequently a 
flight fnap from the fudden admiffion of the air* 

When young thefe larva are perfectly white and tranfparent, 
except the two horny plates, which are black. As they increafe irt. 
fize the upper fide becomes marked with two tranfverfe brown lines. 
on each fegment, and feme fpots are feen on the fides. 

They move with confiderable quicknefs, holding with the ienta- 
cula as a fixed point, and drawing up the body towards them. On 
the under fide of the larva is placed a broad line of dots, which, on. 
examination with glafTes, appear to be rough points,, ferving per- 
haps the double purpofe of affifting their paffage over the fmooth 
and lubricated furfaces of thefe membranes,, and of exciting alfo a 
degree of inflammation in them where they reft, fo as to caufe a 
fecretion of lymph or pus for their food, 

I have madly found thefe animals in the horns and frontal finufes, 
though I have remarked that the membranes lining thefe cavities 
were hardly at all inflamed, while thofe of the maxillary finufes were 
highly fo. From this I am led to fufpect they inhabit the maxillary 
finufes, and crawl, on the death of the animal, into thefe fituations 
in the horns and frontal finufes. 

The breeds of thefe, like the CE. Bovis, do not appear confined to 
any particular feafon ; for quite young and full-grown larva may be 
found in the finufes at the fame time. 

When full-grown they fall through the noftrils, and change to the 
pupa ftate, lying on the earth, or adhering by. the fide to a blade of 
grafs. See fig. 15. 

The fly burfts the fhell of the pupa in. about two months. See 


Air. Clark* j Obfervations on the Genus Oejlrus* 315 

fig. 16 and 17. The manner in which this fpecies depofits its ova 
has, I believe, not been defcribed ; nor is it eafy to ice, though 
clofe to the animal at the time, exactly in what way this is accom- 
plifhed, owing to the obfcure colour and rapid motion of the 
fly, and the extreme agitation of the iheep ; but the motions of 
the fheep afterwards, and the mode of defence it takes to avoid it, 
can leave but little doubt that the egg is depofited on the inner 
margin of the noftril. 

The moment the fly touches this part of the fheep, they (hake 
their heads, and ftrike the ground violently with their fore-feet; at 
the fame time holding their nofes clofe to the earth they run away, 
looking about them, on every fide, to fee if the fly purfues : they 
alfo lmell to the grafs as they go, left one fhould be lying in wait 
for them. If they obferve one, they gallop back, or take fomc other 
direction. As they cannot, like the horfes, take refuge in the water, 
they have reconrfe to a rut, or dry dully road, or gravel pits, where 
they crowd together during the heat of the day, with their nofes 
held clofe to the ground, which renders it difficult for the fly con- 
veniently to get at the noftril. 

Obfervations on thefe flies are bell: made in warm weather, and 
during the heat of the day, when, by driving the fheep from their 
retreats to the grafs, the attack of the fly and the emotions of the 
fheep are eafily obferved. 

I imagine the noftril, from repeated attacks, and the confequent 
rubbing againft the ground, becomes highly inflamed and fore, 
which occaftons their touch to be fo much dreaded by the iheep. 

From the difficult arid very precarious mode this fpecies and the 
hamorrhoidalis purfue in depofiting their eggs, they cannot fuc- 
cefsfully depofit more than half of them. 


Ss 2. General 

3i6 Mr, ClARkV Obfervations on the Genus Oefivus. 

General Obfervations on the Oejiri, 

Having traced thefe animals feparately through their various 
changes, it may not be improper to conclude the account by a ge- 
neral review of their good or ill effects on the animals that are 
fubject to them. 

Though the attention of naturalifts is at prefent chiefly occupied 
with the formation of a nomenclature and defcriptions to every 
object of the fcience; yet this, though difficult and highly import- 
ant, is not fo much the ultimate aim of natural hirlory as a know- 
ledge of their economy and properties ; as from thefe we are taught 
the moft effectual means of avoiding the confequences of the inju- 
rious, and of protecting fuch as can be ufefully applied to the pur- 
pofes of mankind. 

If, after mature enquiry, the exiftence of the Oejiri lliould be 
proved in a greater degree injurious than any fervice they can 
afford, their numbers might be considerably reduced, and a total 
extirpation of fome of the fpecies would, I am difpofed to believe, 
be not altogether impracticable. 

The injury derived from their depredations is principally felt by 
the tanners, whofe hides are often fo perforated by thefe animals 
as to be confiderably damaged thereby ; and the lofs of a horfe or 
a fheep may fometimes perhaps be occaiioned by the exiflence of 
the other fpecies. 

If it were defirable to leflen their numbers, the following, I ap- 
prehend, would be the moft fuccefsful means : 

The larva of the CE. Bovis, which breeds in the backs of the 
horned cattle, is fo confpicuous that it is more eafily deftroyed than 
the others: the injection of any corrofive liquor into the Jinus 

4 would 

Mr, Clark's Obfcrvailons on the Genus Ocjlrus. 317 

would kill it ; or by puncturing the larva: with a hot needle, intro- 
duced through the apertures in the fkin, or even by fimple pre flu re, 
they may be deitroyed, afterwards extracting them, or leaving them 
to (lough away, which I have frequently obferved they do when 
crufhed by a blow from the horn of the beaft, or by any other 
accident, without any material injury to the animal. A man em- 
ployed for this purpofe might, in half a day, in this manner deftroy 
every bot on a large common. 

In regard to the CE. Equi and hamorrhoidalis, thofe who have 
horfes which have been much out to grafs the preceding year, in 
countries where thefe flies are prevalent, might confidcrably diminim 
their numbers by examining the horfes occafionally for the bots 
during the months of May and June, when they will be found 
hanging to the extremity of the reclum, where they remain for fome 
time before they fall to the ground. 

The deftruclion of a fingle one at this feafon of the year is not 
only the death of an individual and its effecls, but the almoit cer- 
tain deftruetion of a numerous family; at the fame time it is alfo 
highly ufeful in preventing the irritation which the fpines of the 
bot occafion to the anus. If the horfe is ufed on the road while 
the bot is adhering to this part, the irritation becomes diftrefnng, 
and caufes him to move very awkwardly and fluggifh, as though 
tired ; and if feverely beaten he foon relapfes again into the fame. 
awkw r ard action. As this moft frequently happens during warm 
weather, it is in general attributed to mere lazinefs. 

Thefe fymptoms I have been a witnefs to feveral times, to the 
fevere chaftifement of the horfe and vexation of tfye rider: on the 
removal of the bot the cure is inftantaneous. 

If this mode of removing them was generally complied with, but 
few could efcape> and their numbers would be very much reduced ; 


^iS Mr. ClarkV Ob/ervattons on the Genus Oeftrm. 

and thofe who \vi(h to obtain them for cabinets of natural hif- 
tory, or for examination, will alio find this the mod effectual way. 

We know of no medicine that will detach them from the fto- 
mach or inteftines, though there are not wanting abundance of 
infallible noftrums among the very numerous proferTors of this art. 

Another both eafy and effectual mode, at lead for the CE. Equi 9 
is to deftroy the eggs which are depofited on the hairs of the horfe, 
and are eafily {cen and removed by a pair of fciffars, or by means 
of a bruih. and warm water. 

In the fheep it will be much more difficult to prevent or deftroy 
them by any of thefe means ; particularly if they are feated in the 
maxillary finufes: in this cafe trepanning wfluld be infufficient, as 
they would probably be concealed among the convolutions of the 
turbinated bones. 

Perhaps the removal of the fheep to a diftant pafture, during 
the months of June and July, while greateft part of the bots are 
yet on the ground in the chry falls ftate, and not bringing them on 
the pafture again till the fetting in of the winter, would be the 
means of deftroy in g them moft effectually ; and if repeated for two 
or three years fucceflively, when they are particularly troublefomc, 
the farmers might eventually find their account in it. 

On the other hand, notwithftanding the apparently unnecefTary 
exiftence and cruel effects of the Oe/lrl, they are probably not alto- 
gether without an ufe, or were defigned by Providence to add, with- 
out a recompenfe, to the numerous fufferings of thefe ufeful and 
laborious creatures. 

A phyfiologica* view of their effects will, perhaps, beft juftify 
their exiftence, and fave them from fuch an imputation. 

The larvce of the Oeftri, when applied under proper redactions, 
and to a certain extent, may be of greater utility than from our 


Mr. Clark'* Obfervations en the Genus Oejlrus. 310/ 

prefent very limited knowledge of them we arc able to difcover; 
but we may venture to remark, that their effect in keeping up a 
confiderabie degree of irritation in the membranes on which they 
are fituated, may, perhaps not inaptly, be compared to that of a per- 
petual iiTue or blifter. Nor is there wanting abundant proof of 
the utility of local irritations in preventing the accefs, as well as in 
curing disorders. We often fee a formidable difeafe quickly re- 
moved by bliftering the Ikin, or by irritating the mucous membrane 
of the ftomach or inteftines by a vomit or purge. The appearance 
of exanthematous eruptions on the ikin, and the formation of local 
abfcefTes, from the fame caufe of partial irritation, often relieve a 
general diforder of the fyftem. The mucous membranes and the 
ikin pofTefs this power when irritated in the moil eminent degree, 
and to thefe the larva of the Qejirl are applied. Irritating the 
membranes of the ftomach. in other animals would excite naufea 
and vomiting;. but the horfe not poffemng this power, his ftomach 
is peculiarly fitted for the ftimulus of fuch inhabitants. 

It has alfo been remarked in hofpitals, that a patient afflicted 
with a wound,- ulcer, or other fevere local complaint, is not To fuf- 
ceptible of the contagion of a fever or other general diforder. 

How far the accefs of thofe dreadful diforders which fometimes 
arife of themfelves in cattle and horfes, and afterwards become conta- 
gious, as the murrain, glanders, farcy, &c. may be prevented by 
thefe peculiar irritations, it will not be eafy to difcover; nor whe- 
ther that lingular tendency or difpofition in the horfe to inflam- 
matory complaints, as the callgo of the eyes, termed moon-blindnefs, 
inflammations of the lungs and of the bones, as fpavins-, fplints, &c. 
may be in any degree checked or fubdued by the application of 
thefe localjtimuli. 

In confirmation of this fuggeftion I may remark (although I am* 


320 Mr. Clark'j' Observations on the Genus Oejlrus. 

aware other reafons may be alfo affigned for it), that thofe horfes 
which are not expofed to the hots, more frequently are infected 
with the glanders, farcy, &c. as thofe of the army, poft-coaches, 
port-waggons, and dray-horfes, thefe being rarely fpared, from the 
nature of their work, to graze on the commons, and thus be ex- 
pofed to receive them. 

If, after a more minute refearch into their effects on the fyitem, 
the utility of thefe native jl'imuli of animals fhould be eftablimed, 
and, like the leech, or the cantharides, they fhould be called in to 
the aid of veterinary medicine, it would not be impracticable to 
adminifter them artificially by means of their ova. 

If the flimulus is confidered as of too gentle a nature, it is in 
fome meafure atoned for by its permanency, and the unlimited 
power of increafing their numbers j at l^aft, by the ad m in ift ration 
•of them in this way, we might accurately afcertain their real 
effects, and whether they are fo fatal as has been imagined. 

Linnaeus has alfo obferved of the pediculus, u rodendo caput 
" exciat achores, apud puerulos voraces incarceratos, indeque ftru- 
u mofos, ficque prarfervat a coryza, tuffi, csecitate, epilepfia," &c. 

In the fame way the worms in children, I am induced to believe, 
are wholefome to them in a certain quantity, by conftantly irri- 
tating the membranes of the interlines, and preventing the accefs 
of worfe diforders. But however ufeful a few of thefe natural 
fihiudi of animals may be, the increafe of their numbers, by pro- 
ducing bad confequences, ihould at all times be prevented. 

The fheep are particularly fubject to diforders attended with ver- 
tigo, probably arifmg from an affection of the brain; and the larvte of 
the CE. Ovis are certainly very favourably fituated on the neighbour- 
ing membranes of the maxillary finufes, and may perhaps tend to 
divert the attack of this diforder, or render it lefs fatal. 


Mr, ClarkV Observations on the Genus Oefirus. 321 

Remarks on the generic and Specific Characters of the Oestri. 

The characters which diftinguifh this genus have been defcribed 
fo very oppofitely by various writers, that I cannot well conclude 
this paper without taking fome notice of thefe alfo ; and having 
many fpecimens of them in my pofleiiion 1 was induced to difleel 
them for this purpofe. The refult of the enquirv has been the dif- 
covery of characters confiderably different from thofe which have- 
hitherto been afligned them. 

The excellent Scopo!/\ confeious of the obfeurity of this genus, 
has altogether omitted giving any account of them in the Entoino- 
logia Carniolica. 

And if we except. the miftake of the CE. Equi for Bovis > the cleared 
and beft account of the fpecies is ftill to be feen in Linnceus. 

Fabricius, in his Species Irtfedtorum * 9 has nearly copied the Lin- 
noean account of the Ocftri ; but in a fubfequent work of this au- 
thor, the Mantijfa Inferior um t, a fpecies under the title of Equi is 
introduced, and the fpecies CE. htvmorrhoidalis and veterinus are con- 
fidered as varieties a and /5 ! while the error relating to the true 
Equi is continued under the name of Bovis. 

The mod extenfive enumeration of the fpecies of this sen us mav 
be feen in Profeffor Gmelin's J new edition of the Sjjfema Nature? ; 
but the errors relating to the fpecies have been in that work con- 
fiderably increafed. Inftead of placing the Equi in the name of 
Bovis, as his excellent original had done, we find the ■h.rtmrrhoidalis ; . 
and by placing the Equi again in the name of ha?morrhoidaiis, 
and mixing; the references to each, an almoft inextricable labv- 
rinth of confufion is the confequence, while the true Bovis ftill 
efcapes undefcribed, unlefs as being the fame as hemorrhoidalis. 

* Species Infeclorum, vol. ii. p. 398. -j- Manhjfa In/ffibtidtn, vol. ii. p. 321. 

| Gmelin, Syjl. Nat. par, iv. p. 2810. 

Vol.. III. T.t The 

322 Mr. Clark* j Obfervations on the Genus Oe/rrus, 

The miftake of hamorrhoidalh for Bovis arofe probably from their 
fimilarity in description, in which they certainly interfere very much ; 
though no two fpecies can be more diftincl when feen together than 
thefe. This will ever be the bane of compilation in natural hif- 

it has been doubted whether thefe animals pofTefs any mouth: 
Linnaeus exprefsly fays, " Os nullum punclis tribus ;" but when the 
hairs are removed, which in every fpecies very much obfeure the 
parts of the mouth, two clavated palpi are feen, and between them 
the opening of the mouth ; and by laying open the veficular or 
inflated part of the face, the continuation of it is vifible in the form 
of a membranous haujlellum, which is generally coloured with forne 
dark brown matter lodging on the infide ; though 1 confefs, after 
repeated diileclions, I have not been able to trace this haujlellum far- 
ther than the infide of the inflated part of the head, where it appears 
to enlarge and terminate. 

Fabricius has minutely defcribed labia to the haujlellum, and 
other apparatus to the mouth, which I have not been fortunate in 
obtaining a fight of. At the fame time, I cannot help being fur- 
prifed that he fTiould have overlooked the palpi, which he exprefsly 
denies the exiflence of, though tolerably vifible even without the 
aid of glafTes *. 

What farther circumftances I have obferved, in regard to the 
generic characters of thefe infe&s, 1 have dated in the following 
Latin defcriptions of them, and have alio added there what was 
farther neceflary to complete the foregoing account, with fome 
alterations in the fpecific defcriptions of them. 

I have, fince writing the above, been enabled to colled the ^7/0* 
nyma more fully, and to examine all the authors who have treated 
on this fubjecf, from the invaluable library of Sir Jofeph Banks, 

* Falricii Genera JnfeBcrum, 


Mr, Clark'j Obfervations on the Genus Oejlrus, 323 

whofe generous liberality in promoting ufeful refcarch by this in- 
diipenlable aid can never be too much admired. 

The refult or* this enquiry has induced me with the greater rea- 
dinefs to offer thefe remarks to the Society, from the irreconcileable 
defcriptions and difficulties which will be found in the bed writers, 
who have endeavoured to defcribe the prefent genus, 

I have omitted the reference to Ray, becaufe the description, if 
meant for the CE. Equi % is hardly worth preferving. From the 
" alls crebrls punclis^ one fhould luppofe the Tab anus pluvialis was 
intended by this defcription. 

From the obfervations of Wohlfarht y " De vermibus per nares ex- 
cretis" it appears not improbable that the CE. Ovis, under a fa- 
vourable opportunity, and perhaps deprived of its ufual nidus, had 
depofited its eggs in the human noilril, as I know of no otjier 
larva of this kind that could fuftain the temperature of that fitu- 
ation ; yet the figures given of the flies obierved by him do not 
much refemble Oejlri*. ^^^^_ 

J. Leonhard Filch er (Difputatio Inauguralis. Llpfuv 1788) has 
given an elaborate defcription of the OE. Bovis and Ovis, 

In the Anfangfgrunde der Ndturgefchlchte of Lejhe, the larva, tab. 9, 
fig. 19, is that of the Equi ; while the fly (fig. 21) is the CE. Bovis, 

De Geer, who for excellent defcriptions and general accuracy 
furpaffes, in^my opinion, nearly all the writers on thefe fubjects, 
has rightly corrected Linnaeus by not confounding the Bovis and 
Equi, but has unfortunately fallen into the error of confidering the 
Bovis and the hcemorrhoidalis as the fame. Hijloire des Injectes, p. 297. 
Genera et Species Infec7orum y p. 192. 

* Since the above was committed to the prefs, Dr. Latham has informed me of a cafe 
related in the firft volume of the Medical Communications, in which infecls were removed 
from the antrum maxillare of a woman, and are evidently, as Dr. Latham has fuppofed, the 
larva of the (E. Bovis. 

T t 2 In 

324 Mr* Clark's Obfervations on the Genus Ocftrus. 

In the Fauna Etrufca of Rofs, the Bovis is defcribed " alls macu- 
lathy' which muft be the Equi\ and a fpecies under the name of 
Equi is defcribed " alts immaadatis," The fynonyma are alfo mixed 
in a very extraordinary manner ; torn, i, p. 268. In a fubfequent 
volume he has propofed to reconcile thefe very various defcriptions 
by referring them to a fexnal difference. 

In the Entomologia of Villers, the Linnsean account and refe- 
rences are copied, torn. iii. p. 345 ; and at the conclufion is very pro- 
perly dated the perplexity attending the contradictory defcriptions 
of thefe infects. 

The references to Sultzer and Frifch, as their figures afford no 
idea of the infect intended, I have omitted. 

Modeer, in the Swedifli language, Act. Stockholm. 1786, p. 125, 
ha£ given Equl for hvcmorrhoidalis^ and hamorrhoidalis for Bovis. 

Geoffroy, Hijloire des Inject es, in the three fpecies defcribed by 
him, has nearly followed the arrangement given by Linnaeus, torn. ii. 

P- 445- 

Fabricius, in his laft work, the Syjlema Eniomologica Emendata, has 

obfeured this genus in a way that it will not be eafy to unravel. 
He has given an Oejlrus Bruis, with a defcription nearly correfpond- 
ing to the true one, " alls immaculatis" Sec. but immediately refers 
to the Linmean Bovis " alis macula t is ^ and continues the Linnxan 
references. Under the title of Equi is defcribed the CE, veterinus*, 
under which the h amor r hoi dalis is introduced as a variety /2 ! So that 
a defcription of the true CE. Equi, the mofl frequent and ifrongly 
marked of this genus, is altogether omitted, as a diftincl fpecies ; 
at the fame time the variety of it $ of my account and of the Lin- 
nsean Fauna is prefented as a diftincT; fpecies, under the extraordinary 
title of CE. Fituli-, and beneath it is a reference to the true Equi in 
Geoffroy. The CE. Pecorum of this author is moil probably a dark-co- 
loured variety of the CE. veferinus, or it may be altogether a new fpecies. 


Mr. Cl ark'j Obfervch'ions on the Genus Oejlrus. 325 

The commifTion of errors like thefe, in a genus whole fpecies 
had been more numerous, might have defied the podibility of de- 
tection, while the patient inveftigator might endeavour to under- 
fland them with unavailing labour. 

Nor can I obferve without regret, hi this refpe&able work, fuch a 
direct abufe of the intention of Synonyma^ which, far from arTifting 
as auxiliaries to the description, which they ought always to do, 
ferve only to perplex by their perfect difagreement. 

Valliineri has given in the Italian language a very extenfive 
account of the GE. Bovls and Ovis i with many curious quotations* 
from the Italian poets and the ancients. Ragionamento intorno 
all' Eftro de Buoi. Operc, torn. i. p. 225. 

Reaumur has alio been very copious in his account of the GE. Bov/'s 
and Ovhy and has given a defcription of the h^morrboidalis^ but 
appears not to have been acquainted with the GE. E§u/\ Hijioire 
des Infettes, torn. iv. p. 503. 

Oestrus. Antenna articulis tribus, ultimo fubglobofo feta 
anticc inftrueto, in foveis duabus frontis de- 
Os apertura fimplex, neque ullo modo exfertum. 
Palpi duo, biarticulati, apice orbiculares in de- 
prefllone oris utrinque fiti*. 

I. Bwis. CE. alis immaculatis fufcis, abdomine fafcia atr& 
media: apiceque pilis fulvo-flavi?. 
Vallifneri Opere, torn, i, tav, 28. f. 10. Larva i, 2, 
et feq. 

* Fades hujus generis mufcarum omnino peculiarls ell, lata, deprefia, veficulofa, 
glauca, et antennis in capite alte immerfis. Frons etiam faciem quadrupedis nonnihil 
firaulat, prasfertim Simice ; hoc in CE. h<?nicrrhoidaIi maxkne confpicuum eft. 

6 Reaumur* 

3126 Mr. Clai&'j Obfervations on the Genu a Oefirus. 

Reaumur , Hifl* Inf. torn. iv. p. 503. tab. 38. f. 7, 8. 

De Geer, Hi ft. Inf. torn. vi. p. i$.fg» 22. 

Schacffer, Inf. Ratijbon. tab, Sg.f. 7. 

Fife her, Differ t. inaug. tab. 3. fg. 5. 

Anglis, Breeze, Brize, or Gad-fly. 

Habitat in pafcuis, inter armenta, in quorum 
dorfo deponit ova. 

Defer. CE. Equo vix major, fronte alba, undique 
tomentoia. thorax antice flavefcens, in medio 
ater, lineis denudatis longitudinalibus quatuor, 
poilice cinerea. Abdomen bafi cinereum fafcia 
f. cingulo in medio atro, apiceque pilis fulvo- 
fiavis. Squama: Halterum magna? niveau convexa?. 
Pedes nigri, tarfis pallidis. 

Fcemince abdomen, flylo attenuato atro, compref- 
fione evolvendo. 

Larva fubcutanea, apoda, fufca, undecim {eg- 
mentorum, lineis tranfverfis, fcabris, interrupts. 

2, Equi. CE. alis albidis, fafcia media punctifque duobus 

CE. Bovis. Alis maculatis thorace flavo fafcia 

fufca, abdomine flavo apice nigro. Linn. Syfi. 

Nat. p. 969. I. Faun. Suec. 1730. 
CE. Bovis. Fabricii Species InfeSl. p. 398. 
CE. bccmorrhoidalis. Gmelin, Syfi. Nat. p. 2810. 
De Geer, Hi ft. Inf. p. 2gupl. 15.7%. 16. 
Geoffroy, Hfl. Inf. 2. ^.456. n. 3. 
Habitat inter jumenta in praris, deponit ova in 

genubus etlateribus equorum. 
Defer. From alba, tomentofa, vertice fufco. Oculi 
2 nigri, 

Mr. Clark' j Obfervations on the Genus Oe/Irus. 327 

nigri, diftantes. Thorax fufcus, in medio ob- 
Icurior. Abdomen riavo-fufcurn macnlis punc- 
tiique incifurarum nigris. Scutdlum faiciculis 
duobus pilofis. Ala baiin verfus punfto mi* 
nimo atro, faicia media, apiceque maculis dua* 
bus nigris. 

Mas flavo, foemina fufco colore faturatior, apice- 
que abdominis elongata incurvatii atra, ftylo 
bifido terminali. 

/3 varietas. Apice alarum macula una tantum 
oblonga et abdomine te<£lo pills denfis, fufco- 
ferrugineis. Specimen vidi in Mufeo Linneano 
quod certe varietas /3 Faunx Suec. 1730. 

CE. Vhuh. FabricliSy/}. Ent. 6. p. 231. 

Larva teres, viridis, cauda obtufe truncata, capite 
attcnuato ore longitudinali corneo labiis duo- 
bus. Unguiculis duobus utrinque oris recur- 
vatis atris. Marginibus fegmentorum fpinis 
rigidis deorfum fpectantibus duplici ferie obfitis. 
In ventriculo equorum nutrita, et ad maturi- 
tatcm perducia, tandem ano emifTa, inhumum 

hcvmorrhoidal'ts. CE. Alis immaculatis fufcefcentibus abdomine 
atro, bafi albo apiceque fulvo, 
CE. hcsmorrhoidalis. Alis immaculatis thorace 
nigro : fcutello pallido, abdomine nigro, bafi 
albo apiceque fulvo. Linn* Syjl* Not, 2. 970. 
Faun, Suec. 1733. 
CE. Eg m /3 Fabricil Syjt. Ent, /. 6. p. 232. 

CE. Bovis 

■y^S Mr, Clark' * Obfervations en the Genus Oeftrus, 

CE. Bovis. Gmelin. Syfi. Nat. 4. p, 2809. 
Reaumur, Hfl, Inf. tab. 35. f. 3. Larva, t. 34. 

Geoffrey, Hiji. Inf. 2. />. 455. ft. I. 

Habitat in pafcuis, deponit ova in labiis equo- 

Defer, CE. Equo dimidio minor. From alba to- 

mentofa. Thorax pilis fufcis fpatio inter alas 

atro. Abdomen atrum bafi albis apiceque pilis 

fulvis. Subtus pilofus, cinereus, flmoribus ni- 

gris, pedibufque runs. 
Tormina abdomen apice elongatum, incurvatum, 

/3 variat fquama halterum majori laclea magna 

ac facie magis depreiTa. 
Larva minor aliter fimillima priori. 

4, vcterinus. CE. ferrugineus alis immaculatis, lateribus tho- 
racis, abdomineque bafi pilis albis. 

CE. nafalis. Alis immaculatis, thorace ferrugineo,. 
abdomine nigro pilis flavis. Linn. Syfi.. Nat,. 
969. 3. Faun. Suec. 1732. 

CE. Equi. Fabricii Syfi. Ent, 6. p. 232. 

QL., nafalis. Gmelin, Syfi. Nat. 4. 28 11. 

Habitat in pafcuis. Larva in Equis aliifque ve* 

Defer, CE. Equo minor. Caput, thorax, et abdo- 
men pilis ferrugineis te&a. Alarum ortus ab- 
dominifque bads pilis albis obfita. Abdomen reliquis magis gibbofum fegmento fe~ 


'"<>' ■' ■ »« ■"' •' ■-/ .23. A ,S2c). 
























<fyei /Tanat\lr. ur/ el ■ 

Mr. ClarkV Obfervations on the * Genus Oejlrus. 529 

cundo tuberculis duobus hirtis. Subius fcrru"i- 
neo-fufcus — Pedes etiam ferrugineo-fufci. 
/S Variat prsecipue foemina abdomine pene atro. 

5. Oiv.y. CE. Alis pellucidis bafi punctatis abdomine albo 

nigroque verficolore. 

CE. Ovis. Alis fubpunctatis abdomine albo ni- 
groque verficolore. Linn. Syjl. N&. p. 970. 5. 

CE. Ovis. Fa brie ii Syjl. Ent. 6. p. 232. 

CE. Ovis. Gmel. Syjl. Nat. p. 281 1. 

Vallifneri Opere, torn. 1 . tav. 2 7. 

Reaumur, Hi/l. Inf. tab. 35. f. 22. Larva 8, 9. 

Geoffrey ) Hi/l. Inf. 2. ^. 456. «. 2. 

Habitat inter pecora ; deponit ova in margine na- 
rium interiori. 

Defer. CE. Equo minor, pilis fcatentibus paucis, 
vertice capitis pun£tis excavatis. Thorax cine- 
reus punclis elevatis atris, fetigeris, lineifque 
quatuor nigris. Abdomen colore albido-cine- 
reum nigro maculatum fugaci. Supra aper- 
turam oris proceflu parvo conico. 
Larva alba ovata, antice acuminata unguiculis 
duobus, poftice truncata margine prominent! 
et fquamulis duabus atris refpiratoriis. Supernc 
convexa lineis puncliique nigris. Subtus plana 
in medio fegmentorum pun6tis afperis atris mi- 
nutis notata. 
Habitat intra cavos frontis ovium, evaditque pa- 

Vol. IIL U u XXVII. Cha- 

( 33° ) 


XXVII. Characters of a new Genijs of Plants named Salisbvri a. 
By James Edward Smith, M.D. F.R.S. P.L.S. 

Read December 6, 1796. 


M o n oe c 1 a Poly an dn'a. 

Char. Gen. 

MASC. Amentum nudum, filiforme. AnJpcra incumbentes, 
deltoidese ; loculis apice tantum connexis. 
Fcem. folitarii. Calyx 4-fidus, perfiftens. Drupa fupera, glo- 
bofa, putamine triangulo. Semm attjtrminofum, bicotyle- 

S A l 1 s b u r 1 A adiantjfoUa, 

Ginkgo, vel Ginan, vulgo Idfio, arbor nucifera, folio adiantino. 

Kampf. Am. Exot. 811, cum icone. 
Ginkgo biloba. L'mn. Mant. 313. 
Ginko biloba, foliis Adianti. Thunb. Ft. Jap. 358. 

Descr. Fruct. Perkarpium^ Drupa pallide fufca, fupera, glo- 
bofa; caro dura, crafTa, putamini arc^tTrTime cohxrens ; pu- 
tarnen tenue, ofTeum, ovale, triangulum, glabrum, apice acu- 
turn, uniloculare. Semen folitarium, ovale, bafi anguftatum, 
magnitudine fere putaminis ; integumenta duo, fufca, mem- 
2 branacea ; 

Dr. Smith'* Charafiers of the new Genus Salijbur'ia. 331 

branacea; alterum putamini adherens, alterum femini; 
albumen virefcente-album, femini conforme, amvgdalinum ; 
embryo luteus, bafi albuminis infertus, rectus, bicotyledoneus. 

This is a large not inelegant tree, cultivated in China and Japan. 
The nuts are eatable, and i'weet, but not produced till the tree 
arrives at a con fider able age ; nor has it been long enough in Eng- 
land to attain a iufficient degree of maturity. The male flowers how- 
ever have been oblerved for thefe two years pad:, early in the fpring,. 
in Kew gardens. The tree itfelf has long been admired for its harid- 
fome fan-fhaped leaves, cloven about half way from their fumtnit ;. 
but they can by no means be termed biloba, or two-lobcd, as that 
denomination requires the fegments fhould be rounded. Thefe 
leaves are alfo irregularly notched like thole of the Zamije, thick- 
ened at the margin, fmooth, flriated on each fide with numerous 
parallel nerves. 

The genus is named in honour of Richard Anthony Salifbyry, Efq. 
FR.S* and F.L.S. of whole acutenefs and indefatigable zeal in the 
fervice of botany no teftimony is necefTary in this fociety, nor in 
any place which his writings have reached. 

Sahjburia fhould be placed in the Linnaean fyftem between g*uer-, 
cus and Juglans. In that of M. de Juflieu it belongs to the fifth- 
order of his 15th clafs, after laxus, though it is not very nearly 
allied to any genus whatever. I have preferred aditmtifoBa for a 
fpecifrc name, becaufe biloba is not correct, and adiantifolia has not 
only been uled long ago by Kaempfer and Thunbcrg, but is pecu- 
liarly appofite in this cafe; my friend whole name I wiih the plant 
in queftion to perpetuate, having diftinguifhed himfelf by the ap- 
plication of fuch comparative fpecific names, and preferring them 
to all others. 

Uui The 


Dr. Smith V Cbara&en of the new Genus Sail/buna. 

The generic name of Ginkgo, being equally uncouth and bar^ 
barous, was retained by Linnaeus in an Appendix, only till the 
flowers fhould be difcovered, and the plant referred to its proper 
place in the Syftem. 


( 333 ) 

XXVIII. ExTRACTSjfo/w the Minute Book of the Linnean Society. 

July 2, ' I *HE President communicated an account of Mcerops 

1794. JL Apiafter, the Bee-eater, having been {hot (for the 
firft time in Great Britain) near Mattiihall in the county 
of Norfolk, by the Rev. Mr. George Smith. The identical 
fpecimen was exhibited, by per million of Mr. Thomas Tal- 
bot of Wymondham. A flight of about twenty was ken 
in June, and the fame flight probably (much diminished in 
numbers) was obferved paffing over the fame fpot in Oc- 
tober following. 

Dec. 2. A fpecimen of I'amarix gallica, gathered in a wild ftate on 
St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall, by W. G. Maton, Efq. 
F.L.S. was prefented to the Society. 

June 2, Specimens of feveral rare native plants of Scotland, from 

1795. Profe (Tor James Beattie, junior, of the Marefchal College, 
Aberdeen, were prefented by the Prefident, and among 
them Julnnaa borealis, difcovered by that gentleman, for the 
firft time in Britain, in an old fir wood at Mearns near 

May 3, Mr. Fairbairn prefented a living fpecimen of a Rufcus, 

1796. which, though long cultivated in Cheliea garden, has been 
hitherto overlooked by botanifls as a variety of the acu- 
leatus* Being referred to the Prefident for examination, it 
was returned with the following name and character : 


3 ^4 Extracts from the Minute Book 

Ruscus laxus, 

Foliis ellipticis utrinque acutis mucronato-pungentibus 
fupra fioriferis nudis, ramis laxis. 

The fpecific character of the common Rufcus aculeatus 
mud be altered to 

Foliis ovatis mucronato-pungentibus fupra fioriferis nu- 
dis, ramis itrictis. 

Jan. 3, The following extract of a letter from the Earl of Alta- 
1797. mont to A. B. Lambert, Efq. V.P.L.S. was read to the Society. 

" There were formerly in Ireland two kinds of wolf-dogs, 
44 the greyhound and the maftifif. Till within theie two 
** years I was poffefTcd of both kinds, perfectly diftinCl and 
" eafily known from each other. The_Jbeads were not fo. 
" fiiarp in the latter as-aa-4Jx©HB5nna% but there itemed a 
" great fimilarity of temper and difpoiition, both being 
" harmleis and indolent. The painting in. your porTeffion 
" is of the maftiff wolf-dog. [See tab. 3, of" the preient 
*' volume.] 

" I have at prefent five wolf-dogs remaining, three males 
" and two females;, in thefe the two forts appear to be 
" mixed. The dam was of the maftiff, the fire, if I am not 
44 miftaken, was of the greyhound kind. The fire and dam 
" had not dwindled in fize from any that I-remember here. 
" Thole which now remain are too young to judge of.. 
" We have an old man here, named Bryan Scahil, now in 
" his 119th year, whofe memory feems accurate, and all 
" his faculties complete. He perfectly remembers the hunt- 
" ing of wolves in Ireland, as a common matter of fporr, 


of the LJ fine an Society. 33$ 

" and informs me that the ufage was to collect all the dogs 
" of every fort in the neighbourhood, and to borrow wolf- 
" dogs from the principal gentlemen, who alone had them, 
*' and who ufually aflifted in the chace. A tenth part of 
" the dogs ufed were not wolf-dogs, which never were in 
*' any number in the hands of the common people. I con- 
" ceive alio that thefe dogs having no nofe, other kinds were 
" necelTary to find the game and follow the fcent of it. 
" Scahil defcribed wolves with fuch perfect accuracy, I 
" have no doubt of his being well acquainted with the 
" animal." 

At the fame time Mr. Lambert prefented to the Society 
fpecimens of the new kind of Bark from Tecamez in South 
America (with a whole tree of the fame), defcribed by him 
in his Account of the Genus Cinchona, lately publiihed. 

April 4, Mr. Lambert exhibited a drawing of the Ardea comata, 

I 797« var ' & °f Latham, fhot at Boyton in Wiltmire, near a 

river, by Edmund Lambert, Efq. in the year 1775, fup- 

pofed to be the only one of the kind ever found in England.